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Malacca
Malacca
(Malay: Melaka; Tamil: மலாக்கா, simplified Chinese: 马六甲; traditional Chinese: 馬六甲), dubbed "The Historic State",[citation needed] is a state in Malaysia
Malaysia
located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. The state is bordered by Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
to the north and west and Johor
Johor
to the south. The exclave of Cape Rachado also borders Negeri Sembilan to the north. Its capital is Malacca
Malacca
City, which is 148 kilometres (92 miles) south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 kilometres (146 miles) north west of Johor's largest city Johor
Johor
Bahru, and 95 km (59 miles) north west of Johor's second largest city, Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 7 July 2008. Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the local monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Sultanate of Malacca 1.2 Colonial era 1.3 Post colonial era

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Government

3.1 Districts and Local Authorities 3.2 Towns

4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Demographics 5.2 Language 5.3 Religion

6 Sports 7 Education

7.1 Secondary education 7.2 Higher education 7.3 Public libraries

8 Health care 9 Energy and environment

9.1 Power generation 9.2 Green energy 9.3 Water supply 9.4 Environmental campaign

10 Tourism

10.1 Tourist attractions

11 International relations

11.1 Cultural exchanges

11.1.1 China 11.1.2 Cuba 11.1.3 Indonesia

11.2 Twin towns and friendship cities

12 Transportation

12.1 Air 12.2 Railway 12.3 Water 12.4 Road

13 Popular culture 14 Notable people 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

History[edit]

Malacca Sultanate
Malacca Sultanate
Palace Museum

History of colonial Malacca

Periods:

Portuguese Malacca (1511-1641)

Dutch VOC (1641-1824)

British Straits Settlements (1824-1948)

See also:

Sultanate of Malacca

Fall of Malacca 1511

Sultanate of Johor

The Battle of Cape Rachado 1606

The Battle of Malacca 1641

Sultanate of Malacca[edit] Main article: Malacca
Malacca
Sultanate Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca
Malacca
was a fishing village inhabited by local known as Orang Laut. Malacca
Malacca
was founded by Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah, the last Raja
Raja
of Temasek (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit
Majapahit
attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca
Malacca
around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca
Malacca
Straits.[3] According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river during a hunt, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided then and there to found an empire on that very spot. He named it 'Malacca' after the tree where he had just taken shelter at, the Malacca
Malacca
tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka).[4] Prominent Malaysian artist Syed Thajudeen
Syed Thajudeen
visually depicted the epic tale of the founding of Malacca
Malacca
on canvas. The Beginning, a 4 panel painting measuring 183 x 512 cm is now a permanent collection at Galeri Petronas.

Mao Kun map
Mao Kun map
from Wubei Zhi
Wubei Zhi
which comes from the early 15th century maps of Zheng He
Zheng He
showing Malacca
Malacca
(滿剌加) near the top left.

In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca
Malacca
as an international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[3] Because of its strategic location, Malacca
Malacca
was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, according to local folklore, a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled mostly in Bukit Cina.[5]

Map of Malacca
Malacca
1602

"In the 9th month of the year 1481 envoys arrived with the [......] Malacca
Malacca
again sent envoys to China
China
in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while Malaccan envoys were returning to Malacca
Malacca
from China
China
in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked the Malaccans, killing some of them while castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam
Vietnam
was in control of Champa and also sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back, because they did not want to fight against another state that was a tributary to China
China
without permission from the Chinese. They requested to confront the Vietnamese delegation to China
China
which was in China
China
at the time, but the Chinese informed them since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, and the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident. The Chinese Emperor also ordered the Malaccans to raise soldiers and fight back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked them again.[6][7] Colonial era[edit] See also: Portuguese Malacca, Dutch Malacca, Straits Settlement, and Crown Colony of Malacca

1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Melaka

In April 1511, Alfonso de Albuquerque
Alfonso de Albuquerque
set sail from Goa
Goa
to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[8] They conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu, Chinese and Burmese inhabitants but had the Muslim
Muslim
inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery.[9] It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca
Malacca
did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[10] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca
Straits of Malacca
that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.[10]

Dutch Malacca, c. 1750

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546, and 1549. The Dutch launched several attacks on the Portuguese colony during the first four decades of the seventeenth century. The first attack took place in 1606 under the command of Dutch Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge who laid siege to the town with the help of his Johor
Johor
allies. He engaged the Portuguese armada which had been sent from Goa
Goa
to offer armed relief to the besieged port.[11] In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan
Sultan
of Johore.[12] The Dutch ruled Malacca
Malacca
from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance on Batavia (Jakarta) on Java
Java
as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys
Stadthuys
or Red Building.

Malacca River
Malacca River
1907, Church of St. Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
in the background

Malacca
Malacca
was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946, Malacca
Malacca
was under the rule of the British, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. Due to dissatisfaction with British jurisdiction over Naning, Dol Said, a local chief and the East India Company had a war from 1831 to 1832, which resulted in a decisive British victory. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore
Singapore
and Penang. Malacca
Malacca
went briefly under the rule of Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
in 1942–1945 during World War II. Post colonial era[edit] After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca
Malacca
and Penang
Penang
became part of the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
in 1946, which later became the Federation of Malaya in 1948. The declaration of independence was made by the first Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman, at Padang
Padang
Pahlawan on 20 February 1956, which eventually led to the independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957. In 1963, Malaysia
Malaysia
was formed with the merger of Malaya with Sabah, Sarawak
Sarawak
and Singapore, and Malacca
Malacca
became part of it. On 15 April 1989, Malacca
Malacca
was declared a historical city. It was then also listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 7 July 2008.[13] Geography[edit]

