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The Info List - Malik Al-Ashtar


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Egypt 658CE/38AH Cause of Death= Poisoned

Father al-Harith

Sons Ishaq and Ibrahim

Religion Shia Islam

Malik Al-Ashtar (Arabic: مالك الأشتر‎) (also known as Malik bin al-Harith al-Nakha'i) was one of the most loyal companions of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
became a Muslim
Muslim
during the time of Muhammad
Muhammad
and since then remained an avid and loyal supporter of Muhammad's progeny and Hashemite clan. He rose to a position of prominence during the caliphate of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib and participated in several battles, such as the Battle of Jamal
Battle of Jamal
and Siffin. Malik has been described as a "brave" and "fearless" warrior by numerous Shia sources [1] and his title "al-Ashtar" signifies an eyelid injury he received during the Battle of Yarmouk.[1]

Contents

1 Birth 2 Conflicts with the governor of Kufa
Kufa
and the Event of Al-Rabathah

2.1 The Event of al-Rabathan

3 The Downfall of Uthman and Malik's Resolution 4 Battle of Jamal 5 Battle of Siffeen

5.1 Battles Over The Euphrates
Euphrates
River 5.2 Malik's Discipline and The End of The War 5.3 The Arbitration

6 Becoming Governor
Governor
of Egypt 7 Alleged Assassination Plot By Muawiyah 8 Death 9 Legacy

9.1 Descendants

10 References 11 External links

Birth[edit] Although Malik's actual birth year is not known, many historians say that he was 10 years older than Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib and 20 years younger than Muhammad.[2] Moreover, it is known that Malik was a Madh'hij, a sub-class of the Bani Nakha tribe from Yemen.[3] which is also the tribe of another Sahabah named Amru bin Ma'adi Yakrib His lineage is traced back to Yarab bin Qahtan which genealogy can be traced by sorting his paternal surname Malik bin Al Hareth bin Abed Yaghouth bin Salamah bin Rabha bin Al Harith bin Jathima bin Malik bin Al Naghe bin Amro bin Alaae bin Khald bin Mathgah bin Addad bin Zayd bin Urayb bin Zayd bin Kahlan bin Saba al Akbar bin Youshgab bin Yarab Conflicts with the governor of Kufa
Kufa
and the Event of Al-Rabathah[edit] In the year 30 AH (after Hijra) or 650 CE, many Muslims living in the city of Kufa
Kufa
were angered over the action of the governor Waleed ibn Uqba (the half brother of Uthman ibn Affan).[4] Al-Waleed ibn Uqba was disliked and was a very controversial figure because of his actions. Even the Quran (sure 49 verse 6), exposes his character by stating that he is an evil man.[5] In addition, Muhammad
Muhammad
described him as a Fasiq (open sinner).[6] He (Muhammad) said, "He is an open sinner (Fasiq), get him out of the Islamic state."[6] He was known to be an alcoholic who publicly consumed alcohol and was disliked because Islam prohibits the consumption of alcohol. The tipping point came when al-Waleed entered the mosque drunk to lead Fajr
Fajr
Namaz
Namaz
(morning prayer). He was so intoxicated that he read four Raka'ats.[4][6][7] In fact, Ibn Taymiyyah, a 13th-century Sunni Islamic scholar stated, "The Companions would pray behind people whom they knew to be open transgressors, such as when Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud
Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud
and other companions would pray behind Walid ibn 'Uqba ibn Abi Mu'it, who may have recently drunken alcohol (when he was praying) and would wind up praying four rakaats." However, Fajr
Fajr
namaz (morning prayer) is only two raka'ats. At the end of his fourth raka'at, al-Waleed turned around and asked the people if he should continue the prayer.[4][6][7] This event enraged many Muslim
Muslim
citizens. They started to criticize him in markets, houses, and mosques. Furthermore, they started to question the leadership and judgement of Uthman bin Affan. Because clearly to them al-Waleed was violating the teachings of Islam and the rights of the Muslims. Thus, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
addressed the concerned Muslims by saying "First we'd better advise him. Then we'll tell the Caliph
Caliph
about his bad behavior."[4] So, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
and a group of ten people, one of whom was Kumayl ibn Ziyad, went to the palace of al-Waleed to address the issues they were having with him.[6] However, they found him drinking alcohol.[4] The delegation told him to behave in a proper manner, he scolded them, told them to leave and exiled them to Shaam (modern day Damascus, Syria).[6] When the delegation of men reached Shaam, they addressed the issue to Mu'awiyah, who was the governor.

