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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Latin ( Malay alphabet ) Arabic script ( Jawi alphabet ) Thai alphabet (in Thailand) Malay Braille Historically Pallava alphabet , Kawi alphabet , Rencong alphabet

SIGNED FORMS Manually Coded Malay Sistem Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia

OFFICIAL STATUS

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN Indonesia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Malaysia
Brunei
Brunei
Singapore
Singapore
_ Cocos (Keeling) Islands (de jure_) (territory of Australia
Australia
) _ Christmas Island (de jure_) (territory of Australia
Australia
)

Recognised minority language in Indonesia
Indonesia
(Local Malay enjoys the status of a regional language in Sumatra apart from the national standard of Indonesian )

* ASEAN

REGULATED BY Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa ; Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature); Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia (Brunei–Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
Language Council – MABBIM) (a trilateral joint-venture)

LANGUAGE CODES

ISO 639-1 ms

ISO 639-2 may (B) msa (T)

ISO 639-3 msa – inclusive code Individual codes: zlm – Malaysian Malay zsm – Standard Malaysian ind – Indonesian lrt – Larantuka Malay ? kxd – Brunei
Brunei
? meo – Kedah Malay ? zmi – Minangkabau language dup – Duano’ ? jak – Jakun ? orn – Orang Kanaq ? ors – Orang Seletar ? tmw – Temuan ?

GLOTTOLOG indo1326 partial match

LINGUASPHERE 31-MFA-a

Indonesia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Malaysia
Singapore
Singapore
and Brunei, where Standard Malay is an official language East Timor, where Indonesian is a working language Southern Thailand
Thailand
and the Cocos Isl., where other varieties of Malay are spoken

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA
IPA
PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA
IPA
symbols, see Help: IPA
IPA
.

MALAY (/məˈleɪ/ ; _Malay: _Bahasa Melayu) is a major language of the Austronesian family , with official status in Brunei
Brunei
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, and Singapore
Singapore
. It is spoken by 290 million people across the Strait of Malacca , including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia
Malaysia
and the eastern coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
in Indonesia, and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo
Borneo
. It is also used as a trading language in the southern Philippines, including the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
and the southern predominantly Muslim-inhabited municipalities of Bataraza and Balabac in Palawan.

As the _Bahasa Kebangsaan_ or _Bahasa Nasional_ (National Language) of several states, Standard Malay has various official names. In Singapore
Singapore
and Brunei
Brunei
it is called _Bahasa Melayu_ (Malay language); in Malaysia, _Bahasa Malaysia_ ( Malaysian language ); and in Indonesia, _Bahasa Indonesia_ ( Indonesian language ) and is designated the _Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu_ ("unifying language/_lingua franca _"). However, in areas of central to southern Sumatra
Sumatra
where the language is indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as _Bahasa Melayu_ and consider it one of their regional languages.

Standard Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates, and so the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor, or Riau Malay (or various combinations of those names) to distinguish it from the various other Malayan languages . According to _ Ethnologue _ 16, several of the Malayan varieties they currently list as separate languages, including the _ Orang Asli
Orang Asli
_ varieties of Peninsular Malay, are so closely related to standard Malay that they may prove to be dialects—these are listed with question marks in the infobox at right or on top (depending on device). There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay, as well as Macassar Malay , which appears to be a mixed language .

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin * 2 History * 3 Classification and related languages * 4 Writing system * 5 Extent of use

* 6 Phonology

* 6.1 Consonants * 6.2 Vowels

* 7 Grammar * 8 Borrowed words

* 9 Examples

* 9.1 Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights * 9.2 Basic phrases in Malay

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

ORIGIN

Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo
Borneo
stretching to the Bruneian coast. A form known as Proto- Malay language
Malay language
was spoken in Borneo
Borneo
at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages . Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian , a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language , began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Malay language

The history of the Malay language
Malay language
can be divided into five periods: Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period (Classical Malay), Late Modern Malay, and modern Malay. It is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible.

Old Malay was influenced by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literary language of Classical India and a scriptural language of Hinduism and Buddhism
Buddhism
. Sanskrit loanwords can be found in Old Malay vocabulary. The earliest known stone inscription in the Old Malay language was found in Sumatra, written in the Pallava variety of the Grantha alphabet and dates back to 7th century – known as the Kedukan Bukit inscription , it was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on November 29, 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the Tatang, a tributary of the Musi River . It is a small stone of 45 by 80 centimetres (18 by 31 in).

