Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 –
13 November 1093) was
King of Scots
King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. He was later
nicknamed "Canmore" ("ceann mòr", Gaelic for "Great Chief": "ceann"
denotes "leader", "head" (of state) and "mòr" denotes "pre-eminent",
"great", and "big"). Malcolm's long reign of 35 years preceded
the beginning of the
Scoto-Norman age. He had grandchildren from
England. His was
Empress Matilda and William Adelin. Henry I of
England is Malcolm III of Scotland's son-in-law.
Malcolm's kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern
Scotland: the north and west of
Scotland remained under Scandinavian
following the Norse invasions. Malcolm III fought a series of wars
against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as its objective
the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria. These wars did not
result in any significant advances southward. Malcolm's primary
achievement was to continue a lineage that ruled
Scotland for many
years, although his role as founder of a dynasty has more to do
with the propaganda of his youngest son
David I and his descendants
than with history.
Malcolm's second wife, St. Margaret of Scotland, is Scotland's only
royal saint. Malcolm himself had no reputation for piety; with the
notable exception of
Dunfermline Abbey in
Fife he is not definitely
associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical
2 Malcolm and Ingibiorg
3 Malcolm and Margaret
4 Malcolm and William Rufus
7 Depictions in fiction
10 External links
Scotland in the High Middle Ages
Malcolm's father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of
Malcolm II, Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's
great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the
original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth,
Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but
an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen. Other
sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too
young to fit the timeline, thus the likely relative would have been
Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as
Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed in battle with the
men of Moray, led by Macbeth, on 15 August 1040. Duncan was young at
the time of his death, and Malcolm and his brother Donalbane were
children. Malcolm's family attempted to overthrow
Macbeth in 1045,
but Malcolm's grandfather
Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the
Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for
greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate. According to
one version, Malcolm (then aged about nine) was sent to England,
and his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. Based
on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of
Macbeth's seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of
England at the court
of Edward the Confessor. Today's British Royal family can
trace their family history back to Malcolm III via his daughter
According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons
into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an
enemy of Macbeth's family, and perhaps Duncan's kinsman by
An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of
command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of
the king of the Cumbrians". This Máel Coluim has traditionally been
identified with the later Malcolm III. This interpretation derives
from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of
Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as
William of Malmesbury. The latter reported that
Macbeth was killed
in the battle by Siward, but it is known that
Macbeth outlived Siward
by two years.
A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source, later writers innocently
misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the later Scottish king of the same
name. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent
historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun
and Alex Woolf. It has also been suggested that Máel Coluim may
have been a son of Owain Foel, British king of Strathclyde perhaps
by a daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scotland.
In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of
Macbeth at Malcolm's
hand, on 15 August 1057 at
Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth
was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, who was crowned at Scone,
probably on 8 September 1057.
Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by
treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm
became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only
John of Fordun reports this.
Malcolm and Ingibiorg
Late medieval depiction of Malcolm with MacDuff, from an MS (Corpus
Christi MS 171) of Walter Bower's Scotichronicon
Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest
actions as king was to travel to the court of
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor in
1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had
England two years before from Hungary. If a marriage
agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, and this may explain the
Scots invasion of
Northumbria in 1061 when
plundered. Equally, Malcolm's raids in
Northumbria may have been
related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by
Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.
Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn
Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although
Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is
possible that she died much earlier, around 1058. The Orkneyinga
Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son,
Duncan II (Donnchad
mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king. Some Medieval commentators,
following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate,
but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's
descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's
descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death
is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga
Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.
Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and
Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser
Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made
an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson, King of Denmark, which may have been
another recommendation for the match. Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful
relationship with the Earldom of Orkney, ruled jointly by his
stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson. The Orkneyinga Saga reports
strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates
this with Magnus Barefoot, who became king of Norway only in 1093, the
year of Malcolm's death.
Malcolm and Margaret
Malcolm and Margaret as depicted in a 16th-century armorial.
Anachronistically, Malcolm's surcoat is embroidered with the royal
arms of Scotland, which probably did not come into use until the time
of William the Lion. Margaret's kirtle displays the supposed arms of
her great-uncle Edward the Confessor, which were in fact invented in
the 13th century, though they were based on a design which appeared on
coins from his reign
Although he had given sanctuary to
Tostig Godwinson when the
Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the
ill-fated invasion of
Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066,
which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge.