Malacca
Malacca
River

The state of Malacca
Malacca
covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi).[1] It sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
to the north and west and Johor
Johor
to the east. Malacca
Malacca
is situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km (92 mi) south of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. With the exception of some of its small hills, Malacca
Malacca
is generally a lowland area with average elevation below 50 meters above sea level.[14] The Malacca River
Malacca River
roughly runs through the center line of the state from north to south. Kesang River
Kesang River
acts as the eastern border of Melaka with Johor. The offshore Besar Island, Upeh Island and Undan Island are part of Malacca
Malacca
which are accessible by jetty from Malacca mainland. The peninsula of Tanjung Tuan(Cape Rachado) is an exclave of the state, situated on the coast of Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
which it borders to the north. Malacca
Malacca
has several beaches edged with palm trees which has brought a number of resorts along the coast. Famous beaches are Tanjung Bidara
Tanjung Bidara
Beach, Klebang
Klebang
Beach, Puteri Beach
Puteri Beach
and Pengkalan Balak Beach.[15] The man-made Malacca Island
Malacca Island
is connected to the mainland and it is the first phase of the development of Malacca
Malacca
Gateway offshore development, expected to be completed by 2025. Climate[edit] The climate of Malacca
Malacca
is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall occurring mostly between October and March. Temperature ranges generally between 30-35 °C during daytime and between 27-29 °C during night time.[16]

Climate data for Malacca
Malacca
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 31.4 (88.5) 32.6 (90.7) 32.6 (90.7) 32.4 (90.3) 31.8 (89.2) 31.4 (88.5) 31.0 (87.8) 30.9 (87.6) 31.0 (87.8) 31.3 (88.3) 31.0 (87.8) 30.9 (87.6) 31.5 (88.7)

Average low °C (°F) 22.5 (72.5) 22.9 (73.2) 23.1 (73.6) 23.4 (74.1) 23.4 (74.1) 23.0 (73.4) 22.7 (72.9) 22.7 (72.9) 22.7 (72.9) 22.9 (73.2) 22.9 (73.2) 22.6 (72.7) 22.9 (73.2)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 73.3 (2.886) 90.9 (3.579) 144.1 (5.673) 197.5 (7.776) 172.0 (6.772) 165.8 (6.528) 164.2 (6.465) 164.1 (6.461) 210.2 (8.276) 212.9 (8.382) 231.5 (9.114) 123.8 (4.874) 1,950.3 (76.783)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 7 10 13 12 10 12 12 13 14 17 11 138

Mean monthly sunshine hours 193.0 202.5 214.8 207.5 210.5 193.9 201.3 191.2 171.5 179.6 156.9 166.8 2,289.5

Source: NOAA[17]

Government[edit] See also: Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2013–) § Malacca

Seri Negeri complex, which houses the office of Malacca
Malacca
Chief Minister and Malacca
Malacca
State Legislative Assembly.

Party composition in the State Legislative Assembly after the 2013 general election:      BN (21),      DAP (6) and      PAS (1).

Malacca's state parliament is called the State Legislative Assembly and the party in power forms the Executive Committee. The assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The State Executive Council is responsible to the assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Yang di-Pertua Negeri who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
of Malaysia. The current Yang di-Pertua Negeri is Mohd Khalil Yaakob. The State Government is headed by the Chief Minister. The minister is appointed by Yang di-Pertua Negeri from among the State Legislative Assembly members. The Chief Minister presides over a meeting of State Executive Council ministers weekly at the Chief Minister's office. The Chief Minister's Department is responsible for the overall administration of the state, as well as its political interest. The current Chief Minister is Idris Haron
Idris Haron
of United Malays National Organisation. The administrative complex is located at Seri Negeri complex
Seri Negeri complex
in Ayer Keroh. It houses the Chief Minister's office, State Legislative Assembly and State Secretariat office. For administrative purposes, Malacca
Malacca
is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:

Malacca
Malacca
Central District and Land Office Alor Gajah District
Alor Gajah District
and Land Office Jasin District
Jasin District
and Land Office

Districts and Local Authorities[edit] Malacca
Malacca
is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities.

Rank District Area (km2) Population (2010)[18] District Seat Local Government

7000100000000000000♠1 Central Malacca 279.85 503,127 Malacca
Malacca
City Ayer Keroh Historical Malacca City
Malacca City
Council Hang Tuah Jaya
Hang Tuah Jaya
Municipal Council

7000200000000000000♠2 Alor Gajah 660.00 182,666 Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Town Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Municipal Council

7000300000000000000♠3 Jasin 676.07 135,317 Jasin Town Jasin Municipal Council

Historical Malacca City
Malacca City
Council

Hang Tuah Jaya
Hang Tuah Jaya
Municipal Council

Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Municipal Council

Jasin Municipal Council

Towns[edit] Besides Malacca
Malacca
City, other major Malacca
Malacca
townships include Alor Gajah, Asahan, Ayer Keroh, Batang Melaka, Batu Berendam, Bemban, Bukit Katil, Cheng, Durian Tunggal, Hang Tuah
Hang Tuah
Jaya, Jasin, Klebang, Kuala Sungai Baru, Lendu, Lubuk China, Machap Baru, Malacca
Malacca
Pindah, Masjid Tanah, Merlimau, Naning, Nyalas, Pulau Sebang, Ramuan China, Selandar, Serkam, Simpang Ampat, Sungai Rambai, Sungai Udang, Tampin, Tanjung Kling, Telok Mas
Telok Mas
and Umbai.

Beautiful Rickshaws are available in Melaka

Economy[edit]

Serkam
Serkam
industrial area

Despite being located in a land without any significant natural resources, the economy of Malacca
Malacca
dates back more than 500 years, due to its strategic location. As the center of the all important spice trade, Malacca
Malacca
attracted many colonial powers to engage wars to control it.[19]

Malacca
Malacca
International Trade Centre

Malacca
Malacca
has successfully opened itself up to foreign investors since the early 1970s. By 1997, the state has registered a total investment of over MYR16 billion. In 2014, the state achieved a total MYR4.4 billion worth of investment, in which MYR1.8 billion came from foreign investors.[20] In 2013, Malacca
Malacca
had a GDP of MYR22,646 million with GDP per capita of MYR34,109. It had 3.2% GDP growth in 2013. Inflation rate in 2012 was 1.6%. As of 2015[update], the Malacca
Malacca
State Government has an outstanding MYR861.7 million of loan to the federal government. In 2014, the state government's reserve amounted to MYR206.61 million.[21] The unemployment rate in 2014 was 0.9% or around 3,500 people.[22] As of 2012[update], service sector contributes to the largest share of economy in Malacca
Malacca
accounted for 46.9%, followed by manufacturing (43.5%), agriculture (6.5%), construction (2.9%) and mining (0.1%).[23] In terms of number of workforce, as of 2013[update], there were 275,000 people working in the industrial sectors, 225,000 people working in the service sectors, 35,000 people working in the entrepreneurship sectors and 12,300 people working in the agricultural sectors.[24] On 21 October 2010 an event was held to announce that Malacca
Malacca
had met the benchmark of 'Developed State' as set out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and a declaration of "Melaka Maju 2010" was made by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Abd Razak.[25] Currently there are 23 industrial areas which are centered along the edges of the city proper in suburbs which include Ayer Keroh, Batu Berendam, Cheng, Taman Tasik Utama and Tanjung Kling. While outside Malacca
Malacca
City, industrial areas include Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
and Sungai Udang. There are around 500 factories in the state which come from Germany, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, United States
United States
etc. For small and medium-sized enterprises, a number of estates have been established by the state government.[26][27] The Malacca International Trade Centre
Malacca International Trade Centre
in Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
which was opened on June 2003 is the leading commercial center and the center for meetings, incentives, convention and exhibitions which plays an important role in the development of trade in Malacca.[28] Sungai Udang
Sungai Udang
houses the PETRONAS Malacca
Malacca
Refinery Complex consisting two refining trains, established in 1994 and 1999 and owned by PETRONAS Penapisan (Melaka) Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Refining Company Sdn. Bhd. respectively. The total capacity of the refinery is 270,000 barrels of oil per day.[29][30] Culture[edit]

Melaka
Melaka
Mosque 

Culture in Malacca
Malacca
began around 15th century in which various ethnic customs and traditions blended perfectly. Each group upholds their tradition and it is reflected in their food, religion customs, festivals, culture, design, application, jewellery and handicrafts.[31] Demographics[edit] Malacca
Malacca
has an estimated population of 931,210 as of 2016[update] with an average annual population growth of 2%.[22][32] As of 2016[update], 27% of the population aged below 15 years old and 8% aged above 60 years old.[24] The ethnic composition of Malacca
Malacca
as of 2015 is 66.8% Malays (552,700), 1.4% other Bumiputras (11,500), 26.0% Chinese (215,000), 6.2% Indians and Chitty
Chitty
(51.400) and 0.6% others (4,800).[2] Malacca
Malacca
has small communities of Kristang, Dutch Eurasian and Temuan people. Malay community in Malacca
Malacca
is generally divided into two, which are the Temenggong custom and the Pepatih custom. The remaining traditional Malay village in Malacca City
Malacca City
is the Morten Village.[33] Jonker Walk
Jonker Walk
is the Chinatown area of Malacca. The Peranakan
Peranakan
people in Malacca
Malacca
show unique features, such as furniture, porcelain, crockery, style and food. Their culture is showcased at the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum. Indians in Malacca
Malacca
are the Tamil people in which many of them used to work at the rubber plantation.[citation needed]However, many of them now work in the jewellery, fabrics, retailers, merchants and money lender sectors.[citation needed] Many of them reside in Little India. There is also Chitty
Chitty
Village for the minority Chitty
Chitty
people which houses the Chitty
Chitty
Museum. A sizable number of Sikhs
Sikhs
residing in Malacca, and Sikhs
Sikhs
from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong.[citation needed] They celebrate the Guru Nanak's birthday and Vasakhi new year annually.

Portuguese Settlement (Saint John's Village)

A population of Portuguese descent, who speak a Portuguese creole, are the descendants of colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries.[34] Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations). Many of them settle down around the Portuguese Settlement area, which has a population of about 6,510 residents.[35] The indigenous people, mostly ethnic Temuan is relatively small. They generally reside in rural settlements, the edge of the woods and along the coast facing Malacca
Malacca
Strait. Malacca
Malacca
houses the Aborigines Museum in Ayer Keroh.[31] Language[edit] Malacca
Malacca
is a multi-linguistic state. Malaysian is the official language of Malacca
Malacca
and is used in the government and public sectors. English is widely used in the business and tourism sectors. A local Malay, known as Malaccan Malay is a unique variety of Malay spoken within the state of Malacca, it has its own distinct pronunciation and vocabulary compared to the rest of Malaysia. Other minority languages such as Chinese and its varieties, Tamil, Kristang (Portuguese creole) and various Malay-based creoles such as Baba Malay and Malaccan Creole Malay are also spoken.[36] The Orang Asli
Orang Asli
languages spoken within Malacca
Malacca
are mostly speakers of the Temuan language. Religion[edit]

