The MAN BOOKER PRIZE FOR FICTION (formerly known as the
BOOKER-MCCONNELL PRIZE and commonly known simply as the BOOKER PRIZE)
is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel,
written in the
A high-profile literary award in British culture , the Booker Prize is greeted with great anticipation and fanfare. It is also a mark of distinction for authors to be selected for inclusion in the shortlist or even to be nominated for the "longlist".
* 1 History and administration * 2 Judging * 3 Winners * 4 Related awards * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
HISTORY AND ADMINISTRATION
The prize was originally known as the Booker–McConnell Prize, after the company Booker, McConnell Ltd began sponsoring the event in 1968; it became commonly known as the "Booker Prize" or simply "the Booker". When administration of the prize was transferred to the Booker Prize Foundation in 2002, the title sponsor became the investment company Man Group , which opted to retain "Booker" as part of the official title of the prize. The foundation is an independent registered charity funded by the entire profits of Booker Prize Trading Ltd, of which it is the sole shareholder. The prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000, and was subsequently raised to £50,000 in 2002 under the sponsorship of the Man Group, making it one of the world\'s richest literary prizes .
In 1970, Bernice Rubens became the first woman to win the Booker Prize, for The Elected Member . The rules of the Booker changed in 1971; previously, it had been awarded retrospectively to books published prior to the year in which the award was given. In 1971 the year of eligibility was changed to the same as the year of the award; in effect, this meant that books published in 1970 were not considered for the Booker in either year. The Booker Prize Foundation announced in January 2010 the creation of a special award called the "Lost Man Booker Prize ," with the winner chosen from a longlist of 22 novels published in 1970.
Before 2001, each year's longlist of nominees was not publicly revealed.
John Sutherland , who was a judge for the 1999 prize, has said,
There is a well-established London literary community. Rushdie doesn't get shortlisted now because he has attacked that community. That is not a good game plan if you want to win the Booker. Norman Mailer has found the same thing in the US – you have to 'be a citizen' if you want to win prizes. The real scandal is that Amis has never won the prize. In fact, he has only been shortlisted once and that was for Time\'s Arrow , which was not one of his strongest books. That really is suspicious. He pissed people off with Dead Babies and that gets lodged in the culture. There is also the feeling that he has always looked towards America.
In 1972, the winning writer John Berger , known for his Marxist worldview, protested during his acceptance speech against Booker McConnell. He blamed Booker's 130 years of sugar production in the Caribbean for the region's modern poverty. Berger donated half of his £5,000 prize to the British Black Panther movement , because they had a socialist and revolutionary perspective in agreement with his own.
In 1980, Anthony Burgess , writer of Earthly Powers , refused to attend the ceremony unless it was confirmed to him in advance whether he had won. His was one of two books considered likely to win, the other being Rites of Passage by William Golding . The judges decided only 30 minutes before the ceremony, giving the prize to Golding. Both novels had been seen as favourites to win leading up to the prize, and the dramatic "literary battle" between two senior writers made front page news.
1983's judging produced a draw between
J. M. Coetzee
The award has been criticised for the types of books it covers. In
John Banville wrote a letter to
In 1997, the decision to award Arundhati Roy 's The God of Small Things proved controversial. Carmen Callil , chair of the previous year's Booker judges, called it an "execrable" book and said on television that it shouldn't even have been on the shortlist. Booker Prize chairman Martyn Goff said Roy won because nobody objected, following the rejection by the judges of Bernard MacLaverty 's shortlisted book due to their dismissal of him as "a wonderful short-story writer and that Grace Notes was three short stories strung together."
In 2001, A. L. Kennedy , who was a judge in 1996, called the prize "a pile of crooked nonsense" with the winner determined by "who knows who, who's sleeping with who, who's selling drugs to who, who's married to who, whose turn it is".
The Booker prized created a permanent home for the archives from 1968 to present at Oxford Brookes University Library. The Archive, which encompasses the administrative history of the Prize from 1968 to date, collects together a diverse range of material, including correspondence, publicity material, copies of both the Longlists and the Shortlists, minutes of meetings, photographs and material relating to the awards dinner (letters of invitation, guest lists, seating plans). Embargoes of ten or twenty years apply to certain categories of material; examples include all material relating to the judging process and the Longlist prior to 2002.
Between 2005 and 2008, the Booker Prize alternated between writers from Ireland and India. "Outsider" John Banville began this trend in 2005 when his novel The Sea was selected as a surprise winner: Boyd Tonkin, literary editor of The Independent, famously condemned it as "possibly the most perverse decision in the history of the award" and rival novelist Tibor Fischer poured scorn on Banville's victory. Kiran Desai of India won in 2006. Anne Enright 's 2007 victory came about due to a jury badly split over Ian McEwan 's novel On Chesil Beach . The following year it was India's turn again, with Aravind Adiga narrowly defeating Enright's fellow Irishman Sebastian Barry .
Historically, the winner of the Man
Booker Prize had been required to
be a citizen of the
Commonwealth of Nations
The selection process for the winner of the prize commences with the formation of an advisory committee, which includes a writer, two publishers, a literary agent, a bookseller, a librarian, and a chairperson appointed by the Booker Prize Foundation. The advisory committee then selects the judging panel, the membership of which changes each year, although on rare occasions a judge may be selected a second time. Judges are selected from amongst leading literary critics, writers, academics and leading public figures.
