OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN
Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa ;
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature);
Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia
ISO 639-1 ms
ISO 639-2 may (B) msa (T)
msa – inclusive code
zlm – Malaysian Malay
zsm – Standard Malaysian
ind – Indonesian
Larantuka Malay ?
GLOTTOLOG indo1326 partial match
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS
MALAY (/məˈleɪ/ ; _Malay: _Bahasa Melayu) is a major language of
the Austronesian family , with official status in
As the _Bahasa Kebangsaan_ or _Bahasa Nasional_ (National Language)
of several states, Standard Malay has various official names. In
Standard Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of
the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates, and so the language is
sometimes called Malacca, Johor, or Riau Malay (or various
combinations of those names) to distinguish it from the various other
Malayan languages . According to _
Ethnologue _ 16, several of the
Malayan varieties they currently list as separate languages, including
* 1 Origin * 2 History * 3 Classification and related languages * 4 Writing system * 5 Extent of use
* 6 Phonology
* 6.1 Consonants * 6.2 Vowels
* 7 Grammar * 8 Borrowed words
* 9 Examples
* 9.1 Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights * 9.2 Basic phrases in Malay
* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay
homeland being in western
Main article: History of the Malay language
The history of the
Old Malay was influenced by
The earliest surviving manuscript in Malay is the Tanjong Tanah Law
Pallava letters. This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text
produced in the
Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of
Dharmasraya , a
One of the oldest surviving letters written in Malay is a letter from
Sultan Abu Hayat of
Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia,
dated around 1521–1522. The letter is addressed to the king of
CLASSIFICATION AND RELATED LANGUAGES
See also: Austronesian languages § Cross-linguistic Comparison Chart
Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which
includes languages from
Within Austronesian, Malay is part of a cluster of numerous closely
related forms of speech known as the
Malayan languages , which were
spread across Malaya and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders
from Sumatra. There is disagreement as to which varieties of speech
popularly called "Malay" should be considered dialects of this
language, and which should be classified as distinct Malay languages.
The vernacular of Brunei—
The closest relatives of the Malay languages are those left behind on Sumatra, such as the Minangkabau language , with 5.5 million speakers on the west coast.
Rencong alphabet , native writing
systems found in Malay Peninsula, central and South
_Rumi_ and _Jawi_ are co-official in
Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi in rural
areas of Malaysia, and students taking
The Latin script, however, is the most commonly used in
Historically, Malay has been written using various scripts. Before
the introduction of
Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was
written using the
EXTENT OF USE
Malay is spoken in
Main article: Malay phonology
Malay, like most Austronesian languages, is not a tonal language .
The consonants of Malaysian and also Indonesian are shown below.
Non-native consonants that only occur in borrowed words, principally
Malay consonant phonemes
LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL
n ɲ ŋ
PLOSIVE /AFFRICATE VOICELESS p
t t͡ʃ k (ʔ )
d d͡ʒ ɡ
FRICATIVE VOICELESS (f ) (θ ) s (ʃ ) (x ) h
VOICED (v ) (ð ) (z )
ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE: The sounds are represented orthographically by their symbols as above, except:
* /ð / is 'z', the same as the /z / sound (only occurs in Arabic
loanwords originally containing the /ð / sound, but the writing is
not distinguished from
LOANS FROM ARABIC:
* Phonemes which occur only in
Table of borrowed
/x / /k /, /h / _khabar, kabar_ "news"
/ð / /d /, /l / _redha, rela_ "good will"
/zˁ/ /l /, /z / _lohor, zuhur_ "noon (prayer)"
/ɣ / /ɡ /, /r / _ghaib, raib_ "hidden"
/ʕ / /ʔ / _saat, sa'at_ "second (time)"
Malay originally had four vowels, but in many dialects today, including Standard Malay, it has six. The vowels /e, o/ are much less common than the other four.
TABLE OF VOWEL PHONEMES OF STANDARD MALAY
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
MID e ə o
ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE: both /e/ and /ə/ are written as 'e'. This means
that there are some homographs, so _perang_ can be either /pəraŋ/
("war") or /peraŋ/ ("blond") (but in
Some analyses regard /ai, au, oi/ as diphthongs. However, and can only occur in open syllables, such as _cukai_ ("tax") and _pulau_ ("island"). Words with a phonetic diphthong in a closed syllable, such as _baik_ ("good") and _laut_ ("sea"), are actually two syllables. An alternative analysis therefore treats the phonetic diphthongs , and as a sequence of a monophthong plus an approximant: /aj/, /aw/ and /oj/ respectively.
There is a rule of vowel harmony : the non-open vowels /i, e, u, o/ in bisyllabic words must agree in height, so _hidung_ ("nose") is allowed but *_hedung_ is not.
Main article: Malay grammar
Malay is an agglutinative language , and new words are formed by three methods: attaching affixes onto a root word (affixation ), formation of a compound word (composition), or repetition of words or portions of words (reduplication ). Nouns and verbs may be basic roots, but frequently they are derived from other words by means of prefixes , suffixes and circumfixes .