After listening to the issues, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
told Kumayl "How dare you speak you speak ill about the person in Kufa. How dare you disunite the religion of Allah." Kumayl replied "Its that man (referring to al-Waleed) who is disuniting. And Allah tells us to be beware of corrupt rulers." Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
replied, "The Quran says obey Allah, obey the prophet, and obey the leaders from amongst you. I am from the leaders amongst you." Kumayl replied, "You're not my leader and nothing to do with my leader. My leader is someone else : Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
then told him and the delegation "Very well, you been exiled from Kufa. I'll exile you and Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
from Shaam as well."[6]

They were exiled them from Shaam to Homs.[6] But eventually, Malik al-Ashtar, Kumayl ibn Ziyad, and the delegation made it back to Kufa.[6] After coming back to Kufa
Kufa
and failing to remove al-Waleed, the delegation of Muslims (one of whom was Kumayl ibn Ziyad) led by Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
set off on a journey to Madina, the capital of the Muslim
Muslim
empire, to address the issue with Uthman.[4][6] Kumayl ibn Ziyad, Malik al-Ashtar, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Hudhaifa, and Abdur Rahman ibn Udays were the ones who spoke out most about al-Waleed and the corruption that was occurring.[6] The Event of al-Rabathan[edit] On their way to Madina, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
and the delegation stopped at al-Rabathan to visit Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. Abu Dharr, who was a companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
and firm supporter and companion of Ali, was banished to die in the desert of Al-Rabathan. At the time, 650 a.d, Abu Dharr's health was deteriorating. Narrations state that his wife would cry, seeing her husband slowly die in the desert. However, Abu Dharr told her the prophecy of his death, which was given to him by none other than Muhammad, messenger of God. He would say, "One day, my friends and I was sitting with Allah's Apostle (Muhammad). And he said to us: One of you will die in the desert. And a group of believers will attend his death. All my friends passed away in their houses. And no one has remained but I. A person will come to your aid."[4] His wife then stated, "The time of Hajj
Hajj
(Pilgrimage) is over. And no one has passed through this desert."[4] Abu Dharr then told her "Don't worry! Go up the hill and look at the road of caravans."[4] So she went and eventually saw a caravan coming towards her. When she saw the caravan, she started to wave a piece of cloth to get the attention of the on coming caravan. When the caravan approached her she started a conversation.

"My husband is dying. And no one is beside him."

The caravan men: "And who's your husband?"

"Abu Dharr, the companion of Allah's Apostle!"

The caravan men were surprised. So, they said: "Abu Dhar! The Prophet's companion! Come on! Let's see him!"

The men went to the tent. When they came into it, they saw Abu Dhar sleeping in his bed. They said:"Assalamu Alaik, companion of Allah's Apostle!"

Abu Dharr: "Wa Alaikum al-Salam, who are you?"

One of the men said: "Malik bin al-Haarth al-Ashtar. And there are some men with me from Iraq. We're going to Madina to tell the Caliph about the persecution we suffer from."