The winner is usually announced at a ceremony in London's Guildhall , usually in early October.
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See also: List of winners and shortlisted authors of the Booker Prize for Fiction
In 1993 to mark the 25th anniversary it was decided to choose a Booker of Bookers Prize. Three previous judges of the award, Malcolm Bradbury , David Holloway and W. L. Webb, met and chose Salman Rushdie 's Midnight\'s Children (the 1981 winner) as "the best novel out of all the winners."
A similar prize known as The Best of the Booker was awarded in 2008 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the prize. A shortlist of six winners was chosen and the decision was left to a public vote. The winner was again Midnight's Children.
YEAR AUTHOR TITLE GENRE(S) COUNTRY
1970 (retrospective award ) J. G. Farrell Troubles Novel United Kingdom Ireland
Stanley Middleton Holiday Novel United Kingdom
1976 David Storey Saville Novel United Kingdom
1977 Paul Scott Staying On Novel United Kingdom
1979 Penelope Fitzgerald Offshore Novel United Kingdom
1980 William Golding Rites of Passage Novel United Kingdom
J. M. Coetzee
* ^ In 1971, the nature of the Prize was changed so that it was awarded to novels published in that year instead of in the previous year; therefore, no novel published in 1970 could win the Booker Prize. This was rectified in 2010 by the awarding of the "Lost Man Booker Prize " to J. G. Farrell's Troubles.
A separate prize for which any living writer in the world may qualify, the Man Booker International Prize was inaugurated in 2005. Until 2015, it was given every two years to a living author of any nationality for a body of work published in English or generally available in English translation. In 2016, the award was significantly reconfigured, and is now given annually to a single book in English translation, with a £50,000 prize for the winning title, shared equally between author and translator.
A Russian version of the
Booker Prize was created in 1992 called the
Booker-Open Russia Literary Prize
As part of
List of British literary awards
List of literary awards
* ^ Sutherland, John (9 October 2008). "The Booker\'s Big Bang".
New Statesman. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
* ^ "Meet The Man
Booker Prize 2014 Judges". 12 December 2013.
* ^ Hoover, Bob (10 February 2008). "\'Gathering\' storm clears for
prize winner Enright". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 10 February
2008. In America, literary prizes are greeted with the same enthusiasm
as a low Steelers draft choice. Not so in the British Isles, where the
$98,000 Man Booker Fiction Prize can even push Amy Winehouse off the
front page – at least for a day. The atmosphere around the award
approaches sports-championship proportions, with London bookies
posting the ever-changing odds on the nominees. Then, in October when
the winner is announced live on the BBC TV evening news, somebody
always gets ticked off.
* ^ A B C D E F "Man Booker Prize: a history of controversy,
criticism and literary greats". The Guardian. 18 October 2011.
Retrieved 18 October 2011.
* ^ "Booker Prize: legal information". bookerprize.com. Retrieved 3
* ^ James Kidd, "A Brief History of The Man Booker Prize", South
China Morning Post, 5 March 2006.
* ^ "The
Lost Man Booker Prize announced". bookerprize.com.
Retrieved 31 January 2010.
* ^ "Dear Life: Stories by
Alice Munro (Chatto & Windus,
November)". The Guardian. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012. As the
only writer to sneak on to the Booker shortlist for a collection of
short stories (with
The Beggar Maid in 1980),
Alice Munro easily
deserves to end our list of the year's best fiction.
* ^ Yates, Emma (15 August 2001). "
Booker Prize longlist announced
for first time". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 August 2001.
* ^ A B C Moss, Stephen (18 September 2001). "Is the Booker
fixed?". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2001.
* ^ A B White, Michael (25 November 1972). "Berger\'s black bread".
The Guardian. p. 11.
* ^ "
John Berger on the
Booker Prize (1972)", YouTube.
* ^ Speech by
John Berger on accepting the
Booker Prize for Fiction
at the Café Royal in London on 23 November 1972.
* ^ "Lord of the novel wins the Booker prize". The Guardian. 22
October 1980. p. 1.
* ^ Bissett, Alan (27 July 2012). "The unnoticed bias of the Booker
prize". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
* ^ "A novel way of striking a 12,000
Booker Prize bargain", The
Guardian, 14 October 1981, p. 14.
* ^ "Novel way to run a lottery". The Guardian. 5 September 1994.
* ^ Glaister, Dan (14 October 1997). "Popularity pays off for Roy".
* ^ "
Booker Prize Archive". Oxford Brookes University. Retrieved 16
* ^ Ezard, John (11 October 2005). "Irish stylist springs Booker
surprise". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2005.
* ^ Crown, Sarah (10 October 2005). "Banville scoops the Booker".
The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2005.
* ^ Higgins, Charlotte (28 January 2009). "How Adam Foulds was a
breath away from the Costa book of the year award". The Guardian.
Retrieved 28 January 2009.
Will Gompertz , "Global expansion for Booker Prize", BBC News,
18 September 2013.
* ^ "\'A surprise and a risk\': Reaction to
Booker Prize upheaval".
BBC News. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
* ^ Mullan, John (12 July 2008). "Lives & letters, Where are they
now?". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
* ^ Pauli, Michelle (21 February 2008). "Best of the Booker". The
Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
* ^ "Rushdie wins Best of Booker prize". BBC News. 10 July 2008.
Retrieved 3 September 2009.
* ^ Jordison, Sam (21 November 2007). "Looking back at the Booker: