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The Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
are spoken by the Austronesian people
Austronesian people
of the island nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam serve as the northwest geographic outlier, going well into the Malay peninsula. On the northernmost geographical outlier does not pass beyond the north of Pattani, which is located in southern Thailand. Malagasy is spoken in the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
located off the eastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean. Part of the language family shows a strong influence of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and particularly Arabic
Arabic
as the Western part of the region has been a stronghold of Hinduism, Buddhism, and, since the 10th century, Islam. Two morphological characteristics of the Malayo-Polynesian languages are a system of affixation and the reduplication (repetition of all or part of a word, such as wiki-wiki) to form new words. Like other Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
they have small phonemic inventories; thus a text has few but frequent sounds. The majority also lack consonant clusters (e.g., [str] in English). Most also have only a small set of vowels, five being a common number.

Contents

1 Languages 2 Classification

2.1 Relation to Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
on Taiwan 2.2 Internal classification

2.2.1 Blust (1993) 2.2.2 Malayo-Sumbawan 2.2.3 Greater North Borneo 2.2.4 Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian

3 References 4 External links

Languages[edit] The Nuclear Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
are spoken by about 230 million people and include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Sundanese, Javanese, Buginese, Balinese, Acehnese; and also the Oceanic languages, including Tolai, Gilbertese, Fijian, and Polynesian languages such as Hawaiian, Māori, Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan. Malay is also the native language in Singapore and Brunei. The Philippine languages
Philippine languages
are spoken by around 100 million people and include Tagalog (Filipino), Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Central Bikol, Waray, and Kapampangan, each with at least three million speakers. In Northern Borneo, the most widely spoken language is Kadazan-Dusun, with over 200,000+ speakers and Lundayeh Language is the one of the minority language in the southerwest of Sabah
Sabah
and in the northern of Sarawak. Classification[edit] Relation to Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
on Taiwan[edit] The Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
share several phonological and lexical innovations with the eastern Formosan languages, including the leveling of proto-Austronesian *t, *C to /t/ and *n, *N to /n/, a shift of *S to /h/, and vocabulary such as *lima "five" which are not attested in other Formosan languages. However, it does not align with any one branch. A 2008 analysis of the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database suggests the closest connection is with Paiwan, though it only assigns that connection a 75% confidence level. Internal classification[edit] Malayo-Polynesian consists of a large number of small local language clusters, with the one exception being Oceanic, the only large group which is universally accepted; its parent language Proto Oceanic has been reconstructed in all aspects of its structure (phonology, lexicon, morphology and syntax). All other large groups within Malayo-Polynesian are controversial. Blust (1993)[edit] The most influential proposal for the internal subgrouping of the Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
was made Robert Blust
Robert Blust
who presented several papers advocating a division into two major branches, viz. Western Malayo-Polynesian and Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian.[2] Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian is widely accepted as a subgroup, although some objections have been raised against its validity as a genetic subgroup.[3][4] On the other hand, Western Malayo-Polynesian is now generally held (including by Blust himself) to be an umbrella term without genetic relevance. Taking into account the Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian hypothesis, the Malayo-Polynesian languages can be divided into the following subgroups (proposals for larger subgroups are given below):[5]

Philippine languages

Batanic languages Northern Luzon languages Central Luzon languages Northern Mindoro languages Greater Central Philippine languages Kalamian languages South Mindanao (also called Bilic languages) Sangiric languages Minahasan languages Umiray Dumaget language Manide-Inagta languages Ati language

Sama–Bajaw languages North Bornean languages

Northeast Sabahan languages Southwest Sabahan languages North Sarawak
Sarawak
languages

Kayan–Murik languages Land Dayak languages Barito languages (including Malagasy) Moken language Malayo-Chamic languages Northwest Sumatran languages (probably including the aberrant Enggano language) Rejang language Lampung language Sundanese language Javanese language Madurese language Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa languages Celebic languages South Sulawesi languages Palauan language Chamorro language Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages

Central Malayo-Polynesian
Central Malayo-Polynesian
languages

Sumba–Flores languages Flores–Lembata languages Selaru languages Kei–Tanimbar languages Aru languages Central Maluku languages Timoric languages
Timoric languages
(also called Timor–Babar languages) Kowiai language Teor-Kur language

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages

South Halmahera–West New Guinea languages Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
(approximately 450 languages)