Religion in Malacca
Malacca
- 2010 Census[37]

religion

percent

Islam

66.1%

Buddhism

24.2%

Hinduism

5.7%

Christianity

3.0%

Unknown / None

0.4%

Chinese Ethnic Religion

0.2%

Others

0.2%

No Religion

0.2%

According to the 2010 census, the population of Malacca
Malacca
is 66.1% Muslim, 24.2% Buddhist, 5.7% Hindu, 3.0% Christian, 0.4% of unknown affiliation, 0.2% non-religious, 0.2% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, and 0.2% of followers of other religions.[37] Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 91.6% of the Chinese population in Malacca
Malacca
are identified as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (6.7%), Chinese folk religions (0.7%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population are Hindus (86.3%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians (6.6%), Muslims (3.4%) and Buddhists (2.8%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (46.8%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (24.2%) and Buddhists (12.0%).[38] As the definition of a "Malay" in the Malaysian constitution requires that the person professes the religion of Islam, all Malays are necessarily Muslims.[38][39] Sports[edit] Sports-related affairs of Malacca
Malacca
are governed by the Malacca
Malacca
State Sports Council (Malay: Majlis Sukan Negeri Melaka) under the Malacca State Government.[40] Another governing body of sports in Malacca
Malacca
is the Department of Youth and Sports (Malay: Jabatan Belia dan Sukan Negeri Melaka).

Chitty
Chitty
Village

Malacca
Malacca
International Motorsport Circuit

Malacca
Malacca
is home to several football stadiums, such as Hang Jebat Stadium, Hang Tuah Stadium
Hang Tuah Stadium
and Tun Fatimah Stadium. Built in 1954, Hang Tuah Stadium
Hang Tuah Stadium
is the oldest stadium in Malacca.[41] Established under the Malacca
Malacca
Stadium Corporation Enactment of 2004, the Malacca Stadium Corporation is the entity that manages stadiums in Malacca which started its operation on 16 September 2004.[42] There is also a motorsport racetrack in Ayer Keroh, the Malacca International Motorsport Circuit. Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
also houses the Malacca International Bowling
Bowling
Centre. With 52 lanes, it is the largest bowling center in Malaysia.[43] There are four golf courses in Malacca, namely Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
Golf and Country Club, Orna Golf and Country Club and Tiara Malacca
Malacca
Golf and Country Club in Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
and A'Famosa Golf Resort in Simpang Ampat.[44] Golf-related paraphernalia in Malacca
Malacca
is showcased at the Malacca
Malacca
Golf Gallery. Malacca
Malacca
was the host venue for the 2010 Sukma Games
2010 Sukma Games
held on 10–19 June 2010. Malacca
Malacca
also has a football team known as Melaka United
Melaka United
representing Malacca
Malacca
in the Malaysian football league. The Melaka
Melaka
football team won the first Malaysia
Malaysia
Premier League title in 1983, in addition they were the champion of the third division of the Malaysia
Malaysia
football league, FAM League Cup, in 2015 before won the second Premier League title a year after it. Melaka United
Melaka United
uses the Hang Jebat Stadium
Hang Jebat Stadium
in Krubong
Krubong
as their home ground with a capacity of 40,000 spectators. Education[edit] Secondary education[edit]

Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
National High School

The Malacca High School
Malacca High School
is one of the premier schools in Malaysia
Malaysia
and is the second oldest recorded school in the country after Penang
Penang
Free School in Penang. Malacca
Malacca
has two boarding schools, Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah (MOZAC) and Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar
Selandar
(SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia
Malaysia
enrolls students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Pentaksiran Tingkatan 3 (PT3). A centre for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed to the School of Henry Gurney on May 15, 1950. This centre runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile offenders. Malacca
Malacca
has two international schools, the Melaka
Melaka
International School, which caters for the expatriate and local communities; and KYS International School, staffed by expatriate teachers, which specialises in teaching Cambridge International A Levels. Higher education[edit]

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia
Malaysia
Melaka

Institutions include:

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia
Malaysia
Melaka
Melaka
(UTeM). Universiti Teknologi MARA
Universiti Teknologi MARA
(UiTM) campuses that are located at Lendu, Malacca City
Malacca City
and Jasin. Malacca
Malacca
Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru is the foremost institution for medical education in the state. Multimedia University
Multimedia University
(MMU) at Bukit Beruang. Malaysian Maritime Academy (ALAM) at Kuala Sungai Baru.

There are several institutions that offer nursing education: Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai, Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota, Kolej Kejururawatan & Kesihatan Nilam, and Kolej Perubatan Komplementari Melaka. Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai is linked to Pantai Hospital at Ayer keroh while Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota is linked to Mahkota Medical Centre. The Institut Skill Tech in Machap provides training in agriculture. It has a branch in Taman Tasik Utama, Ayer Keroh. Part-time study is available at Open University Malaysia
Malaysia
(OUM), while those who wish to obtain an academic diploma can enroll at University of Malaya Centre for Continuing Education (UMCCE) at Sinar College. Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) lectures and examinations are provided at Sinar College
Sinar College
at Malacca
Malacca
City. Sinar College is the only institution in the state that offers complete accounting education. Sinar College
Sinar College
is the only approved training centre for tourism courses. Other academic institutions include International College of Yayasan Melaka
Melaka
(ICYM), Melaka
Melaka
International College of Science and Technology (MiCoST). The state government of Malacca
Malacca
provides financial assistance mainly in the form of loans to local citizens via Melaka
Melaka
Education Trust Fund (TAPEM).[citation needed] Among the facilities provided by TAPEM are Higher Education Loan, Minor Scholarship/Incentive Scholarship for Secondary School, and School Assistance to Primary School Students. Public libraries[edit]

Malacca Public Library
Malacca Public Library
main building at Bukit Baru.