Abu Dharr: "My brothers, be cheerfull! Allah's Apostle [s] has told me that I'll die in the desert and that some believers will attend my death."[4]

Malik and the delegation then sat next to Abu Dhurr. They felt sorrow to see one of the great companions of the prophet in bad condition. Malik told Abu Dhurr that they were on their way to Medina
Medina
to meet with Uthman over the issue of al-Waleed. Upon hearing the news of al-Waleed, Abu Dhur became sad. After the event of al-Rabathah, Malik and the delegation continued on their long journey to Medina. When finally met Uthman, they communicated their concerns and al-Waleed's behaviors to Uthman. However they were unsuccessful in their mission thus they decided to seek Hazrat Ali's help. The Downfall of Uthman and Malik's Resolution[edit] Since Uthman denied to hear the concerns about al-Waleed, the delegation of concerned Muslims went to the house of Ali
Ali
in Medina. They told Ali
Ali
the situation with al-Waleed and Uthman. Ali
Ali
was sad to hear the news. However, he assured them that he would visit Uthman personally regarding this issue. In his meeting with Uthman, Ali
Ali
said "Uthman, the Muslims are complaining of the rulers' persecution. And you know that very well I've heard Allah's Apostle (Muhammad) saying: On the Day of Judgement, the unjust imam will be brought to hell. And no one will support or excuse him. Then, he will be thrown into hell. He'll go round and round it till he gets into its intense heat."[4] This statement made Uthman realize his mistakes. And as a result, Uthman promised to seek God's forgiveness and apologize to the Muslims. However, Marwan bin al-Hakam, the cousin of Uthman, persuaded Uthman not to do so by saying "You'd better threaten the people so as no one would dare to say bad words against the Caliph
Caliph
(Uthman)."[4] Due to Marwan, Uthman broke his promise and became stricter. It is documented that he hit the noble companion Ammar ibn Yasir
Ammar ibn Yasir
and whipped the companion Abdullah bin Masoud.[4] The stricter policies caused an uproar in the Muslim
Muslim
empire; people began writing letter such as the following below.

Muslims, come to us. And save the Caliphate. Allah's Book has been changed. And the Prophet's Sunnah has been changed. So, come to us if you believe in Allah and the Day of Judgement.[4]

In a true democratic matter, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
represented the enraged Muslim
Muslim
in a meeting with Uthman. In the meeting, Malik asked Uthman to step down from power, but Uthman refused. Uthman's refusal to step down only led to increasing problems. Ali
Ali
tried to help Uthman and resolve the issue. He sent his own two sons, Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
and Hussein ibn Ali
Ali
to go to Uthman and protect him from the angry protesters.[7] Despite this, protesters broke into Uthman's room and killed him. After the killing of Uthman, many Muslims went to Ali
Ali
and asked him to become the new caliph (leader). But he refused, but Malik and others insisted that he become the caliph. To which Malik addresses, "People, this is the Prophet's Regent. He has learnt the Prophet's knowledge. Allah's Book has mentioned his belief. Allah's Apostle [s] has told him that he will enter al-Ridhwan Garden. His personality is perfect The people in the past and present are certain of his behaviour and knowledge."[4] Malik was one of the first to appoint Ali
Ali
as the new caliph. Battle of Jamal[edit] Main article: Battle of Jamal

