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The INDIAN GIANT SQUIRREL, or MALABAR GIANT SQUIRREL, ( Ratufa indica) is a large tree squirrel species genus Ratufa native to India
India
. It is a large-bodied diurnal , arboreal , and herbivorous squirrel found in South Asia
South Asia
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Behavior * 3 Distribution * 4 Subspecies * 5 Family life * 6 Reproduction * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

DESCRIPTION

R. indica has a conspicuous two-toned (and sometimes three-toned) color scheme. The colors involved can be creamy -beige , buff , tan , rust , brown , or even a dark seal brown . The underparts and the front legs are usually cream colored, the head can be brown or beige , however there is a distinctive white spot between the ears. Adult head and body length varies around 14 inches (36 cm) and the tail length is approximately 2 ft (0.61 m). Adult weight - 2 kg (4.41 lb).

BEHAVIOR

Malabar giant squirrels feeding on a ripe jackfruit

The Indian giant squirrel
Indian giant squirrel
is an upper-canopy dwelling species, which rarely leaves the trees, and requires "tall profusely branched trees for the construction of nests." It travels from tree to tree with jumps of up to 6 m (20 ft). When in danger, the Ratufa indica often freezes or flattens itself against the tree trunk, instead of fleeing. Its main predators are the birds of prey and the leopard . The Giant Squirrel
Squirrel
is mostly active in the early hours of the morning and in the evening, resting in the midday. They are typically solitary animals that only come together for breeding. The species is believed to play a substantial role in shaping the ecosystem of its habitat by engaging in seed dispersal.

DISTRIBUTION

The species is endemic to deciduous , mixed deciduous , and moist evergreen forests of peninsular India
India
, reaching as far north as the Satpura hill range of Madhya Pradesh (approx. 22° N).

SUBSPECIES

Ratufa indicus dealbatus (top) and Ratufa indicus typicus (bottom)

The number of sub species of the Ratufa indica lineage is generally acknowledged as four or five.

* R. i. indica Erxleben, 1777 * R. i. centralis Ryley, 1913 * R. i. maxima Schreber, 1784 * R. i. superans Ryley, 1913 * R. i. bengalensis Blanford, 1897

The rust and buff Ratufa indica centralis (Ryley, 1913) of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Central India, near Hoshangabad . The buff and tan Ratufa indica dealbata (Figure 1, top) of the tropical moist deciduous forests of the Surat Dangs . The seal brown , tan , and beige (and darkest) Ratufa indica maxima (Schreber, 1784) (Figure 2, bottom) of the tropical wet evergreen forest of Malabar . The dark brown , tan and beige (and largest), Ratufa indica bengalensis (Blanford, 1897) (Figure 2, top) of the tropical semi-evergreen forests east of the Brahmagiri mountains in Kodagu extending up to the Bay of Bengal coast of Orissa. It is also seen (dark brown) on Tirumala hills at Tirupati and in the Nagarhole National Park and Bandipur National Park that run alongside the Kabini River .

The table below lists the four recognized subspecies (based on Thorington ">

REPRODUCTION

Captive breeding of the Malayan giant squirrel , a close relative has indicated births in March, April, September and December. The young weigh 74.5 g at birth and have a length of 27.3 cm. In Canara, the Indian Giant Squirrel
Squirrel
has been spotted with young in March.

REFERENCES

* ^ Rajamani, N.; Molur, S. & Nameer, P. O. (2010). "Ratufa indica". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 22 June 2012. * ^ A B C Thorington, R.W., Jr.; Hoffmann, R.S. (2005). "Ratufa indica". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 754–818. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4 . OCLC 26158608 . * ^ A B C (Datta & Goyal 1996 , p. 394) * ^ A B C D Tritsch 2001 , pp. 132–133 * ^ A B Prater 1971 , pp. 24–25 * ^ Prater 1971 , p. 198 * ^ Justice, James. " Ratufa indica: Indian Giant Squirrel". Retrieved 4 November 2015. * ^ Corbet, Gordon Barclay; Hill, John Edwards (1992). The mammals of the Indomalayan Region:a systematic review. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854693-9 . OCLC 25281229 . * ^ Rajamani, Nandini; Sanjay Molur; P. Ommer Nameer (2008). " Ratufa indica". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Retrieved 24 February 2010. * ^ Ellerman, John R. (1961). Roonwall, M.L., ed. Rodentia: variation. Fauna of India
India
including Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon. Mammalia. 3 (in 2 parts) (2nd ed.). Delhi: Manager of Publications. pp. 483–884. OCLC 78803208 . * ^ Erxleben, Johann Christian Polykarp (1777). Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates cum synonymia et historia animalium. Classis I. Mammalia. (in Latin). 42. Leipzig, Germany: Impensis Weygandianis. OCLC 14843832 . * ^ A B Ryley, Kathleen V. (1913). "Scientific results from the mammals survey". The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. 22: 434–443. ISSN 0006-6982 . OCLC 1536710 . * ^ Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von (1792) . "Der Springer" . Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (in German). 3. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. OCLC 16860541 .

FURTHER READING

* Blanford, W. T. (1897), "The large Indian squirrel (Sciurus indicus erx.) and its local races and sub-species", Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 11 (2): 298–305 * Borges, Renee M. (1993), "Figs, Malabar Giant Squirrels, and Fruit Shortages Within Two Tropical Indian Forests", Biotropica, 25 (2): 183–190, doi :10.2307/2389182 * Datta, Aparajita; Goyal, S. P. (1996), "Comparison of Forest Structure and Use by the Indian Giant Squirrel
Squirrel
( Ratufa indica) in Two Riverine Forests of Central India", Biotropica, 28 (3): 394–399, doi :10.2307/2389203 * Moore, Joseph Curtis (1960), " Squirrel
Squirrel
Geography of the Indian Subregion", Systematic Zoology, 9 (1): 1–17, doi :10.2307/2411536 * Prater, S. H. (1971), The book of Indian Animals, Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press. Pp. xxiii, 324, 28 color plates by Paul Barruel., ISBN 0-19-562169-7 * Somanathan, Hema; Mali, Subhash; Borges, Renee M. (2007), " Arboreal
Arboreal
larder-hoarding in tropical Indian giant squirrel
Indian giant squirrel
Ratufa indica", Ecoscience, 14 (2): 165–169, doi :10.2980/1195-6860(2007)142.0.co;2 * Tritsch, Mark F. (2001), Wildlife of India, London: Harper Collins Publishers. Pp. 192, ISBN 0-00-711062-6 * Koli, Vijay Kumar, Chhaya Bhatnagar, and Dilip Mali. "Gliding Behaviour Of Indian Giant Flying Squirrel
Squirrel
Petaurista Philippensis Elliot." Current Science (00113891) 100.10 (2011): 1563-1568. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 Nov. 2015. * Srinivas, V., P. Dilip Venugopal, and Sunita Ram. "Site Occupancy Of The Indian Giant Squirrel
Squirrel
Ratufa Indica (Erxleben) In Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India." Current Science (00113891) 95.7 (2008): 889-894. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 Nov. 2015 * Jathanna, Devcharan, N. Samba Kumar, and K. Ullas Karanth. "Measuring Indian Giant Squirrel
Squirrel
( Ratufa Indica) Abundance In Southern India
India
Using Distance Sampling." Current Science (00113891) 95.7 (2008): 885-888. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 Nov. 2015.

EXTERNAL LINKS