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Makapansgat
Makapansgat
(/mɐkɐˈpɐnsxɐt/) (or Makapan Valley world heritage site) is an archaeological location within the Makapansgat
Makapansgat
and Zwartkrans Valleys, northeast of Mokopane
Mokopane
in Limpopo
Limpopo
province, South Africa. It is an important palaeontological site,[1] with the local limeworks containing Australopithecus-bearing deposits dating to between 3.0 and 2.6 million years BP. The whole Makapan Valley has been declared a South African Heritage Site.[2] Makapansgat
Makapansgat
belongs to the Cradle of Humankind.

Contents

1 Makapansgat
Makapansgat
Valley sites

1.1 Makapansgat
Makapansgat
limeworks 1.2 Cave
Cave
of Hearths and Hyaena Mandible Cave 1.3 Buffalo Cave 1.4 Ficus Cave
Cave
and Iron Age
Iron Age
Site 1.5 Peppercorn's Cave 1.6 Rainbow Cave 1.7 Historic Cave
Cave
or Makapansgat 1.8 Cold Air Cave 1.9 Gutentight Cave 1.10 Murzel's Cave 1.11 Katzenjammer Cave
Cave
or Herries' Hole

2 History of discoveries in Makapansgat
Makapansgat
Valley 3 Site locations 4 See also 5 References

Makapansgat
Makapansgat
Valley sites[edit] Makapansgat
Makapansgat
limeworks[edit] This is the oldest of the cave sites in the Makapansgat
Makapansgat
valley, spanning an age of greater than 4.0 million years until perhaps 1.6 million years ago. This site has yielded many thousands of fossil bones, amongst which were found remains of the gracile australopithecine Australopithecus
Australopithecus
africanus. The A. africanus fossils are suggested to date to between 2.85 and 2.58 million years ago based on palaeomagnetism by Andy Herries (La Trobe University, Australia).[3] The site was recently excavated by a joint project between the University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
in South Africa
South Africa
and Arizona State University
Arizona State University
in the US. Cave
Cave
of Hearths and Hyaena Mandible Cave[edit] The Cave
Cave
of Hearths is part of the Historic Cave
Cave
complex and preserves a remarkably complete record of human occupation from Early Stone Age “Acheulian” times in the oldest sediments through the Middle Stone Age, the Later Stone Age
Later Stone Age
and up to the Iron Age.[4] Nineteenth century European relics such as brass ware and musket balls were found at the surface when excavations started. The site was re-excavated and re-analysed as part of the 'Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research Project' run by the University of Liverpool
University of Liverpool
(UK) between 1996 and 2001.[5] This work has shown that coloured sediment horizons in the Early Stone Age
Early Stone Age
levels are not from fire use. A Homo mandible also recovered from these layers may also represent one of the earliest representatives of Homo sapiens.[6] Buffalo Cave[edit] A small number of fossils were thought to have been collected by Dr Robert Broom
Robert Broom
from this site in 1937, including the remains of an extinct 'pygmy buffalo', Bos
Bos
makapania, for which the cave is named.[7] More recent excavations have revealed an extensive ' Cornelian
Cornelian
Land Mammal Age' fauna including antelope, horses, pigs, monkeys and carnivores. The fauna, along with palaeomagnetic age estimates by Andy Herries (La Trobe University, Australia) suggest an age of between 990,000 and 780,000 years for the main fossil bearing layers.[7] Basal flowstone deposits are estimated to go back to around 2 million years and show evidence for the beginning of the 'Walker circulation' at around 1.7 million years ago.[8] Ficus Cave
Cave
and Iron Age
Iron Age
Site[edit] The cave gets its name from the fig tree Ficus ingens
Ficus ingens
roots which curtain its entrance. This cave contains Iron Age
Iron Age
and 19th century relics, a large bat colony and an underground lake. An Iron Age
Iron Age
site close by yields occupational debris from approximately Early Iron Age (550 AD), 870 AD and the Late Iron Age
Iron Age
(1560 AD). The slopes adjacent to the cave are artificially terraced and archaeological finds from these include potsherds, grindstones, hammer stones and relics of iron smelting operations, including ore, slag and fragments of tuyeres. Peppercorn's Cave[edit] This cave contains Iron Age
Iron Age
and ancient relics and an underground lake. It is also home to a large colony of migratory long-fingered bats, Miniopterus schreibersii. Rainbow Cave[edit] This cave is situated immediately below the Historic Cave
Cave
and contains the remains of several putative hearths, suggesting both human occupation and the controlled use of fire. The exposed sediments have yielded Middle Stone Age
Middle Stone Age
artefacts of the Piertersburg Culture of between 100,000 and 50,000 years ago. Recent studies have shown that the coloured horizons are not hearths but are more likely ancient pool deposits.[9] Historic Cave
Cave
or Makapansgat[edit] This site lies immediately adjacent to the Cave
Cave
of Hearths, and preserves Iron Age
Iron Age
and Mfecane
Mfecane
relics. It is most famous as the clash between a Boer Commando
Boer Commando
and local Langa and Kekana people after the murders of Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
at Moorddrift, Mapela and Pruizen. Chief Makapan (Mokopane), together with a large number of his tribespeople and their cattle were besieged in the cave for nearly a month between 25 October and 21 November 1854, during which time many hundreds died of hunger and thirst.[10] Piet Potgieter was shot during the siege and the name of the nearby town was changed from Vredenburg
Vredenburg
to 'Pieter Potgietersrust', which later changed to 'Potgietersrus'. As of early 21st century (ca. early 2000s), after the transition from the Apartheid
Apartheid
government into majority rule, there has been a trend to rename several national and provincial government institutions (including educational institutions), roads, public infrastructures, towns, cities, etc. As a result, the town has been controversially re-renamed to Mokopane, in honour of Chief Mokopane. The cave was proclaimed a National Monument in 1936. Cold Air Cave[edit] Stable isotope analyses of a uranium-series-dated stalagmite from Cold Air Cave
Cave
provided a record of climate changes for the periods 4400–4000 years and approximately 800 years ago until the present day. Gutentight Cave[edit] This cave was located and explored in 2000 by A. Herries, A. Latham and W. Murzel. After breaking through a number of tight squeezes, the cave opened out into a large chamber. The floor of the chamber was covered in hearths. An inscription on the wall of the cave was from the 19th Century and indicated that a previous entrance to the cave had collapsed and sealed the cavity after this date. Murzel's Cave[edit] This cave was located and explored in 1998 by A. Herries and A. Latham. Digging out of the entrance led to a climb and traverse down into a series of lower decorated chambers.[11] Katzenjammer Cave
Cave
or Herries' Hole[edit] Katzenjammer Cave
Cave
is located adjacent to Peppercorn's Cave. An entrance shaft leads down to a narrow climb and entrance to a network of passages at the same level as the far reaches of Peppercorn's Cave. The entrance shaft has formed by the collapse of fossil bearing deposits (including the Giant Dasie) into the lower modern cave system, Katzenjammer Cave. The entrance shaft area and fossil deposits were collectively termed Herries' Hole by the Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research Project. History of discoveries in Makapansgat
Makapansgat
Valley[edit] Makansgat Valley has been described as having one of the greatest palaeontological records of human evolution in the world.[12] Collecting at the site began in 1925, when a local school teacher, Wilfred Eitzman, was attracted by the activities of limeworkers. Some fossil material was sent to Raymond Dart, who initiated a systematic investigation in 1947.[12][13] Eitzman also discovered the so-called " Makapansgat
Makapansgat
pebble" associated with the bones. Ca. 3,000,000 BCE, the pebble is shaped naturally to resemble a human face, it is thought to have been found by an Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and carried from its source into the Makapansgat
Makapansgat
cave. It has been suggested that this pebble represents the earliest known example of symbolic thinking of early hominids.[14][15] The rocks that Professor Dart received from Mr Eitzman turned out to contain, amongst others, blackened fossil bones which led him to believe that they had been burnt. Although no hominid remains or stone tools were found at first, he concluded that these were the remains of bones burnt in fireplaces and therefore that Makapansgat
Makapansgat
was a site of early hominid occupation. Dart named the first hominids discovered at the site Australopithecus
Australopithecus
prometheus after the mythological Greek hero who stole fire from the Gods. Afterwards the black markings turned out to be manganese stains and Australopithecus
Australopithecus
prometheus were recognised as specimens of Australopithecus
Australopithecus
africanus. After analysing 7,159 fossil bones, Dart concluded that these creatures, in an era before stone tools were discovered, used tools made from bone, teeth and horn, naming it the Osteodontokeratic Culture. In 1936, the Historical Monuments Commission
Historical Monuments Commission
was asked to declare Makapan's Cave
Cave
a National Monument and Professor Clarence van Riet Lowe, Secretary of the commission and Director of the Archaeological Survey of the Union of South Africa, visited the site in 1937. He inspected the Historic Cave
Cave
and discovered, close by, an abandoned limeworker’s adit that cut through a calcified cave infill. In this infill he saw fossil bones, stone tools, and what he took to be ash horizons representing ancient hearths. At first he referred to it as part of Makapan's Cave, but he later renamed it "The Cave
Cave
of Hearths". Further research during June and October 1937 revealed the Rainbow Cave. The site was visited by Clarence Van Riet Lowe, Raymond Dart, and Robert Broom. H. B. S. Cooke of the Geology Department of the University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
conducted a geological survey of the area (1941) followed by L. C. King in 1951. In July 1945, Philip Tobias led a group of students to the valley, where they discovered the "Hyaena Cave" next to Van Riet Lowe's site. Further down the valley, from a cave next to the limeworks, they collected a large fossil horse's lower jaw, which supplied a name for the “ Cave
Cave
of the Horse's Mandible”. After these discoveries, Dr Bernard Price made a research grant available for systematic excavations, which started at the Cave
Cave
of Hearths in 1947, with field work being carried out by Guy Gardiner, James Kitching, and his brothers Ben and Scheepers. One of the most significant discoveries was a Homo lower jaw from Bed 3, by Ben. In 1953, Dr R. J. Mason was placed in charge of the excavations. The stratigraphic sequence was determined during 1953–1954. After the Kitching brothers discovered an ape-man braincase amongst the limeworks dumps in 1947, Dart organised for the lime miner's dumps to be hand-sorted to recover as much fossil-bearing material as possible. After 45 years of research, many thousands of fossils from this site have been identified and catalogued. Brian Maguire studied rocks which were brought into the caves during prehistoric times (1965, 1968, 1980). He interpreted this to represent rudimentary stone tool making activities dated at around 2.3 – 1.6 million years ago, however, recent analysis has shown this information to be incorrect. Recent work at the sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s was done by these groups:

the Makapansgat
Makapansgat
Fieldschool, run jointly by Kaye Reed of the Institute of Human Origins at Arizona State University
Arizona State University
(US) and Kevin Kuykendall of the University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
(SA) and later the University of Sheffield (UK); the Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research project, run by Anthony Sinclair, Patrick Quinney of the University of Liverpool
University of Liverpool
(UK) and later John McNabb of the University of Southampton
University of Southampton
(UK.). Alf Latham, Ginette Warr (University of Liverpool), and Andy Herries (La Trobe University, Australia) did Geochronological and stratigraphic work for both projects.

Site locations[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Research house 24°08′22.1″S 29°11′59.5″E / 24.139472°S 29.199861°E / -24.139472; 29.199861 ( Makapansgat
Makapansgat
research house) Makapansgat
Makapansgat
limeworks 24°08′22″S 29°11′25.6″E / 24.13944°S 29.190444°E / -24.13944; 29.190444 (Makapansgat limeworks) Cave
Cave
of hearths 24°08′25.8″S 29°11′58.6″E / 24.140500°S 29.199611°E / -24.140500; 29.199611 ( Cave
Cave
of hearths) Historic cave 24°08′28.7″S 29°11′58.9″E / 24.141306°S 29.199694°E / -24.141306; 29.199694 (Historic cave) Rainbow cave 24°08′29.4″S 29°12′01.9″E / 24.141500°S 29.200528°E / -24.141500; 29.200528 (Rainbow cave) Zwartkrans 24°07′54″S 29°11′18″E / 24.13167°S 29.18833°E / -24.13167; 29.18833 (Zwartkrans) Buffalo cave 24°08′34.8″S 29°10′37″E / 24.143000°S 29.17694°E / -24.143000; 29.17694 (Buffalo cave) Cold air cave 24°08′45.7″S 29°10′10.7″E / 24.146028°S 29.169639°E / -24.146028; 29.169639 (Cold air cave)