Mausoleum of Malik Al-Ashtar

After the downfall of Uthman, many Muslims wanted to gain power within the Islamic Empire. However, Ali
Ali
was appointed as the new caliph. This upset power-hungry Muslims and the enemies of Ali.[4] As a result, they planned to launch an offensive in the year 656 AD to fight against Ali
Ali
under the claim that they wanted revenge for the killing of Uthman.[4] One of these was Marwan al Hakim, who would later become a loyal supporter of Mu'awiyah. Marwan played a key role in the Battle of Jamal, in that he formed a large army to fight against Ali.[4] He also bankrolled the army with money that he had stolen from the Public Treasury (money which was supposed to be for Muslim
Muslim
citizens) during the time of Uthman.[4] The army included Aisha, Talha (a friend of Ali), Zubair (the cousin of Ali), and Marwan.[4] Once the army was formed, the rebels headed to Basrah, Iraq. When Ali
Ali
got news that a mutiny was going to occur, he also formed an army to combat the rebel forces. During the mutiny, the new governor of Kufa, Abu Musa al-Ashary, encouraged the Kufains (citizens of Kufa) not to join Ali's army.[4] Additionally, he encouraged the people to distance themselves and disobey the new caliph, Ali. When Ali
Ali
realized the situation in Kufa, he sent Malik al-Ashter to rally up troops.[2][4] As a firm and loyal supporter of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, Malik rallied up the Kufian (citizens of Kufa) with a powerful speech. In the meantime, Abu Musa al-Ashary was commanding people to stay in their homes and not fight for Ali.[4] Malik understood that he needed to remove Abu Musa al-Ashary. So Malik and a large group of fighters seized the palace.[4] Luckily, Abu Musa al-Ashary was at the mosque.[4] His guards informed him that Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
and a large number of fighters had taken control of the palace.[4] Since Abu Musa al-Ashary was not capable of fighting off Malik, he surrendered.[4] And asked Malik to give him a day to leave Kufa.[4] Malik accepted his offer and let Abu Musa al-Ashary leave peacefully. Once Abu Musa al-Ashary left, Malik delivered another powerful speech (in the mosque) that captivated the hearts of the Kufains. The speech successfully aroused more than 18,000 soldier to join him in order to defend against the rebel attack.[7] 9,000 of those troops were under Malik's commands and the other 9,000 were under Hasan (the eldest son of Ali) commands.[7] They quickly headed towards Dhiqaar, Iraq to join Ali's army.[4] On the day of the Battle of Camel, Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib put Malik al-Ashtar in charge of the right wing of his army, Ammar ibn Yasir
Ammar ibn Yasir
in charge of the left wing of his army, and gave the flag to his son Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah.[4][7] After both sides introduced themselves (Arabian custom/tradition), Ali
Ali
asked his army not to attack because they might be mistaken.[2][4] He also asked his army is there is a brave soul who can take the Quran and appeal to them (the rebels).[2][4] A brave young man told Ali
Ali
that he is willing to do it. When the young man turned towards the rebels, the rebels killed him. After this, Ali raised his hands towards the sky and prayed "Allah, the eyes are gazing at you! And the hands are extended! Our lord, judge between our nation and us with justice! And you're the best judge!"[4] When he finished, the war began. Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
and his soldiers advanced fighting bravely. During the war, Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib told Malik that as long as the camel of Aisha is standing the war will continue. In order, to end the war he orders Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
to cut the feet of the Aisha's camel.[7] In addition, he orders Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr, the blood brother of Aisha, to catch Aisha when she falls of the camel.[7] Both Malik and Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr carried out their assignments, thus ending the battle.[2][4] Above all, Ali
Ali
ordered his soldiers to escort Aisha safely back to Medina, release the prisoners of war, and cure the injured rebels. Moreover, he forgave/pardoned all the rebels for their actions.[4] However, after the war, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
and Ammar bin Yasir went to Aisha. Many scholars state that Malik was 70 years old in the Battle of Jamal.[7] Overall, Malik al-Ahstar was the main cavalry and commander of the army of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib in the Battle of Jamal
Battle of Jamal
(Battle of the Camel). Battle of Siffeen[edit] Main article: Battle of Siffeen Battles Over The Euphrates
Euphrates
River[edit] Although the minor conflict occurred in Kirkeesya, the war took place at Siffeen (on the banks of the Euphrates) when Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