The earliest surviving manuscript in Malay is the Tanjong Tanah Law in post- Pallava letters. This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of Dharmasraya , a Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra. The laws were for the Minangkabau people , who today still live in the highlands of Sumatra
Sumatra
.

The Malay language
Malay language
came into widespread use as the lingua franca of the Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511). During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature. The development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic
Arabic
, Tamil and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
vocabularies, called _Classical Malay_. Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognisable to speakers of modern Malay. When the court moved to establish the Johor Sultanate, it continued using the classical language; it has become so associated with Dutch Riau and British Johor that it is often assumed that the Malay of Riau is close to the classical language. However, there is no connection between Malaccan Malay as used on Riau and the Riau vernacular.

One of the oldest surviving letters written in Malay is a letter from Sultan Abu Hayat of Ternate , Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia, dated around 1521–1522. The letter is addressed to the king of Portugal
Portugal
, following contact with Portuguese explorer Francisco Serrão . The letters show sign of non-native usage; the Ternateans used (and still use) the unrelated Ternate language , a West Papuan language , as their first language . Malay was used solely as a lingua franca for inter-ethnic communications.

CLASSIFICATION AND RELATED LANGUAGES

See also: Austronesian languages § Cross-linguistic Comparison Chart

Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific Ocean , with a smaller number in continental Asia
Asia
. Malagasy , a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar
Madagascar
in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, is also a member of this language family. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language . There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

Within Austronesian, Malay is part of a cluster of numerous closely related forms of speech known as the Malayan languages , which were spread across Malaya and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra. There is disagreement as to which varieties of speech popularly called "Malay" should be considered dialects of this language, and which should be classified as distinct Malay languages. The vernacular of Brunei— Brunei
Brunei
Malay —for example, is not readily intelligible with the standard language, and the same is true with some varieties on the Malay Peninsula such as Kedah Malay . However, both Brunei
Brunei
and Kedah are quite close.

The closest relatives of the Malay languages are those left behind on Sumatra, such as the Minangkabau language , with 5.5 million speakers on the west coast.

WRITING SYSTEM

Main article: Malay alphabet Rencong alphabet , native writing systems found in Malay Peninsula, central and South Sumatra
Sumatra
. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang ", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line. Kedukan Bukit Inscription , using Pallava alphabet , is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra
Sumatra
, Indonesia.

Malay is now written using the Latin script (_Rumi_), although an Arabic script called _Arab Melayu_ or _Jawi_ also exists. _Rumi_ is official in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.

_Rumi_ and _Jawi_ are co-official in Brunei
Brunei
only. Names of institutions and organisations have to use Jawi and Rumi (Latin) scripts. Jawi is used fully in schools, especially the Religious School, _Sekolah Ugama_, which is compulsory during the afternoon for Muslim students aged from around 6–7 up to 12–14.

Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi in rural areas of Malaysia, and students taking Malay language
Malay language
examinations in Malaysia
Malaysia
have the option of answering questions using Jawi.

The Latin script, however, is the most commonly used in Brunei
Brunei
and Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.

Historically, Malay has been written using various scripts. Before the introduction of Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was written using the Pallava (during Hindu
Hindu
- Buddhist
Buddhist
era), Kawi and Rencong alphabets ; these are still in use today, such as the Cham alphabet used by the Chams of Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia
Cambodia
. Old Malay was written using Pallava and Kawi script, as evident from several inscription stones in the Malay region. Starting from the era of kingdom of Pasai and throughout the golden age of the Malacca Sultanate, Jawi gradually replaced these scripts as the most commonly used script in the Malay region. Starting from the 17th century, under Dutch and British influence, Jawi was gradually replaced by the Rumi script.

EXTENT OF USE

Main article: Malayan languages See also: Malay trade and creole languages A Malay traffic sign in Malaysia. Malay road signs in Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia.

Malay is spoken in Brunei
Brunei
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, parts of Thailand
Thailand
and southern Philippines
Philippines
. Indonesia
Indonesia
and Brunei
Brunei
have their own standards, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
use the same standard. The extent to which Malay is used in these countries varies depending on historical and cultural circumstances. Malay is the national language in Malaysia
Malaysia
by Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia
Malaysia
, and became the sole official language in Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1968 and in East Malaysia
Malaysia
gradually from 1974. English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts. Other minority languages are also commonly used by the country's large ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei
Brunei
is similar to that of Malaysia. In the Philippines
Philippines
, Malay is spoken by a minority of the Muslim population residing in Mindanao
Mindanao
(specifically the Zamboanga Peninsula ) and the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
. However, they mostly speak it in a form of creole resembling Sabah Malay . Historically, it was the language of the archipelago prior to Spanish occupation . Indonesian is spoken by the overseas Indonesian community in Davao City
Davao City
, and functional phrases are taught to members of the Philippine Armed Forces and to students.