Malay does not make use of grammatical gender , and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for _he_ and _she_ or for _his_ and _her_. There is no grammatical plural in Malay either; thus _orang_ may mean either "person" or "people". Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as _sudah_ "already" and _belum_ "not yet". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods .
Malay does not have a grammatical subject in the sense that English does. In intransitive clauses, the noun comes before the verb. When there is both an agent and an object , these are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), with the difference encoded in the voice of the verb. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order.
Main article: List of Malay loanwords
Despite using different vocabulary, all Malays are able to understand the two different versions below.
ARTICLE 1 OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
ENGLISH INDONESIAN LANGUAGE MALAYSIAN LANGUAGE
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PERNYATAAN UMUM TENTANG HAK ASASI MANUSIA PERISYTIHARAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA SEJAGAT
ARTICLE 1 PASAL 1 PERKARA 1
_All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood._ _Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikurnia akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan._ _Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan sama rata dari segi maruah dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bergaul dengan semangat persaudaraan._
BASIC PHRASES IN MALAY
Selamat datang /səlamat dataŋ/ _Welcome_ (used as a greeting)
Selamat jalan /səlamat dʒalan/ _Have a safe journey_ (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party staying)
Selamat tinggal /səlamat tiŋɡal/ _Have a safe stay_ (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party leaving)
Terima kasih /tərima kasih/ _Thank you_
Sama-sama /samə samə/ _You are welcome_
Selamat pagi /səlamat paɡi/ _Good morning_
Selamat petang /səlamat pətaŋ/ _Good afternoon/evening_ (note that 'Selamat petang' must not be used at night as in English. For a general greeting, use 'Selamat sejahtera')
Selamat sejahtera /səlamat sədʒahtərə/ _Greetings_ (formal). This greeting is rarely used however, and would be unheard of, especially in Singapore. Its usage might be awkward for the receiver. But it is still used in schools, as a greeting between students and teachers.
Selamat malam /səlamat malam/ _Good night_
_See you again_
Siapakah nama awak/kamu?/Nama kamu siapa?
_What is your name?_
Nama saya ...
_My name is ..._ (Followed immediately by the name: for example, if one's name was _Munirah_, then one would introduce oneself by saying "Nama saya _Munirah_", which translates to "My name is _Munirah_".)
_How are you? / What's up?_ (literally, "What news?")
_Fine,_ (lit._good news_)
Ya /jə/ _Yes_
Tidak ("tak" colloquially)
Aku (Saya) cinta pada mu (awak)
_I love you_ (romantic love. In romantic situations, use informal "Aku" instead of "Saya" for "I". And "Kamu" or just "Mu" for "You". In romance, in immediate family communication and in songs, informal pronouns are used). In Malay language, appropriate personal pronouns must be used depending on (1) whether the situation is formal or informal, (2) the social status of the people around the speaker and (3) the relationship of the speaker with the person spoken to and/or with people around the speaker. For learners of Malay language, it is advised that they stick to formal personal pronouns when speaking Malay to Malays and Indonesians. The speaker risks being considered as rude if they use informal personal pronouns in inappropriate situations.
Saya benci awak/kamu
_I hate you_
Saya tidak faham/paham (or simply "tak faham" colloquially)
_I do not understand_ (or simply "don't understand" colloquially)
Saya tidak tahu (or "tak tau" colloquially)
_I do not know_ (or "don't know" colloquially)
_I apologise_ ('minta' is to request i.e. "do forgive")
"May I ask...?" (used when trying to ask something)
_Nothing, none, don't have_
Varieties of Malay
* Jawi , an
* ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The
World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in _
* ^ Uli, Kozok (10 March 2012). "How many people speak Indonesian".
University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 20 October 2012. James T.
Collins (_Bahasa Sanskerta dan Bahasa Melayu_, Jakarta: KPG 2009)
gives a conservative estimate of approximately 200 million, and a
maximum estimate of 250 million speakers of Malay (Collins 2009, p.
* ^ "Kedah MB defends use of Jawi on signboards". The Star . 26
August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank,
Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Indonesian Archipelago Malay". _
_. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
* ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, _The Linguistics Student’s Handbook_,
* ^ 10 million in Malaysia, 5 million in
* Adelaar, K., "Where does Malay come from? Twenty years of discussions about homeland, migrations and classifications", _ Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde _ 160 (2004), no: 1, Leiden, 1-30 * Edwards, E. D., and C. O. Blagden. 1931. "A Chinese Vocabulary of Malacca Malay Words and Phrases Collected Between A. D. 1403 and 1511 (?)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 6 (3). : 715–49. http://www.jstor.org/stable/607205. * C. O. B.. 1939. "Corrigenda and Addenda: A Chinese Vocabulary of Malacca Malay Words and Phrases Collected Between A. D. 1403 and 1511 (?)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 10 (1). Cambridge University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/607921. * Vladimir Braginsky (18 March 2014). _Classical Civilizations of South-East Asia_. Routledge. pp. 366–. ISBN 978-1-136-84879-7 .
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