The very first library in Malacca
Malacca
was the Khutub Khanah Malacca, established in 1881 and was located at the Stadthuys. After the independence of Malaya in 1957 and formation of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963, the library was moved to Hang Tuah
Hang Tuah
Hall in 1966. In 1975, the Malacca Public Library Corporation was enacted to establish the Malacca
Malacca
Public Library. The corporation was then established 2 years later in 1977 located at Hang Tuah
Hang Tuah
Hall. In 1993, the Malacca
Malacca
Public Library Enactment (Amendment) Act 1993 went in force. The library was finally moved to its current location at Bukit Baru and inaugurated on 4 November 1996.[45] At district level, the Jasin branch of the library was established in 1986 at JKR Building, which then later moved to a new building in 1999. The Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
branch of the library was established in 1988 at UMNO Building, which then later moved to a new building in 1998. The Central Malacca
Central Malacca
branch of the library was established in 1996 at Hang Tuah Mall after the main library moved to Bukit Baru, which then later changed to Higher Education Institute Resource Center Library in 2001. At town and village level, library branches are Masjid Tanah
Masjid Tanah
branch established in 1992 and 2005; Air Tawar Village Library, Felda Kemendore Village Library, Selandar
Selandar
Village Library and Kuala Linggi Village Library branches established in 1993; Rantau Panjang Village Library branch established in 1994; Merlimau
Merlimau
branch established in 1994 and moved to a new building in 2003; Pulau Sebang
Pulau Sebang
Village Library branch established in 1997; Japerun Sungai Rambai
Sungai Rambai
Library, Japerun Serkam
Serkam
Library, Japerun Durian Tunggal
Durian Tunggal
Library and Ayer Molek Darat Village Library branches established in 1999; Felda Bukti Senggeh Village Library and Felda Bukit Sedanan Village Library branches established in 2000; Kampung Padang
Padang
Village Cyber Library branch established in 2001; Japerun Air Panas Library, Bertam Hulu Village Library, Japerun Bukit Asahan Library, Tangga Batu Village Library and Paya Rumput Village Library branches established in 2002; Ilmu Air Limau Cyber Library and Ilmu Chenderah Cyber Library branches established in 2003; Menggong Village Library branch established in 2004; Klebang
Klebang
Village Cyber Library established in 2005; Telok Mas Town Library and Telok Gong
Telok Gong
Village Library established in 2006; Bukit Bulat Village Library established in 2008; Malacca
Malacca
Planetarium Community Library and ÆON Community Library branches established in 2010; Sungai Rambai
Sungai Rambai
Village 1 Malaysia
Malaysia
Library established in 2012. Health care[edit]

Malacca
Malacca
General Hospital

Malacca
Malacca
houses a number of government and private hospitals and health clinics, as well as hundreds of private clinics. The location of medical institutions are located all over the state of Malacca, either in urban or rural areas, providing uniform and equitable healthcare to the residents. Health-related affairs in Malacca
Malacca
is governed by Malacca
Malacca
State Health Department by providing basic health service to the residents and oversee all government health facilities in the state among hospitals, community polyclinic, rural health clinics and clinics.[46] Malacca
Malacca
is also a popular place for health care and medical tourism for Indonesian people from Sumatra
Sumatra
due to its close proximity to the state, followed by Singapore.[47][48] In 2014, Malacca
Malacca
received over 500,000 tourists for medical tourism-related purpose.[49] Government hospitals in Malacca
Malacca
are Malacca General Hospital
Malacca General Hospital
and Jasin District Hospital, while private hospitals are Putra Hospital, Pantai Hospital Ayer Keroh, Mahkota Medical Centre and Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre. Energy and environment[edit]

Tanjung Kling
Tanjung Kling
Power Station

Durian Tunggal
Durian Tunggal
Reservoir

Power generation[edit] Malacca
Malacca
houses three power stations, namely the 330 MW Tanjung Kling Power Station in Tanjung Kling
Tanjung Kling
and 440 MW Telok Gong
Telok Gong
Power Station 1 and 720 MW Telok Gong
Telok Gong
Power Station 2 in Telok Gong, with a total installed generation capacity of 1,490 MW.[50] Green energy[edit] On 16 December 2013, the Malacca
Malacca
State Government unveiled the draft 8,000 hectares special area called the Malacca
Malacca
World Solar Vallery in Rembia, Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
applying solar energy as the primary alternative in all municipal activity sectors.[51][52] Water supply[edit] Water supply-related matters in Malacca
Malacca
is administered by the Malacca Water Company Ltd. (Malay: Syarikat Air Melaka
Melaka
Berhad) which is headquartered at Malacca
Malacca
City. It was established on 1 July 2006 after it was upgraded from its predecessor Malacca
Malacca
Water Corporation (Malay: Perbadanan Air Melaka). The company is also responsible for the maintenance and delivery infrastructure of clean water in the state.[53] Currently, there are three dams located in Malacca
Malacca
supplying its residents with water, which are Durian Tunggal
Durian Tunggal
Dam in Alor Gajah, Jus Dam and Asahan Dam in Jasin. The fourth dam, Jernih Dam, will be constructed in Taboh Naning in Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
and expected to be completed by 2018.[54] There are three major retention basins in the state, which are Kesang Satu Lake, Kesang Dua Lake and Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
Lake. Raw water is supplied from the Malacca
Malacca
River, Kesang River
Kesang River
and Gerisik River.[55] Daily water consumption for Malacca
Malacca
is 500 million litres and each resident consumes 220 litres per day, higher than the national average of 180 litres per day. The Malacca
Malacca
State Government signed an agreement with Johor
Johor
State Government on a water supply agreement in 1993 and additional water supply agreement in 2013.[56][57] Another water supply agreement is planned to be signed with Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
in the future.[58] Environmental campaign[edit] Malacca
Malacca
adopted a campaign slogan of Don't Mess with Malacca
Malacca
since 2014 to reduce littering in the state after the local authorities found that cleanliness levels had dropped. The slogan was adopted from the Don't Mess with Texas
Texas
campaign held in Texas, United States, launched in 1986. The idea came from Chief Minister Idris Haron
Idris Haron
when he was still studying at the University of Texas
Texas
at El Paso in the late 1980s.[59] Tourism[edit] See also: List of tourist attractions in Malacca

