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The MALOLOS CONGRESS or formally known as the "National Assembly" of representatives was the constituent assembly of the First Philippine Republic . It met at the Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church
in Malolos
Malolos
, Bulacan
Bulacan
. It drafted the Malolos
Malolos
Constitution
Constitution
.

The Congress was not much more than a decoration. "That is to show to the foreign correspondents that we Filipinos are civilized, but the bulk of the work in nation building were done at the Malolos
Malolos
Cathedral by the executive branch of government led by President Emilio Aguinaldo , who was in command of the army fighting the Americans", said attorney Cris Santiago, past president of the historical society of Bulacan
Bulacan
(known as Samahang Pangkasaysayan ng Bulacan
Bulacan
or Sampaka).

CONTENTS

* 1 Political Constitution
Constitution
* 2 Sessions

* 3 Legislation

* 3.1 Major legislation * 3.2 Malolos
Malolos
Constitution
Constitution

* 4 Leadership

* 4.1 Council of Government (Cabinet) Members

* 5 Members (Representatives) * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links * 10 Further reading

POLITICAL CONSTITUTION

Main article: Malolos
Malolos
Constitution
Constitution

Following the declaration of independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 and transformation of the dictatorial government to a revolutionary government on 23 June, the Malolos
Malolos
Congress election was held between June 23 and September 10. On 15 September 1898, the revolutionary congress convened in Barasoain Church
Barasoain Church
in Malolos
Malolos
(now Malolos
Malolos
City, Bulacan
Bulacan
) with Pedro Paterno as president and Gregorio S. Araneta as vice president. On 29 September, the 12 June Declaration of independence was ratified. The congress then decided to draft a Constitution
Constitution
, a decision opposed by Apolinario Mabini , the Prime Minister of the revolutionary government (President of the Council of Government). The resulting Malolos
Malolos
Constitution
Constitution
was ratified on November 29, 1898, signed into law on December 23, approved on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by President Emilio Aguinaldo on January 21, and promulgated on January 22. The document states that the people have exclusive sovereignty . It states basic civil rights , separated the church from the state, and called for the creation of an Assembly of Representatives (A.K.A. National Assembly) which would act as the legislature . It also calls for a parliamentary republic as the form of government with the president elected for a term of four years by a majority of the Assembly.

SESSIONS

* REGULAR SESSION: September 15, 1898 – November 13, 1899

* Special
Special
Session: February 4, 1899

LEGISLATION

MAJOR LEGISLATION

LEGISLATION ENACTMENT RATIFICATION

Declaration of Independence June 12, 1898 September 29, 1898

Declaration of War against the United States June 2, 1899 June 2, 1899

MALOLOS CONSTITUTION

Main article: Malolos
Malolos
Constitution
Constitution

MALOLOS CONSTITUTION

APPROVED PROMULGATED

January 21, 1899 January 22, 1899

LEADERSHIP

* President of the Revolutionary Government/First Philippine Republic:

Emilio Aguinaldo y Fámy

* Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the Revolutionary Government/First Philippine Republic (President of the Council of Government):

Apolinario M. Mabini Pedro A. Paterno elected on May 7, 1899

* President of the National Assembly (of Representatives):

Atty. Pedro A. Paterno - Pedro A. Paterno of Santa Cruz, Manila
Santa Cruz, Manila

* Vice President of the National Assembly (of Representatives):

Gregorio Araneta

* Secretaries of the National Assembly (of Representatives):

Atty. Pablo Roque Tecson - Pablo Roque Tecson: Atty. Pablo R. Tecson of Balanga, Bataan
Balanga, Bataan
and Atty. Pablo de Leon Ocampo : Pablo Ocampo of Quiapo, Manila
Quiapo, Manila
.

COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT (CABINET) MEMBERS

OFFICE NAME TERM

PRESIDENT OF THE CABINET Apolinario Mabini January 2 — May 7, 1899

Pedro Paterno May 7 — November 13, 1899

SECRETARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS Apolinario Mabini October 1, 1898 — May 7, 1899

SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR Teodoro Sandico January 2 — May 7, 1899

SECRETARY OF FINANCE Mariano Trías January 2 — May 7, 1899

Hugo Ilagan May 7 — November 13, 1899

Severino de las Alas May 7 — November 13, 1899

SECRETARY OF WAR AND MARINE Baldomero Aguinaldo July 15, 1898 — May 7, 1899

Mariano Trías May 7 — November 13, 1899

SECRETARY OF JUSTICE Gregorio Araneta September 2, 1898 — May 7, 1899

SECRETARY OF WELFARE Gracio Gonzaga January 2 — May 7, 1899

Felipe Buencamino May 7 — November 13, 1899

Maximo Paterno May 7 — November 13, 1899

SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE Leon Maria Guerrero May 7 — November 13, 1899

Notes

* ^ A B C D E F G Several sources assert that shortly after installation of the Paterno cabinet, General Antonio Luna arrested Paterno and some or all of the cabinet secretaries. At least one source asserts that the Mabini cabinet was reinstalled after the arrests. Another source asserts that those arrested were released on orders of President Aguinaldo, but does not provide any indication about whether the Mabini or the Paterno cabinet was in office after the release. * ^ In the Mabini cabinet, the Secretary of Welfare had responsibility for Public Instruction, Communications & Public Works, and Agriculture, Industry "> Soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary Army during a session of the congress.

In 2006, engineer Marcial Aniag, president of the Bulacan
Bulacan
Historical Society, asserted that among the 85 delegates who convened in Malolos there were 43 lawyers, 17 doctors, five pharmacists, three educators, seven businessmen, four painters, three military men, a priest and four farmers. Five of the 85 delegates did not have a college degree. Emilio Aguinaldo (seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the first Assembly of Representatives.

List of National Assembly Representatives (members) by province as of July 7, 1899.

PROVINCE ELECTED APPOINTED

Manila 4 0

Batangas 4 0

Bulacan 4 0

Cavite 4 0

Camarines 4 0

Ilocos Sur 3 1

Ilocos Norte 6 0

Laguna 4 0

Pampanga 4 0

Pangasinan 2 2

Iloilo 0 4

Cebu 0 4

Leyte 0 4

Albay 4 1

Cagayan 1 2

Bataan 3 0

Isabela 2 1

La Union 1 2

Nueva Ecija 3 0

Tarlac 3 0

Zambales 2 1

Sorsogon 0 3

Negros Occidental 0 3

Negros Oriental 0 3

Samar 0 3

Capiz 0 3

Antigua** 0 3

Bohol 0 3

Zamboanga 0 3

Misamis 0 3

Calamianes*** 0 3

Masbate 0 3

Mindoro 1 2

Morong 2 0

Lepanto 3 0

Batanes Islands 1 1

Nueva Vizcaya 1 1

Abra 1 0

Padre Burgos (Benguet) 1 2

Catanduanes 0 2

Paragua*** 0 2

Palaos* 0 1

TOTALS 68 68

136

*Modern-day Republic of Palau
Palau
. **Renamed to Antique. ***Currently parts of Palawan, Paragua corresponding to mainland Palawan.

SEE ALSO

* Congress of the Philippines
Philippines
* Senate of the Philippines
Philippines
* House of Representatives of the Philippines
Philippines

NOTES

* ^ A B Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo , in his book Malolos, numbered the delegates as of July 7, 1899 at 193 (42 elected and 151 appointed).

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E Balabo, Dino (December 10, 2006). "Historians: Malolos
Malolos
Congress produced best RP Constitution". Philippine Star
Philippine Star
. Retrieved