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Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi (/ˈmæləkaɪ/ ( listen); Hebrew: מַלְאָכִי‬, Modern Malakhi, Tiberian Malʼāḵî, "Messenger", see malakh) was the writer of the Book
Book
of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim
Neviim
(prophets) section in the Hebrew Bible. No allusion is made to him by Ezra, however, and he does not directly mention the restoration of the temple. The editors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
implied that he prophesied after Haggai
Haggai
and Zechariah ( Malachi
Malachi
1:10; 3:1, 3:10) and speculated that he delivered his prophecies about 420 BCE, after the second return of Nehemiah
Nehemiah
from Persia ( Book
Book
of Nehemiah 13:6), or possibly before his return, comparing Malachi
Malachi
2:8 with Nehemiah
Nehemiah
13:15 ( Malachi
Malachi
2:10-16 with Nehemiah
Nehemiah
13:23). In the Christian Greek Old Testament, the Prophetic Books are placed last, making Book of Malachi
Book of Malachi
the last protocanonical book before the Deuterocanonical books
Deuterocanonical books
or The New Testament. According to the 1897 Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary, it is possible that Malachi
Malachi
is not a proper name, but simply means "messenger of YHWH".[1] The Greek Old Testament superscription is ἐν χειρὶ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ, (by the hand of his messenger).

Contents

1 Name 2 Works 3 Period 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Name[edit] Because Malachi's name does not occur elsewhere in the Bible, some scholars doubt whether "Malachi" is intended to be the personal name of the prophet. None of the other prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible or the Greek Old Testament
Greek Old Testament
are anonymous. The form mal'akhi, signifies "my messenger"; it occurs in Malachi
Malachi
3:1 (compare to Malachi
Malachi
2:7). But this form of itself would hardly be appropriate as a proper name without some additional syllable such as Yah, whence mal'akhiah, i.e. "messenger of Elohim." Haggai, in fact, is expressly designated "messenger of Elohim" ( Haggai
Haggai
1:13). Besides, the superscriptions prefixed to the book, in both the Septuagint
Septuagint
and the Vulgate, warrant the supposition that Malachi's full name ended with the syllable -yah. At the same time the Greek Old Testament
Greek Old Testament
translates the last clause of Malachi
Malachi
1:1, "by the hand of his messenger," and the Targum
Targum
reads, "by the hand of my angel, whose name is called Ezra
Ezra
the scribe." [2] Works[edit]

Malachi
Malachi
(watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

The Jews of his day ascribed the Book
Book
of Malachi, the last book of prophecy, to Ezra
Ezra
but if Ezra's name was originally associated with the book, it would hardly have been dropped by the collectors of the prophetic canon who lived only a century or two subsequent to Ezra's time. Certain traditions ascribe the book to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
and Nehemiah; others, still, to Malachi, whom they designate as a Levite and a member of the "Great Synagogue." Certain modern scholars, however, on the basis of the similarity of the title (compare Malachi
Malachi
1:1 to Zechariah 9:1 and Zechariah 12:1), declare it to be anonymous. Professor G.G. Cameron, suggests that the termination of the word "Malachi" is adjectival, and equivalent to the Latin angelicus, signifying "one charged with a message or mission" (a missionary). The term would thus be an official title; and the thought would not be unsuitable to one whose message closed the prophetical canon of the Old Testament.[2] Period[edit] Opinions vary as to the prophet's exact date, but nearly all scholars agree that Malachi
Malachi
prophesied during the Persian period, and after the reconstruction and dedication of the second temple in 516 BCE (compare Malachi
Malachi
1:10 ; Malachi
Malachi
3:1, Malachi
Malachi
3:10). The prophet speaks of the "people's governor" (Hebrew "pechah", Malachi
Malachi
1:8), as do Haggai and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
( Haggai
Haggai
1:1 ; Nehemiah
Nehemiah
5:14 ; Nehemiah
Nehemiah
12:26). The social conditions portrayed appear to be those of the period of the Restoration. More specifically, Malachi
Malachi
probably lived and labored during the times of Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah. The abuses which Malachi mentions in his writings correspond so exactly with those which Nehemiah
Nehemiah
found on his 2nd visit to Jerusalem in 432 BCE (Nehemiah 13:7) that it seems reasonably certain that he prophesied concurrently with Nehemiah
Nehemiah
or shortly after.[2] See also[edit]

Tomb of the Prophets Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi

References[edit]

^ Malachi
Malachi
at the Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary ^ a b c "www.Bibler.org - Dictionary - Malachi". 2012-08-07. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Malachi". Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Malachi, Book
Book
of". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.    A. Van Hoonacker (1913). "Malachias (Malachi)". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  L. Vianès: Malachie. La Bible
Bible
d'Alexandrie, vol. xxiii/12, Éditions du Cerf, Paris, 2011.

External links[edit]

Media related to Malachi
Malachi
at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Malachi
Malachi
at Wikiquote Prophet
Prophet
Malachi
Malachi
Orthodox icon and synaxarion

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

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Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

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Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2786477

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