In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from
William of Normandy, among them Agatha, widow of Edward the
Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile, and her children: Edgar Ætheling
and his sisters Margaret and Cristina. They were accompanied by
Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. The exiles were disappointed, however,
if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.
In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in
the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted
by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn
Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak.
Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into
across the Pennines, wasting
Teesdale and Cleveland then marching
north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth. There Malcolm met Edgar and his
family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had
by now been bought off with a large Danegeld, Malcolm took his army
home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid
Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast
where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated. Late in the year,
perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his
family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of
1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret of Wessex, the
future Saint Margaret of Scotland.
The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional
Scots regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed. The point of
naming Margaret's sons—Edward after her father Edward the Exile,
Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside, Ethelred for her
Ethelred the Unready
Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her
great-great-grandfather Edgar and her brother, briefly the elected
king, Edgar Ætheling—was unlikely to be missed in England, where
William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure. Whether
the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of
Scotland (either for
Pope Alexander II
Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great) and
David for the future
David I of
Scotland represented a
William of Normandy
William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or
was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon royal name—another Edmund
had preceded Edgar—is not known. Margaret also gave Malcolm two
daughters, Edith, who married Henry I of England, and Mary, who
married Eustace III of Boulogne.
In 1072, with the
Harrying of the North
Harrying of the North completed and his position
William of Normandy
William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet.
Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a
hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar. Accepting
the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, as
previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of
Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further
raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom
and the killing of Bishop
William Walcher at Gateshead. In 1080,
William sent his son
Robert Curthose north with an army while his
brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and
this time kept it for over a decade.
Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception
of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai. In an unusual entry, for the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in
Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel
Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself
escaped with difficulty.
Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.
Malcolm and William Rufus
William Rufus, "the Red", king of the English (1087–1100)
William Rufus became king of
England after his father's death,
Malcolm did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert
Curthose which followed. In 1091,
William Rufus confiscated Edgar
Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland. In
May, Malcolm marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder,
but to besiege Newcastle, built by
Robert Curthose in 1080. This
appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the
River Tweed to the River Tees. The threat was enough to bring the
English king back from Normandy, where he had been fighting Robert
Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army,
Malcolm withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072,
Malcolm was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar
Robert Curthose whereby Malcolm again acknowledged the
overlordship of the English king.
In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the idea that the
Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria, it had been supposed that
William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle and his settlement of English
peasants in the surrounds was the cause. It is unlikely that Malcolm
controlled Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates
granted to Malcolm by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his
maintenance when visiting England. Malcolm sent messengers to discuss
the question and
William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Malcolm travelled
south to Gloucester, stopping at
Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter
Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Malcolm arrived there on 24 August
1093 to find that
William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that
the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Malcolm refused to
accept, and returned immediately to Scotland.
It does not appear that
William Rufus intended to provoke a war,
but, as the
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:
For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and
the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he
gathered his army, and came harrowing into
England with more hostility
than behoved him ....
Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and
probable heir-designate (or tánaiste), and by Edgar. Even by the
standards of the time, the ravaging of
Northumbria by the Scots was
seen as harsh.
Memorial cross said to mark the spot where King Malcolm III of
Scotland was killed while besieging
Alnwick Castle in 1093.
While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray,
Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near
Alnwick on 13
November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh
Castle. The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick. Edward
was mortally wounded in the same fight. Margaret, it is said, died
soon after receiving the news of their deaths from Edgar. The
Annals of Ulster
Annals of Ulster say:
Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his
son, were killed by the French [i.e. Normans] in Inber Alda in
England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within
Malcolm's body was taken to
Tynemouth Priory for burial. The king's
body was sent north for reburial, in the reign of his son Alexander,
Dunfermline Abbey, or possibly Iona.
On 19 June 1250, following the canonisation of Malcolm's wife Margaret
by Pope Innocent IV, Margaret's remains were disinterred and placed in
a reliquary. Tradition has it that as the reliquary was carried to the
high altar of
Dunfermline Abbey, past Malcolm's grave, it became too
heavy to move. As a result, Malcolm's remains were also disinterred,
and buried next to Margaret beside the altar.