The position of the recently "rediscovered" Nasal language (spoken on Sumatra) is still unclear, but it shares most features of its lexicon and phonological history with either Lampung or Rejang.[6] Malayo-Sumbawan[edit] The Malayo-Sumbawan languages
Malayo-Sumbawan languages
are a proposal by Adelaar (2005) which unites the Malayo-Chamic languages, the Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa languages, Madurese and Sundanese into a single subgroup based on phonological and lexical evidence.[7]

Malayo-Sumbawan

Malayo-Chamic-BSS

Malayic languages Chamic languages Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa languages

Sundanese Madurese

Greater North Borneo[edit] The Greater North Borneo hypothesis, which unites all languages spoken on Borneo except for the Barito languages together with the Malayo-Chamic languages, Rejang and Sundanese into a single subgroup, was first proposed by Blust (2010) and further elaborated by Smith (2017).[8][9] The Greater North Borneo subgroup is based solely on lexical evidence. Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian[edit] Zobel (2002) proposes a Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian subgroup, based on putative shared innovations in the Austronesian alignment and syntax found throughout Indonesia apart from much of Borneo and the north of Sulawesi. This subgroup comprises the languages of the Greater Sunda Islands (Malayo-Chamic, Northwest Sumatran, Lampung, Sundanese, Javanese, Madurese, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa) and most of Sulawesi (Celebic, South Sulawesi), Palauan, Chamorro and the Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages.[10] This hypothesis is one of the few attempts to link certain Western Malayo-Polynesian languages with the Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages
Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages
in a higher intermediate node, but has received little further scholarly attention. References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Malayo-Polynesian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Blust, R. (1993). Central and Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Oceanic Linguistics, 32(2), 241-293. ^ Ross, Malcolm (2005), "Some current issues in Austronesian lingustics", in D.T. Tryon, ed., Comparative Austronesian Dictionary, 1, 45-120. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ^ Donohue, M., & Grimes, C. (2008). Yet More on the Position of the Languages of Eastern Indonesia and East Timor. Oceanic Linguistics, 47(1), 114-158. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander, and Himmelmann, Nikolaus. 2005. The Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
of Asia
Asia
and Madagascar. London: Routledge. ^ Anderbeck, Karl; Aprilani, Herdian (2013). The Improbable Language: Survey Report on the Nasal Language of Bengkulu, Sumatra. SIL Electronic Survey Report. SIL International. ^ Adelaar, A. (2005). Malayo-Sumbawan. Oceanic Linguistics, 44(2), 357-388. ^ Blust, R. (2010). The Greater North Borneo Hypothesis. Oceanic Linguistics, 49(1), 44-118. ^ Smith, Alexander. 2017. The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification. PhD Dissertation: University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. ^ Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), 2002. The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems. Australian National University.

External links[edit]

Language portal

2008 Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database analysis History.com Encyclopedia: Malayo-Polynesian Languages

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Austronesian languages

Malayo-Polynesian

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian

Sunda-Sulawesi

Malayo-Sumbawan

Sundanese

Baduy Sundanese

Madurese

Kangean Madurese

Malayo-Chamic

Aceh–Chamic

Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat)

Malayic

Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Johore-Riau Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak
Sarawak
Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi'

Bali–Sasak

Balinese Sasak Sumbawa

Northwest Sumatran

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing

Lampungic

Lampung Nyo Lampung Api Komering

Celebic ?

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lawa Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae' Talondo' Taman Toraja-Sa'dan Ulumanda'

Moken

Moken dialects

Javanese

Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese

Unclassified

Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan

Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian

Central Malayo-Polynesian

Sumba–Flores

Bima

Sumba-Manggarai

Sumba

Hawu ? Dhao ? Kambera Mamboru Anakalangu Wanukaka Pondok Baliledo Wejewa Lamboya Kodi Gaura

Ende-Manggarai

Komodo Manggarai Riung Rembong Rajong Kepo' Wae Rana Palu'e Ende-Li'o Nage Ke'o Ngad'a Rongga So'a

Flores-Lembata

Kedang

Sika-Lamaholot

Sika

Lamaholotic

Lamatuka Lewo Eleng Levuka South Lembata Lamaholot Alorese Lamalera Lewotobi Adonara Ile Ape Mingar

Selaru

Selaru Seluwasan

Kei-Tanimbar

Kei Fordata Yamdena Onin Sekar Uruangnirin

Aru

Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir

Timor-Babar

Timoric ?