Christ Church

Tourism is a booming industry in Malacca. It is a popular travel destinations for Singaporeans during the weekends. Malacca
Malacca
has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca
Malacca
Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka
Melaka
Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). Tourist visitors to Malacca
Malacca
in 2014 was 15.4 million people, with 26% were foreign tourists.[60] In 2011, top five foreign tourists coming to Malacca
Malacca
were from Mainland China
China
(222,999 people), Singapore (185,277 people), Indonesia
Indonesia
(168,190 people), Taiwan
Taiwan
(108,128 people) and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(57,241 people).[61] Tourist attractions[edit]

A Famosa
A Famosa
Fort

Malacca
Malacca
has numerous historical places and buildings. In order to preserve those sites, numerous museums have been built to preserve those legacies. Most of the museums in the state are managed by Malacca
Malacca
Museum Corporation (PERZIM; Malay: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka).[62] Museums in Malacca
Malacca
are Aborigines Museum, Agricultural Museum, Malacca
Malacca
Al-Quran Museum, Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum, Beauty Museum, Cheng Ho Cultural Museum, Chitty
Chitty
Museum, Customs Department Museum, Democratic Government Museum, Education Museum, Malacca Forestry Museum, Governor's Museum, History and Ethnography Museum, Malacca
Malacca
Islamic Museum, Malacca
Malacca
Kite Museum, Malacca
Malacca
Literature Museum, Malacca Sultanate
Malacca Sultanate
Palace Museum, Malay and Islamic World Museum, Malaysia
Malaysia
Architecture Museum, Maritime Museum, Navy Museum, People's Museum, Prison Museum, Pulau Besar Museum, Stamp Museum, Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum, Submarine Museum, Toy Museum, Tradition and Custom Museum, UMNO Museum, World's Bees Museum
World's Bees Museum
and Youth Museum.

Jonker Walk

The other historical buildings and structures are A Famosa, Alor Gajah British Graveyard, Bastion Middleburg, Dutch Graveyard, Hang Jebat Mausoleum, Hang Kasturi Mausoleum, Hang Li Poh's Well, Hang Tuah Mausoleum, Hang Tuah's Well, Malacca
Malacca
Light, Malacca
Malacca
Warrior Monument, Portuguese Well, Proclamation of Independence Memorial, Ruins of Saint Paul's Church, Saint John's Fort, Stadthuys, Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial and Tun Teja Mausoleum. There are also galleries displaying various aspects of life in Malacca, which include, Chief Minister’s Gallery, Demang Abdul Ghani Gallery, Folks Art Gallery, Malacca
Malacca
Gallery, Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho, Macau
Macau
Gallery, Malacca Art Gallery
Malacca Art Gallery
and Malacca
Malacca
House.

Malacca
Malacca
Chinese Mosque

Theme parks, education centres, resorts and zoos in Malacca
Malacca
are A' Famosa Resort, Al-Khawarizmi Astronomy Complex, Malacca
Malacca
Bird Park, Malacca
Malacca
Butterfly and Reptile Sanctuary, Malacca
Malacca
Crocodile Farm, Malacca
Malacca
Planetarium, Malacca
Malacca
Wonderland, Malacca
Malacca
Zoo, Mini Malaysia and ASEAN Cultural Park, Pirate Park and Taming Sari Tower.

Coastal side of Malacca

Malacca
Malacca
has natural-related tourist sites, such as Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
Lake, Bukit Batu Lebah Recreational Forest, Cape Rachado, Garden of Thousand Flowers, Klebang
Klebang
Beach, Malacca
Malacca
Botanical Garden, Malacca
Malacca
River, Malacca
Malacca
Tropical Fruit Farm, Paya Laut Linggi Recreational Forest, Pengkalan Balak Beach, Puteri Beach, Saint Paul's Hill and Sungai Udang Recreational Forest. Malacca
Malacca
has also hot springs, namely Gadek Hot Spring and Jasin Hot Spring. Malacca
Malacca
is a multi-religious society, therefore various worshiping places can be found around the state, namely Cheng Hoon Teng
Cheng Hoon Teng
Temple, Chinese Mosque, Christ Church, Kampung Hulu Mosque, Kampung Kling Mosque, Poh San Teng Temple, Saint Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
Church, Saint Peter's Church, Straits Mosque, Sri Poyatha Moorthi Temple, State Mosque and Tranquerah Mosque. Public squares in Malacca
Malacca
are 1 Malaysia
Malaysia
Square, Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Square, Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
Square and Jasin Square. Some famous night markets can be found along Jonker Walk
Jonker Walk
in Chinatown during weekends evening and along Puteri Beach
Puteri Beach
in Tanjung Kling. In total, there are around 87 night markets around Malacca.[63] During the Islamic fasting month, special night markets are opened along many major roads throughout the month.[64] International relations[edit] Cultural exchanges[edit] China[edit]