headed a large reinforcing army to join Abi al-Awar al-Salmy and his army (Mu'awiyah's first army that attacked at night).[4] Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
brought reinforcements because during the minor conflict many of his soldiers were killed and injured. When they got to Siffeen, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
ordered an offensive to his army to gain control of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River.[4] By taking the controlling the water, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
violated an Islamic law and the laws of war.[4] Therefore, Ali
Ali
sent Sasaah bin Suhan, one of the companions of the Prophet, to ask for some water.[4] He states to Mu'awiyah, "Mu'awiyah, Ali
Ali
says: Let us take some water. Then we'll decide what's between you and us, otherwise we will fight each other till the victor drinks."[4] Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
replied "I'll answer you later on."[4] After Sasaah bin Suhan left, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
sought advice from his trusted men about what he should do about the water situation. Al-Waleed bin Uthbah (the ex-governor of Kufa, which the Quran calls a Fasiq Sura 49 Verse 6) advised Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
to "Prevent them from drinking water to force them to surrender."[4] Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
and the other men agreed. Over the course of time, Malik watched the military supply and movements taking place on the river banks. He then realized that Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
is tightening the siege of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River.[4] During the coarse of war, the soldier in the army of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib became thirsty due to the physical exertion and blistering heat. Even Malik himself became thirsty. To which a man came up to Malik and said "There's only little water in my water-skin, please drink it."[4] But Malik refused and told him "I won't drink till all soldiers drink!"[4] Noticing that most of the soldiers were thirsty, Malik went to Ali
Ali
and said "Amirul Mu'mineen, our soldiers are very thirsty. We've nothing but fighting."[4] So Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib wrote a letter to Muawiyah asking for water.[1] However, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
denied giving Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib's soldiers water.[1] Once again, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
plays a huge role for the army of Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib . Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib calls Malik and asks him to lead his soldiers in an attack to gain possession of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River.[1][4] Malik and his men fight valiantly and won back the possession of the Euphrates
Euphrates
river. The following day, an arrow with a letter attached was shot at Ali's army.[4] Soldiers read the letter which said "From a loyal brother in the Shamian Army, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
is going to open the river to drown you. So, be careful!" and passed the news around.[4] This news caused the soldiers to withdraw from the banks of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River. Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
noticed this and decided to recapture the river for his army.[4] Yet again, Ali sends his soldiers to fight of Mu'awiyah's troops and gain control of the river. At this point, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
became worried that now Ali
Ali
won't allow them to drink water from the river. He even ask Amr ibn al-As, "Do you think Ali
Ali
will prevent us from drinking water?"[4] To which Amr replied, " Ali
Ali
doesn't do as you do!"[4] Ironically, Mu'awiyah's writes a letter to Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib asking him for water since his (Mu'awiyah) soldiers were now thirsty. Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib grants Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
and his soldiers permission to drink water from the Euphrates
Euphrates
River.[1] Allowing the rebels to drink water changed the mindset of some people in Mu'awiyah's army. They reflected upon both Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
and Ali. And realized that Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
did everything and anything including breaking Islamic laws to win the war.[4] Whereas, Ali
Ali
did everything to represent the true Islam even if it meant losing the war. And at nighttime, some of Mu'awiyah's troops went and joined Ali's army because they represented the truth and humanity.[4] Malik's Discipline and The End of The War[edit] As the battle continued, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
fought his way through the opposing army until he was two rows away from Mu'awiyah's tent.[4][7] Only two rows away from killing Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
and ending the war. However, a situation occurred. Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