Kemak Tukudede Mambai Idalaka Dawan Amarasi Helong Bilba Dengka Lole Ringgou Dela-Oenale Termanu Tii Tetum Bekais Wetar Galoli Luang Makuva

Babar

West Damar ? Dawera-Daweloor North Babar Dai Masela Serili Southeast Babar Emplawas Imroing Tela'a

Unclassified

Naueti Kairui Waimoa Midiki

Kowiai

Kowiai

Central Maluku ?

Teor-Kur

West Central Maluku

Ambelau Buru Lisela Moksela † Sula Mangole Taliabo

East Central Maluku

Navbox

Banda Bati Geser Watubela Bobot Masiwang Hoti † Benggoi Salas Liana

Nunusaku

Kayeli † Nuaulu Huaulu Manusela Wemale Yalahatan

Piru Bay ?

Asilulu Luhu Manipa Wakasihu Boano (Moluccas) Sepa-Teluti Paulohi Kaibobo Hitu Tulehu Laha Seit-Kaitetu Kamarian † Haruku Amahai Nusa Laut Saparua Latu

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian linkages

Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages

Borneo-Philippine

Philippine

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilokano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambali Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog

Visayan

Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Kinaray-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Ati Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon Kinabalian Onhan Porohanon Ratagnon Romblomanon Surigaonon

Bikol

Central Bikol Albay Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada

Bisakol

Masbatenyo South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate)

Unclassified

Sulod

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kinamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo- Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

Bornean

North Bornean

Sabahan

Ida'an Bonggi Brunei Bisaya Tatana ( Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kinamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong

Unclassified

Dumpas Molbog

North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong

Unclassified

Bintulu

Melanau-Kajang

Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †

Kayan-Murik

Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau

Barito

Malagasy Bushi Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sama Pangutaran Sama

Formosan

Rukaic

Rukai

Tsouic

Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa

Northern Formosan

Atayalic

Atayal Seediq

Northwest Formosan

Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza Favorlang †

East Formosan

Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Siraya †

Southern

Puyuma Paiwan Bunun

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

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Formosan languages

Rukaic

Rukai

Tsouic

Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa

Northern Formosan

Atayalic

Atayal Seediq

Northwest Formosan

Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza † Favorlang †

East Formosan

Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Sakizaya Siraya † Taivoan † Nataoran

Southern

Puyuma Paiwan Bunun

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

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Borneo–Philippine languages

Philippine

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon

Unclassified

Sulod

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

Bornean

North Bornean

Sabahan

Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana ( Sabah
Sabah
Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong

Unclassified

Dumpas

North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong

Unclassified

Bintulu

Melanau-Kajang

Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †

Kayan-Murik

Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau

Barito

Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

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Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Sundanese

Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy)

Madurese

Kangean Madurese

Malayo-Chamic

Chamic

Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat)

Malayic

Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak
Sarawak
Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi'

Bali–Sasak

Balinese Sasak Sumbawa

Northwest Sumatran

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing

Lampungic

Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Komering

Celebic (Disputed)

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Moken

Moken dialects

Javanese

Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese

Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages)

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups

Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages

Central Malayo-Polynesian
Central Malayo-Polynesian
linkages

Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar

Unclassified

Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan

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Micronesian languages

Nuclear Micronesian

Chuukic-Pohnpeic

Pohnpeic

Mokilese Ngatikese Pingelapese Pohnpeian

Chuukic

Carolinian Chuukese Mapia Mortlockese Namonuito Pááfang Puluwatese Satawalese Sonsorolese Tanapag Tobian Ulithian Woleaian

Others

Kiribati Kosraean Marshallese

Non-Nuclear

Nauruan

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Fijian–Polynesian languages

Polynesian

East

Marquesic

Hawaiian Mangerevan Marquesan

Tahitic

Austral Māori Moriori Penrhyn Rakahanga-Manihiki Rarotongan Tahitian Tuamotuan

Other

Rapa Rapa Nui

West

Samoic

Niuatoputapu Pukapuka Samoan Tokelauan

Ellicean

Kapingamarangi Nukumanu Nukuoro Nukuria Ontong Java Sikaiana Takuu Tuvaluan Vaeakau-Taumako

Futunic

Anuta Emae Futunan Futuna-Aniwan Mele-Fila Pukapukan Rennellese Tikopia Wallisian West Uvean

Tongic

Niuafoʻou Niuean Tongan

Fijian

East

Fijian Gone Dau Lauan Lomaiviti

West

Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Western Fijian

O

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