Macau
Macau
Gallery Malacca

In June 2012, the Macau Gallery Malacca
Macau Gallery Malacca
was opened at Peringgit, Malacca
Malacca
under the government of Macau. In April 2015, the Malacca State Government decided to build the MYR300 million Malacca Information Centre which will be located in Zhuhai, Guangdong.[65] Cuba[edit]

Casa Cuba

In June 2007, the Casa Cuba was opened at Peringgit. Indonesia[edit] In February 2013, the Malacca
Malacca
Gallery in Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
was officiated by Jakarta
Jakarta
Governor Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo
and Malacca
Malacca
Chief Minister Mohd Ali Rustam.[66][67][68][69] Twin towns and friendship cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Malaysia Malacca
Malacca
first started twinning in 1984 with the city of Lisbon, Portugal.[70] It is now twinned with or established as a Friendship City[71] with the following:

Rank Sister Cities Year Country

1 Valparaíso[72] 1991 Chile

2 Guangdong[73] 2015 China

3 Changsha[70] 2004

4 Haikou[74] 2015

5 Nanjing[70] 2001

6 Kota Tua Jakarta[75] 2014 Indonesia

7 Padang
Padang
Panjang[70] 2004

8 Sawah Lunto[70] 2004

9 Kirishima[76] 2005 Japan

10 Kuala Lumpur[70] 1989 Malaysia

11 Hoorn[77] 1989 Netherlands

12 Lisbon[78] 1984 Portugal

Transportation[edit]

Malacca
Malacca
International Airport

Air[edit] The Malacca International Airport
Malacca International Airport
in Batu Berendam
Batu Berendam
have daily flights to Penang
Penang
& Pekanbaru
Pekanbaru
in Indonesia. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysian Flying Academy. Malacca
Malacca
is also accessible by road from Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
International Airport located in the neighboring state of Selangor.[79] Railway[edit] There are currently two Keretapi Tanah Melayu
Keretapi Tanah Melayu
railway stations in Malacca, which are the Pulau Sebang/ Tampin
Tampin
Station in Pulau Sebang, Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
and Batang Malacca
Batang Malacca
Station in Batang Malacca, Jasin. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang
Pulau Sebang
to Malacca City
Malacca City
before World War II, but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.[citation needed] Launched in October 2010, the 1.6-km line of Malacca Monorail
Malacca Monorail
served the route along the Malacca
Malacca
River. Due to several technical glitches months into its operation, the system was left idle in 2011. However, in June 2015 the Malacca
Malacca
State Government decided to revive the project.[80] Water[edit] Daily ferries run from Malacca
Malacca
to the Indonesian cities of Bengkalis, Dumai
Dumai
and Pekanbaru
Pekanbaru
departing from Harbour Master's Jetty.[81] Regular boat services to Big Island depart from mainland Malacca
Malacca
in Umbai. Several jetties around the state, such as in Merlimau, are used by fishermen.[82] Two existing container ports in Malacca
Malacca
are the Port of Kuala Sungai Linggi and Port of Tanjung Bruas.[83] Road[edit] The Malacca
Malacca
Sentral bus station, combined with taxi terminal, serves cities around Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore.[84] The Panorama Malacca
Malacca
bus is the public bus serving Malacca City
Malacca City
and major landmarks.[85] The Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
exit at the North–South Expressway is the main entry to Malacca, connected by Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
highway to Malacca
Malacca
City. There are two additional exits along the North–South Expressway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits. The Syed Abdullah Aziz Road or Malacca Coastal Highway roughly connects the western and eastern sides of Malacca
Malacca
separated by the Malacca River
Malacca River
through the Malacca
Malacca
Coastal Bridge. Many of the heavily decorated cycle rickshaws (Malay: beca) equipped with sound system can be seen on the streets in Malacca. Most of them are used to bring tourist around the town for sightseeing. The average size can accommodate two average adult with probably a child.[86] Popular culture[edit] Part of the 1999 Entrapment movie was shot at Malacca
Malacca
River.[87] Malacca
Malacca
Prison were a set during the filming of Bollywood
Bollywood
2011 movie, Don 2.[88] Notable people[edit]

Tun Ghafar Baba, Malaysia
Malaysia
Deputy Prime Minister (1986–1993), Vice-President of United Malays National Organisation
United Malays National Organisation
(1962–1987), Malacca
Malacca
Chief Minister (1959–1963). Shirley Geok-lin Lim, award-winning novelist, writer and Professor of English at the University of California, Santa Barbara.[citation needed] Maria Jane Taylor, born in Malacca
Malacca
in 1837, pioneer missionary to China, daughter of Samuel Dyer
Samuel Dyer
and Maria Dyer, she became the wife of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China
China
Inland Mission. Idris Haron, the current Chief Minister of Malacca
Malacca
(2013–). Mohd Ali Rustam, former Chief Minister of Malacca
Malacca
(1999–2013). Tan Cheng Lock, (one of the founding fathers of modern Malaysia
Malaysia
and the founder of the Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
Association) Pow-Meng Yap (1921–1971) Professor of Psychiatry, Hong Kong University.