PHONOLOGY

Main article: Malay phonology

Malay, like most Austronesian languages, is not a tonal language .

CONSONANTS

The consonants of Malaysian and also Indonesian are shown below. Non-native consonants that only occur in borrowed words, principally from Arabic
Arabic
and English, are shown in brackets.

Malay consonant phonemes

LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

NASAL m

n ɲ ŋ

PLOSIVE /AFFRICATE VOICELESS p

t t͡ʃ k (ʔ )

VOICED b

d d͡ʒ ɡ

FRICATIVE VOICELESS (f ) (θ ) s (ʃ ) (x ) h

VOICED (v ) (ð ) (z )

(ɣ )

APPROXIMANT CENTRAL

j w

LATERAL

l

TRILL

r

ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE: The sounds are represented orthographically by their symbols as above, except:

* /ð / is 'z', the same as the /z / sound (only occurs in Arabic loanwords originally containing the /ð / sound, but the writing is not distinguished from Arabic
Arabic
loanwords with /z / sound, and this sound must be learned separately by the speakers). * /ɲ / is 'ny' * /ŋ / is 'ng' * /θ / is represented as 's', the same as the /s / sound (only occurs in Arabic
Arabic
loanwords originally containing the /θ / sound, but the writing is not distinguished from Arabic
Arabic
loanwords with /s / sound, and this sound must be learned separately by the speakers). Previously (before 1972), this sound was written 'th' in Standard Malay (not Indonesian) * the glottal stop /ʔ / is final 'k' or an apostrophe ' (although some words have this glottal stop in the middle, such as _rakyat_) * /tʃ / is 'c' * /dʒ / is 'j' * /ʃ / is 'sy' * /x / is 'kh' * /j / is 'y'

LOANS FROM ARABIC:

* Phonemes which occur only in Arabic
Arabic
loans may be pronounced distinctly by speakers who know Arabic. Otherwise they tend to be replaced with native sounds.

Table of borrowed Arabic
Arabic
consonants DISTINCT ASSIMILATED EXAMPLE

/x / /k /, /h / _khabar, kabar_ "news"

/ð / /d /, /l / _redha, rela_ "good will"

/zˁ/ /l /, /z / _lohor, zuhur_ "noon (prayer)"

/ɣ / /ɡ /, /r / _ghaib, raib_ "hidden"

/ʕ / /ʔ / _saat, sa'at_ "second (time)"

VOWELS

Malay originally had four vowels, but in many dialects today, including Standard Malay, it has six. The vowels /e, o/ are much less common than the other four.

TABLE OF VOWEL PHONEMES OF STANDARD MALAY

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE i

u

MID e ə o

OPEN

a

ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE: both /e/ and /ə/ are written as 'e'. This means that there are some homographs, so _perang_ can be either /pəraŋ/ ("war") or /peraŋ/ ("blond") (but in Indonesia
Indonesia
_perang_ with /e/ sound is also written as _pirang_).

Some analyses regard /ai, au, oi/ as diphthongs. However, and can only occur in open syllables, such as _cukai_ ("tax") and _pulau_ ("island"). Words with a phonetic diphthong in a closed syllable, such as _baik_ ("good") and _laut_ ("sea"), are actually two syllables. An alternative analysis therefore treats the phonetic diphthongs , and as a sequence of a monophthong plus an approximant: /aj/, /aw/ and /oj/ respectively.

There is a rule of vowel harmony : the non-open vowels /i, e, u, o/ in bisyllabic words must agree in height, so _hidung_ ("nose") is allowed but *_hedung_ is not.

GRAMMAR

Main article: Malay grammar

Malay is an agglutinative language , and new words are formed by three methods: attaching affixes onto a root word (affixation ), formation of a compound word (composition), or repetition of words or portions of words (reduplication ). Nouns and verbs may be basic roots, but frequently they are derived from other words by means of prefixes , suffixes and circumfixes .

Malay does not make use of grammatical gender , and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for _he_ and _she_ or for _his_ and _her_. There is no grammatical plural in Malay either; thus _orang_ may mean either "person" or "people". Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as _sudah_ "already" and _belum_ "not yet". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods .

Malay does not have a grammatical subject in the sense that English does. In intransitive clauses, the noun comes before the verb. When there is both an agent and an object , these are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), with the difference encoded in the voice of the verb. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order.

BORROWED WORDS

Main article: List of Malay loanwords

The Malay language
Malay language
has many words borrowed from Arabic
Arabic
(mainly religious terms), Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Tamil , Persian , Portuguese , Dutch , certain Chinese languages and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).

EXAMPLES

Despite using different vocabulary, all Malays are able to understand the two different versions below.

ARTICLE 1 OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

ENGLISH INDONESIAN LANGUAGE MALAYSIAN LANGUAGE

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PERNYATAAN UMUM TENTANG HAK ASASI MANUSIA PERISYTIHARAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA SEJAGAT

ARTICLE 1 PASAL 1 PERKARA 1

_All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood._ _Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikurnia akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan._ _Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan sama rata dari segi maruah dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bergaul dengan semangat persaudaraan._

BASIC PHRASES IN MALAY

In Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia, to greet somebody with "Selamat pagi" or "Selamat sejahtera" would be considered very formal, and the borrowed word "Hi" would be more usual among friends; similarly "Bye-bye" is often used when taking one's leave. However, if you're a Muslim and the Malay person you're talking to is also a Muslim, it would be more appropriate to use the Islamic greeting of 'Assalamualaikum'. Muslim Malays, especially in Malaysia, Singapore
Singapore
and Brunei, rarely use 'Selamat pagi' (Good morning), 'Selamat siang' (Good "early" afternoon), 'Selamat petang' or 'Selamat sore' as widely used in Indonesia
Indonesia
(Good "late" afternoon), 'Selamat malam' (Good evening / night) or 'Selamat tinggal / Selamat jalan' (Good bye) when talking to one another.

MALAY PHRASE IPA
IPA
ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Selamat datang /səlamat dataŋ/ _Welcome_ (used as a greeting)

Selamat jalan /səlamat dʒalan/ _Have a safe journey_ (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party staying)

Selamat tinggal /səlamat tiŋɡal/ _Have a safe stay_ (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party leaving)

Terima kasih /tərima kasih/ _Thank you_

Sama-sama /samə samə/ _You are welcome_

Selamat pagi /səlamat paɡi/ _Good morning_

Selamat petang /səlamat pətaŋ/ _Good afternoon/evening_ (note that 'Selamat petang' must not be used at night as in English. For a general greeting, use 'Selamat sejahtera')

Selamat sejahtera /səlamat sədʒahtərə/ _Greetings_ (formal). This greeting is rarely used however, and would be unheard of, especially in Singapore. Its usage might be awkward for the receiver. But it is still used in schools, as a greeting between students and teachers.

Selamat malam /səlamat malam/ _Good night_

Jumpa lagi

_See you again_

Siapakah nama awak/kamu?/Nama kamu siapa?

_What is your name?_

Nama saya ...

_My name is ..._ (Followed immediately by the name: for example, if one's name was _Munirah_, then one would introduce oneself by saying "Nama saya _Munirah_", which translates to "My name is _Munirah_".)

Apa khabar?

_How are you? / What's up?_ (literally, "What news?")

Khabar baik

_Fine,_ (lit._good news_)

Saya sakit

_I'm sick_

Ya /jə/ _Yes_

Tidak ("tak" colloquially)

_No_

Aku (Saya) cinta pada mu (awak)

_I love you_ (romantic love. In romantic situations, use informal "Aku" instead of "Saya" for "I". And "Kamu" or just "Mu" for "You". In romance, in immediate family communication and in songs, informal pronouns are used). In Malay language, appropriate personal pronouns must be used depending on (1) whether the situation is formal or informal, (2) the social status of the people around the speaker and (3) the relationship of the speaker with the person spoken to and/or with people around the speaker. For learners of Malay language, it is advised that they stick to formal personal pronouns when speaking Malay to Malays and Indonesians. The speaker risks being considered as rude if they use informal personal pronouns in inappropriate situations.

Saya benci awak/kamu

_I hate you_

Saya suka...