Malcolm and Ingibiorg had three sons:
Duncan II of Scotland, succeeded his father as King of Scotland
Donald, died ca.1094
Malcolm, died ca.1085
Malcolm and Margaret had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of
Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne
Depictions in fiction
Malcolm appears in William Shakespeare’s
Macbeth as Malcolm. He is
the son of
King Duncan and heir to the throne. He first appears in the
second scene where he is talking to a sergeant, with Duncan. The
sergeant tells them how the battle was won thanks to Macbeth. Then
Ross comes and Duncan decides that
Macbeth should take the title of
Thane of Cawdor. Then he later appears in Act 1.4 talking about the
execution of the former Thane of Cawdor.
Macbeth then enters and they
congratulate him on his victory. He later appears in Macbeth’s
castle as a guest. When his father is killed he is suspected of the
murder so he escapes to England. He later makes an appearance in Act
4.3, where he talks to Macduff about
Macbeth and what to do. They both
decide to start a war against him. In Act 5.4 he is seen in Dunsinane
getting ready for war. He orders the troops to hide behind branches
and slowly advance towards the castle. In Act 5.8 he watches the
Macbeth and Macduff with Siward and Ross. When
Macbeth is killed, Malcolm takes over as king.
The married life of Malcolm III and Margaret has been the subject of
three historical novels: A Goodly Pearl (1905) by Mary H. Debenham,
and Malcolm Canmore's Pearl (1907) by Agnes Grant Hay, and Sing,
Morning Star by Jane Oliver (1949). They focus on court life in
Dunfermline, and the Margaret helping introduce Anglo-Saxon culture in
Scotland. The latter two novels cover events to 1093, ending with
^ Magnusson, p. 61
^ Burton, Vol. 1, p. 350, states: "Malcolm the son of Duncan is known
as Malcolm III, but still better perhaps by his characteristic name of
Canmore, said to come from the Celtic 'Cenn Mór', meaning 'great
head'". It has also been argued recently that the real "Malcolm
Canmore" was this Malcolm's great-grandson Malcolm IV of Scotland, who
is given this name in the contemporary notice of his death. Duncan,
pp. 51–2, 74–5; Oram, p. 17, note 1.
^ The question of the name of his family is open. "House of Dunkeld"
is all but unknown; "Canmore kings" and "Canmore dynasty" are not
universally accepted, nor are Richard Oram's recent "meic Maíl
Coluim" or Michael Lynch's "MacMalcolm". For discussions and examples:
Duncan, pp. 53–4; McDonald, Outlaws, p. 3; Barrow, Kingship and
Unity, Appendix C; Reid Broun discusses the question of identity at
^ Hammond, p. 21. The first genealogy known which traces descent from
Malcolm, rather than from
Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) or
Fergus Mór is dated to the reign of Alexander II. See Broun, pp.
^ Fordun, IV, xliv.
^ Young also gives her as a niece of Siward. Young, p. 30.
^ Duncan, p. 37; M.O. Anderson, p. 284.
^ The notice of Duncan's death in the Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1040,
says he was "slain ... at an immature age"; Duncan, p.33.
^ Duncan, p. 33; Oram,
David I, p. 18. There may have been a third
Máel Muire of Atholl was a son of Duncan. Oram,
p. 97, note 26, rejects this identification.
^ Duncan, p. 41; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1045 ; Annals of
Tigernach, s.a. 1045.
^ Annals of Scotland, Volume 1, By Sir
David Dalrymple, Page32
^ Ritchie, p.3
^ Young, p.30
^ Barrell, p. 13; Barrow, Kingship and Unity, p. 25.
^ Ritchie, p.3, states that it was fourteen years of exile, partly
spent at Edward's Court.
^ Duncan, p. 42; Oram,
David I, pp. 18–20. Malcolm had ties to
Orkney in later life. Earl Thorfinn may have been a grandson of
Malcolm II and thus Malcolm's cousin.
^ See, for instance, Ritchie, Normans, p. 5, or Stenton, Anglo-Saxon
England, p. 570. Ritchie, p. 5, states that Duncan placed his son, the
future Malcolm III of Scotland, in possession of
Cumbria as its
Prince, and states that Siward invaded
Scotland in 1054 to restore him
to the Scottish throne.
Hector Boece also says this (vol.XII p.249),
as does Young, p. 30.