wanted to trick Ali's army to stop fighting and disunite them by creating confusion.[8] Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
loved the idea and ordered his soldiers to place the Quran on their spear.[1][4] When most of the soldiers of Ali
Ali
saw this they stopped fighting. Though Ali
Ali
knew that it was a trick by Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
to create confusion and disunity, he told his army "It's a trick! I was the first to invite them to Allah's Book. And I was the first to believe in it. They've disobeyed Allah and broken His promise." (this is referring to the negotiation/persuading process before the war)[4] Ali wanted his soldier to continue fighting because they were so close to victory. Despite Ali's effort, 22,000 soldiers dsobeyed his commands and said "Stop fighting and order al-Ashtar to withdraw!"[4] Knowing that his own soldiers had turned their backs on him and a few group of true believers, Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib told his soldiers to command Malik to return for safety reasons.[1] The messenger gave Malik the order. Even though, Malik knew that he has the opportunity to end the war and rid the world of Ma'uwiyah, he stopped and returned.[1][4] Malik said "If Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib orders something, I have to return".[7] The Arbitration[edit] They ceased fighting and agreed to an arbitration according to the Quran. Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
chose Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
to represent him and Ali
Ali
chose Abdullah bin Abbas (because he was a wise man who had a good knowledge of the Quran).[4] But the rebel did not agree to Abdullah bin Abbas and told Ali
Ali
to pick Abu Musa al-Ashary (because Abu Musa was not really a firm supporter of Ali
Ali
therefore the rebels could get an upper hand in the arbitration).[4] Ali
Ali
replied to them saying "I disagree with you on him. And Abdullah bin Abbas is better than he (Abu Musa)."[4] But the rebels again denied. Ali
Ali
then chose Malik al-Ashtar to represent him. Once again, the rebels refused and insisted for Abu Musa.[4] To avoid further chaos/conflict, Ali
Ali
told them "Do whatever you like!"[4] As a result, Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
and Abu Musa entered the arbitration. Knowing that Abu Musa was not a firm supporter of Ali, Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
deceived Abu Musa by saying "Abu Musa, Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
and Ali have caused all these troubles. So, lets dispose them and elect another man."[4] Abu Musa took the bait and stated "I'm removing Ali from the caliphate as I'm removing my ring from my finger.",[4] then he removed his ring. Afterwards, Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
said "I'm fixing Mu'awwiyah to the caliphate as I'm fixing my ring to my finger.",[4] then he wore his ring. The trick worked but Ali
Ali
still had control of the caliphate. Both sides did agree to a truce and a year of peace.[4] Ali
Ali
commanded his soldiers not to fight for a year, but a large group (who developed their own beliefs of "La Hukma Illa Lillah", meaning, "no rulership except by Allah alone.") broke away from Ali
Ali
and disobeyed the agreement/orders.[4] They became known as the Khawarij and fought Ali
Ali
in the Battle of Nahrawan. Becoming Governor
Governor
of Egypt[edit] At the time, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr was the governor of Egypt. Amr ibn al-As, one of Mu'awiyah's companions, wanted to become the governor of Egypt.[1] So he rallied 6,000 soldiers and headed towards Egypt.[1] After finding out about the possible overthrow, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr wrote to Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib asking for help and support. Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib wrote back assuring Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr, son of the first caliph and then Ali's adopted son, that he is sending his best general and one of his closest companions, Malik al-Ashtar. Ali
Ali
then told Malik: "Malik, may Allah have mercy on you, go to Egypt. I have absolute trust in you. Rely on Allah! Use gentleness in its place and intensity in its place."[4] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abū-Bakr was instructed to return to ʻAlī's capital city, Kufa. Malik Al-Ashtar was appointed Governor
Governor
of Egypt
Egypt
in 658 (38 A.H.) by Alī ibn Abī-Tālib, the caliph of the Muslims, after the Battle of Siffin
Siffin
had ended. Alleged Assassination Plot By Muawiyah[edit] According to Shia tradition, when Mu'awiyah
Mu'awiyah
received the news that Ali appointed Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