_I like..._

Saya tidak faham/paham (or simply "tak faham" colloquially)

_I do not understand_ (or simply "don't understand" colloquially)

Saya tidak tahu (or "tak tau" colloquially)

_I do not know_ (or "don't know" colloquially)

(Minta) maaf

_I apologise_ ('minta' is to request i.e. "do forgive")

Tumpang/numpang tanya

"May I ask...?" (used when trying to ask something)

Tolong

Help

Apa

_What_

Siapa

_Who_

Bila

_When_

Bagaimana

_How_

makan

_Eat_

minum

_Drink_

Tiada/tidak ada

_Nothing, none, don't have_

SEE ALSO

* Varieties of Malay * Jawi , an Arabic
Arabic
alphabet for Malay * Differences between the Malaysian and Indonesian languages * Indonesian language * Languages of Indonesia
Indonesia
* List of English words of Malay origin * Malajoe Batawi * Malaysian English , the English used formally in Malaysia. * Malaysian language

REFERENCES

* ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in _ Nationalencyklopedin _ * ^ Uli, Kozok (10 March 2012). "How many people speak Indonesian". University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 20 October 2012. James T. Collins (_Bahasa Sanskerta dan Bahasa Melayu_, Jakarta: KPG 2009) gives a conservative estimate of approximately 200 million, and a maximum estimate of 250 million speakers of Malay (Collins 2009, p. 17). * ^ "Kedah MB defends use of Jawi on signboards". The Star . 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Indonesian Archipelago Malay". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, _The Linguistics Student’s Handbook_, Edinburgh * ^ 10 million in Malaysia, 5 million in Indonesia
Indonesia
as "Malay" plus 250 million as "Indonesian", etc. * ^ K. Alexander Adelaar, "Where does Malay come from? Twenty years of discussions about homeland, migrations and classifications", _Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde_, 160 (2004), No. 1, Leiden
Leiden
, pp. 1-30 * ^ Andaya, Leonard Y (2001), "The Search for the \'Origins\' of Melayu" (PDF), _Journal of Southeast Asian Studies_, University of Singapore, 32 (3), doi :10.1017/s0022463401000169 * ^ Wurm, Stephen ; Mühlhäusler, Peter ; Tryon, Darrell T. (1996). _Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Vol I: Maps. Vol II: Texts_. Walter de Gruyter. p. 677. ISBN 978-3-11-081972-4 . * ^ "Bahasa Melayu Kuno". Bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com. 15 September 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2010. * ^ Sneddon, James N. (2003). _The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society_. UNSW Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-86840-598-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Sneddon, James N. (2003). _The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society_. UNSW Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-86840-598-8 . * ^ _ Ethnologue _ 16 classifies them as distinct languages, ISO3 _kxd_ and _meo_, but states that they "are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay". * ^ Malay (Bahasa Melayu). Retrieved 30 August 2008. * ^ "Malay Can Be \'Language Of Asean\' Local News". Brudirect.com. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010. * ^ Salleh, Haji (2008). _An introduction to modern Malaysian literature_. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia
Malaysia
Berhad. pp. xvi. ISBN 978-983-068-307-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Clynes, A., Olson, K. S. (2008). "Indonesian". _Journal of the International Phonetic Association_. 38: 209–213. doi :10.1017/s0025100308003320 . * ^ Asmah Hj Omar (1985). _Susur galur bahasa Melayu_. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. * ^ Zaharani Ahmad (1993). _Fonologi generatif: Teori dan penerapan_. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. * ^ Clynes, A (1997). "On the Proto-Austronesian 'diphthongs'". _Oceanic Linguistics_. 36: 347–362. doi :10.2307/3622989 . * ^ Adelaar, K. A. (1992). _Proto Malayic: The reconstruction of its phonology and parts of its lexicon and morphology_. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

FURTHER READING

* Adelaar, K., "Where does Malay come from? Twenty years of discussions about homeland, migrations and classifications", _ Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde _ 160 (2004), no: 1, Leiden, 1-30 * Edwards, E. D., and C. O. Blagden. 1931. "A Chinese Vocabulary of Malacca Malay Words and Phrases Collected Between A. D. 1403 and 1511 (?)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 6 (3). : 715–49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/607205. * C. O. B.. 1939. "Corrigenda and Addenda: A Chinese Vocabulary of Malacca Malay Words and Phrases Collected Between A. D. 1403 and 1511 (?)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 10 (1). Cambridge University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/607921. * Vladimir Braginsky (18 March 2014). _Classical Civilizations of South-East Asia_. Routledge. pp. 366–. ISBN 978-1-136-84879-7 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ MALAY EDITION _ of , the free encyclopedia

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to

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