^ Broun, "Identity of the Kingdom", pp. 133–34; Duncan, Kingship, p.
David I, p. 29
^ Duncan, Kingship, pp. 37–41
^ Broun, "Identity of the Kingdom", p. 134; Oram,
David I, pp.
18–20; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 262
^ Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, p. 41
^ Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 262
^ Ritchie, p. 7
^ Anderson, ESSH, pp. 600–602; the
Prophecy of Berchán has Macbeth
wounded in battle and places his death at Scone.
^ According to the Annals of Tigernach; the
Annals of Ulster
Annals of Ulster say
Lulach was killed in battle against Malcolm; see Anderson, ESSH, pp.
^ Duncan, pp. 50–51 discusses the dating of these events.
^ Duncan, p. 43; Ritchie, pp. 7–8.
^ Duncan, p. 43; Oram,
David I, p. 21.
David I, p. 21.
^ Orkneyinga Saga, c. 33, Duncan, pp. 42–43.
^ See Duncan, pp. 42–43, dating Ingibiorg's death to 1058. Oram,
David I, pp. 22–23, dates the marriage of Malcolm and Ingibiorg to
^ Orkneyinga Saga, c. 33.
^ Duncan, pp. 54–55; Broun, p. 196; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 117–119.
^ Duncan, p. 55; Oram,
David I, p. 23. Domnall's death is reported in
the Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1085: "... Domnall son of Máel Coluim,
king of Alba, ... ended [his] life unhappily." However, it is not
certain that Domnall's father was this Máel Coluim. M.O. Anderson,
ESSH, corrigenda p. xxi, presumes Domnall to have been a son of Máel
Coluim mac Maíl Brigti, King or Mormaer of Moray, who is called "king
of Scotland" in his obituary in 1029.
^ Saga of Harald Sigurðson, cc. 45ff.; Saga of Magnus Erlingsson, c.
30. See also Oram,
David I, pp. 22–23.
^ Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 39–41; McDonald, Kingdom of the Isles, pp.
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen says that he fought at Stamford Bridge, but he is
alone in claiming this: Anderson, SAEC, p. 87, n. 3.
David I, p. 23; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 87–90. Orderic Vitalis
states that the English asked for Malcolm's assistance.
^ Duncan, pp. 44–45; Oram,
David I, pp. 23–24.
David I, p. 24; Clancy, "St. Margaret", dates the marriage to
^ Malcolm's sons by Ingebiorg were probably expected to succeed to the
kingdom of the Scots, Oram,
David I, p. 26.
^ Oram, p. 26.
^ Oram, pp. 30–31; Anderson, SAEC, p. 95.
David I, p. 33.
^ Anderson, SAEC, p. 100.
^ His death is reported by the
Annals of Ulster
Annals of Ulster amongst clerics and
described as "happy", usually a sign that the deceased had entered
David I, pp. 34–35; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 104–108.
^ Duncan, pp. 47–48; Oram,
David I, pp. 35–36; Anderson, SAEC, pp.
David I, pp.36–37.
^ 1093 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
^ Duncan, p. 54; Oram,
David I, p. 42.
^ Anderson, SAEC, pp. 97–113, contains a number of English
chronicles condemning Malcolm's several invasions of Northumbria.
Annals of Innisfallen
Annals of Innisfallen say he "was slain with his son in an
unguarded moment in battle".
^ Oram, pp. 37–38; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 114–115.
^ The notice in the
Annals of Innisfallen
Annals of Innisfallen ends "and Margaréta his
wife, died of grief for him."
^ Anderson, SAEC, pp. 111–113. M.O. Anderson reprints three regnal
lists, lists F, I and K, which give a place of burial for Malcolm.
These say Iona, Dunfermline, and Tynemouth, respectively.
^ Dunlop, p. 93.
^ Baker (1914), p. 12-
^ Nield (1925), p. 27
Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500–1286,
volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990.
Anderson, Alan Orr, Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers. D. Nutt,
Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland.
Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, revised edition 1980.
Anon., Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney, tr.
Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. Penguin, London, 1978.
Baker, Ernest Albert (1914), A Guide to Historical Fiction, George
Routledge and sons
Barrell, A.D.M. Medieval Scotland. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2000. ISBN 0-521-58602-X
Barrow, G.W.S., Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1000–1306. Reprinted,
Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1989. ISBN 0-7486-0104-X
Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots.