See also[edit]

Malacca
Malacca
portal Malaysia
Malaysia
portal

Hang Jebat Hang Tuah

Notes[edit]

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Malacca
town". yinteing.com.  ^ "7 Hollywood Movies Filmed in Malaysia". Expat Go Malaysia.  ^ "10 Movies You Didn't Know Were Filmed In Malaysia. Spot The Bas Sekolah!". Says.com. 

References[edit]

Borschberg, Peter, "The Seizure of the Santa Catarina Revisited: The Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in Asia, VOC Politics and the Origins of the Dutch- Johor
Johor
Alliance (c. 1602–1616)", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 33.1 (2002): 31–62. (This article can be downloaded free of charge at www.cambride.org, doi:10.1017/S0022463402000024) Borschberg, Peter, ed., (2004). Iberians in the Singapore- Melaka
Melaka
Area and Adjacent Regions (16th to 18th Centuries). Germany: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05107-8.  https://www.academia.edu/4302755 Borschberg, Peter (2010). The Singapore
Singapore
and Melaka
Melaka
Straits. Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-464-7.  https://www.academia.edu/4302722 Borschberg, Peter, ed., (2015). Journal, Memorial and Letters of Admiral Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge. Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th Century Southeast Asia. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-798-3.  https://www.academia.edu/4302783 De Witt, Dennis (2010). Melaka
Melaka
from the Top. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2.  De Witt, Dennis (2007). History of the Dutch in Malaysia. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-0-8.  "Popular History of Thailand" by M.L. Manich Jumsai, C.B.E., M.A.  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Melaka.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Malacca
Malacca
(state).

Official Melaka
Melaka
Tourism Action Council website Official Malacca
Malacca
government website Malacca
Malacca
Tourist Attraction Tourism Malaysia
Malaysia
– Melaka Malacca
Malacca
Guide Malacca
Malacca
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Places adjacent to Malacca

Port Dickson,  Negeri Sembilan Straits of Malacca Rembau / Tampin,  Negeri Sembilan Tampin,  Negeri Sembilan Ledang,  Johor

Straits of Malacca

Malacca

Ledang,  Johor

Straits of Malacca Ledang,  Johor Ledang,  Johor

v t e

State of Melaka

Capital: Melaka
Melaka
City

Topics

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Visitor attractions

Society

Culture Crime Cuisine Demographics Economy Education Politics

Administrative divisions

Districts

Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
District Central Melaka
Melaka
District Jasin District

Cities/Municipalities

Melaka
Melaka
City Alor Gajah Hang Tuah Jaya
Hang Tuah Jaya
(Ayer Keroh) Jasin

Towns

Asahan Batang Melaka Batu Berendam Bemban Bukit Beruang Bukit Katil Cheng Durian Tunggal Klebang Krubong Kuala Sungai Baru Lendu Lubuk China Machap Baru Masjid Tanah Melaka
Melaka
Pindah Merlimau Naning Nyalas Pulau Sebang Ramuan China Selandar Serkam Simpang Ampat Sungai Rambai Sungai Udang Tanjung Bidara Tanjung Kling Tanjung Tuan Telok Mas Umbai

Housing estates

Taman Angkasa Nuri Taman Belimbing Setia Taman Bukit Katil
Bukit Katil
Damai 2 (Phase 6·7·8) Taman Kesidang Taman Kota Laksamana Taman Merdeka Taman Maju Taman Melaka
Melaka
Baru Taman Melaka
Melaka
Perdana Taman Merdeka Jaya Taman Muzaffar Heights Taman Ozana Impian Taman Pertam Jaya Taman Saujana Taman Saujana Puri

Townships

Bandar Utama Cheng Malim Jaya Melaka
Melaka
Raya Bandar Jasin Bestari

Villages

Ayer Paabas FELDA Kemendor Lipat Kajang Paya Rumput Pokok Mangga Telok Gong FELDA Tun Ghafar Air Kangkong FELDA Tun Ghafar Bukit Senggeh FELDA Tun Ghafar Hutan Percha FELDA Tun Ghafar Kemendor FELDA Tun Ghafar Machap FELDA Tun Ghafar Menggong

New villages

Desa Taboh Naning Kampung Baru Ayer Keroh Kampung Baru Air Salak Kampung Baru Bertam Ulu Kampung Baru Bukit Beruang Kampung Baru Bukit Katong Kampung Baru Bukit Rambai Kampung Baru Gunung Emas Kampung Baru Lendu Kampung Baru Machap Baru Kampung Baru On Lok Kampung Baru Parit Keliling Kampung Baru Paya Mengkuang Kampung Maju Pondok Batang Kampung Baru Simpang Bekoh Kampung Baru Sungai Udang Kampung Baru Tanjung Minyak Kampung Baru Tiang Dua Kampung Permai

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States and federal territories of Malaysia

States

 Johor  Kedah  Kelantan  Melaka  Negeri Sembilan  Pahang  Penang  Perak  Perlis  Sabah  Sarawak  Selangor  Terengganu

Federal Territories

 Kuala Lumpur  Labuan  Putrajaya

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Dutch Empire

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602–1798)

Governorate General

Batavia

Governorates

Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java

Directorates

Bengal Persia Suratte

Commandments

Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra

Residencies

Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak

Opperhoofd settlements

Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin

Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)

Colonies in the Americas

Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands

Trading posts in Africa

Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname

Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)

Settlements

Jan Mayen Smeerenburg

Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1815–1962)

Until 1825

Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte

Until 1853

Dejima

Until 1872

Gold Coast

Until 1945

Dutch East Indies

Until 1954

Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3

Until 1962

New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1954–present)

Constituent countries

Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten

Public bodies of the Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 241422

.