as the new governor of Egypt, he was overwhelmed with worry.[4] Knowing that al-Ashtar was of ferocious built and strength, Muawiyah is said to have formulated a plot to assassinate him using poison imported from Rome and sent a delegate with the poison to a certain man owning vast lands in al-Qilzim City (a service station/resting spot for travelers) on the borders of Egypt, requesting that he poison al-Ashtar in exchange for lifelong tax exemption. The man is said to have agreed to the envoy's request.[4] Death[edit] On the way to Egypt, Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
decided to stop at al-Qilzim. Upon his arrival, the man (who agreed to poison Malik) invited Malik, the new governor of Egypt, for lunch at his house.[4] Malik humbly accepted the man's invitation without knowing that he was going to kill him by Muawiyah I on a suggestion of 'Amr ibn al-'As. They went to his home to have lunch. The man placed the poisoned honey in a cup and placed it on the table.[4] Malik took a spoonful of the poisoned honey.[4] When Malik consumed the honey, the poison spread rapidly throughout his body. Malik realized that he was poisoned as soon as he felt pain in his stomach. After realizing that he was poisoned, Malik placed his hand on his stomach and said "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. We belong to Allah, and we'll come back to Him!"[4] The poison was so destructive and toxic that within moments Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
died. Muawiyah is said to have rejoiced upon hearing of al-Ashtar's death.[1] Legacy[edit] Descendants[edit] Malik had two sons, the first was named Ishaq (Isaac) and the other was named Ibrahim (Abraham).[1] Ishaq was a phenomenal warrior who supported and valiantly gave his life to protect Hussain ibn Ali, the son of Ali, in the Battle of Karbala. After Habib ibn Muzahir, Ishaq killed the most enemy fighters.[1] On the other hand, Ibrahim ibn Malik al-Ashtar, the son of Malik al-Ashtar, along with Mukhtar al-Thaqafi rose against the killers of Hussain ibn Ali.[1] The two killed most of the killers of Hussain and his army. For example, they caught and killed Umar ibn Sa'ad, Shimr ibn Thil-Jawshan, Sanan ibn Anas, Hurmala ibn Kahil and Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad (these were Yazid I's soldiers who fought against Hussain).[7] Among his descendants are the Kalbasi family, who reside in Iran and some reside in Iraq. One branch of this family adds the title "Ashtari" to the end of their family name to denote this fact. In Lebanon, the Hamadani family from the southern town of Nabatieh are also direct descendants who have maintained a family tree dating back to the Nakha'i tribe origins. The Mroueh family, after tracing their lineage, are also believed to be descendants. The Malek (or Malekian) family, from Mazandaran (Iran), are also believed to be descendants. References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Biography of Malik al-Ashtar." N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2013-05-27.  ^ a b c d e Nakshawani, Ammar "Biography of Malik al-Ashtar." N.p., n.d. Web. 27 May 2013. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2013-05-27.  ^ Ibn Abi Talib, Ali. Nahjul Balagha = Peak of Eloquence : Sermons, Letters, and Sayings of Imam Ali
Ali
Ibn Abu Talib. Ed. Mohammad Askari. Jafery. Elmhurst, NY: Tahrike Tarsile Quran, 1984. Print. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx Sayyid, Kamāl, and Jasim Alyawy. Malik al-Ashtar. [Qum, Iran]: Ansariyan Foundation, 1996. Print. ^ Nakshawani, Ammar. "Biography of Kumayl Ibn Ziyad Al Nakhai - Dr Sayed Ammar Nakshawani." YouTube. Masjid Al Husayn Leicester, 21 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 July 2013. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSxmk_yIrbc>. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Nakshawani, Ammar. "Biography of Kumayl Ibn Ziyad al-Nakha'i." YouTube. Masjid Al Husayn Leicester, 21 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 July 2013. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSxmk_yIrbc>. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nakshawani, Ammar. "Biography of Malik al-Ahstar." Lecture. ^ Malik Al-Ashtar. [Qum, Iran]: Ansariyan Foundation, 1996. Print.

External links[edit]

Sanctuary of Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
in Eski Yurt, Crimea, Ukraine (Russian language) http://www.al-islam.org/gallery/kids/Books/companion9/ (Ebook of Kamal al-Syyed on Malik al-Ashtar)

v t e

Companions of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Abd Allah ibn Abbas Abdullah ibn Hashim Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali Abu al-Heysam ibn Tayyahan Abu Dhar al-Ghifari Adi ibn Hatim Ammar ibn Yasir Amr ibn al-Humq al-Khaza'i Asbagh ibn Nubatah Bilal ibn Rabah Habib ibn Madhahir Hamam ibn Shurayh Harith al-Hamdani Hashim ibn Utbah Hujr ibn 'Adi Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman Ja'far ibn Abi Talib Jabir ibn Abd Allah John bin Huwai Jundab ibn Abdullah Khuzaima ibn Thabit Kumayl ibn Ziyad Malik al-Ashtar Maytham al-Tammar Mikhnaf ibn Sulaym Miqdad ibn Aswad Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr Qays ibn Sa'd Qambar Sa'sa'a bin Sohan Salman the Persian Sulaym ibn Qays Sulayman ibn Surad Umm Salama Uthman ibn Hunaif Uwais al-Qar

.