Edinburgh University Press,
Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
Broun, Dauvit, The Irish Identity of the Kingdom of the Scots in the
Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Boydell, Woodbridge, 1999.
Burton, John Hill, The History of Scotland, New Edition, 8 vols,
Clancy, Thomas Owen, "St. Margaret" in Michael Lynch (ed.), The Oxford
Companion to Scottish History. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and
Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002.
Dunlop, Eileen, Queen Margaret of Scotland. National Museums of
Scotland, Edinburgh, 2005. ISBN 1-901663-92-2
Hammond, Matthew H., "Ethnicity and Writing of Medieval Scottish
History", in The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 85, April, 2006,
John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, ed. William Forbes
Skene, tr. Felix J.H. Skene, 2 vols. Reprinted, Llanerch Press,
Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
McDonald, R. Andrew, The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western
Seaboard, c. 1100–c.1336. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 1997.
McDonald, R. Andrew, Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the
Canmore Kings, 1058–1266. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 2003.
Magnusson, Magnus, Scotland: The Story of a Nation. Atlantic Monthly
Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0871137982
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Tales, G. P. Putnam's sons, ISBN 0-8337-2509-2
David I: The King Who Made Scotland. Tempus, Stroud,
2004. ISBN 0-7524-2825-X
Reid, Norman, "Kings and Kingship: Canmore Dynasty" in Michael Lynch
(ed.), op. cit.
Ritchie, R. L. Graeme, The Normans in Scotland, Edinburgh University
Sturluson, Snorri, Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, tr.
Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas Press, Austin, 1992.
Young, James, ed., Historical References to the Scottish Family of
Lauder, Glasgow, 1884
Malcolm 5 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
Orkneyinga Saga at Northvegr
CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at
University College Cork
University College Cork includes
the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach and Innisfallen, the Lebor Bretnach
and the Chronicon Scotorum among others. Most are translated or
translations are in progress.
King of Scots
Pictish and Scottish monarchs
Monarchs of the Picts
Monarchs of the Scots
Kenneth I MacAlpin
Constantine I (II)
Constantine II (III)
Constantine III (IV)
Malcolm III Canmore
William I the Lion
Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce (I)
1 also monarch of
England and Ireland.
William Shakespeare's Macbeth
Macbeth, King of Scotland
Gruoch of Scotland
Duncan I of Scotland
Malcolm III of Scotland
Donald III of Scotland
Siward, Earl of Northumbria
King James VI and I
The Witch (play)
1960 US TV
1960 Australian TV
TV / film adaptations
The Real Thing at Last (1916)
Joe MacBeth (1955)
Throne of Blood
Throne of Blood (1957)
Macbeth (Verdi opera) (1987)
Men of Respect
Men of Respect (1990)
Scotland, PA (2001)
Shakespeare Must Die (2012)
Sleep No More (2003)
Sleep No More (2009)
Sleep No More (2011)
Macbeth (1847, Verdi)
Macbeth (1910, Bloch)
Wyrd Sisters (1988)
The Last King of
The Tragedy of
Macbeth Part II (2008)
Thane to the Throne
Thane to the Throne (2000)
Macbeth – A Tragedy in Steel (2003)
The Night of Enitharmon's Joy
The Night of Enitharmon's Joy (1795)
Ellen Terry as Lady
Scenes and speeches
"On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth" (1823)
Sleepwalking Scene (5.1)
"Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow"
Words and phrases
"What's done is done"
"Crack of doom"
"Strange but true"
The Scottish Play
Thane of Cawdor
Story within a story
We Work Again
The Deadly Affair
"Sleeping with the Enemy"
"The Shower Principle"
Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine
The Scottish Play
Burke & Hare
"A Witch's Tangled Hare" (1959, Looney Tunes)
"The Bellero Shield" (1964, The Outer Limits)
"Sense and Senility" (1987, Blackadder the Third)
"The Coup" (2006, The Office)
"Dial "N" for Nerder" (2008, The Simpsons)
"Four Great Women and a Manicure" (2009, The Simpsons)
"The Understudy" (2014, Inside No. 9)
The Scottish Play
Piano Trios, Op. 70 (Beethoven)
The Ruins of Cawdor
House of Cards (UK, 1990)
House of Cards (US, 2013–present)