See also[edit]

Waterberg Biosphere

South Africa
South Africa
portal

References[edit]

^ C.Michael Hogan, Mark L. Cooke and Helen Murray, The Waterberg Biosphere Archived 24 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Lumina Technologies, 22 May 2006. ^ "9/2/257/0003 - Makapans Valley and Limeworks at Makapansgat, Potgietersrus District". South African Heritage Resources Agency. Retrieved 16 September 2013.  ^ Herries, A.I.R., Hopley, P.J., Adams, J.W., Curnoe, D., Maslin, M.A. 2010. Letter to the editor: Geochronology and palaeoenvironments of Southern African hominin-bearing localities-A reply to Wrangham et al., 2009. "shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins". ^ Latham, A.G., Herries. A.I.R., 2004. The formation and sedimentary infilling of the Cave
Cave
of Hearths and Historic Cave
Cave
Complex. Geoarchaeology. 19, 323–342. ^ McNabb, J., Sinclair, A.G.M. (Eds.) 2009. The Cave
Cave
of Hearths: Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research Project. University of Southampton series in archaeology (Archaeopress, Oxford). ^ Curnoe, D. 2009. The mandible from Bed 3, Cave
Cave
of Hearths. In: McNabb, J., Sinclair, A.G.M. (Eds.) The Cave
Cave
of Hearths: Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research Project. University of Southampton
University of Southampton
series in archaeology (Archaeopress; Oxford), 1: 138–149. ^ a b Herries, A.I.R.; et al. (2006). " Speleology
Speleology
and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the Buffalo Cave
Cave
fossil site, Makapansgat, South Africa" (PDF). Quaternary Research. 66: 233–245. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.03.006. Retrieved 12 November 2013.  ^ Hopley, P.J., Weedon, G.P., Marshall, J.D., Herries, A.I.R, Latham, A.G., Kuykendall, K.L., 2007. High- and low-latitude orbital forcing of early hominin habitats. Earth Planetary Science Letters. 256, 419–432. ^ Herries, A.I.R., Latham, A.G., 2009. Chapter 5: Archaeomagnetic studies at the Cave
Cave
of Hearths. In: McNabb, J., Sinclair, A.G.M. (Eds.) The Cave
Cave
of Hearths: Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research Project. University of Southampton
University of Southampton
series in archaeology (Archaeopress; Oxford), 1: 59–64. ^ A. Le Roux, S. Badenhorst, A. Esterhuysen & C. Cain 2013. Faunal Remains from the 1854 Siege of Mugombane, Makapans Valley, South Africa. Journal of African Archaeology 11 (1) 2013, pp. 97-110 ^ Herries, A.I.R., Latham, A.G., 1999. New caves in the Makapansgat area of the Northern Province of South Africa. Caves and Caving. 85, 18–19. ^ a b Rayner, Richard J., Moon, Bernard P., & Masters, Judith C. (March 1993), "The Makapansgat
Makapansgat
australopithecine environment", Journal of Human Evolution, 24 (3): 219–231, doi:10.1006/jhev.1993.1016 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Tattersall, Ian (1996), The Fossil Trail: How we know what we think we know about human evolution, Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, p. 77, ISBN 0-19-506101-2, retrieved 16 August 2010  Paperback ISBN 0-19-510981-3 ^ Bednarik, Robert G. " Makapansgat
Makapansgat
cobble analysed". University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 2003-03-30. Retrieved 2010-05-14.  Archived by the Internet Archive, original URI was http://sunspot.sli.unimelb.edu.au/aura/MAKAPANSGAT.htm ^ Kleiner, Fred S. (2011). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Global History (Enhanced Thirteenth ed.). Boston: Wadsworth. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-495-79986-3. 

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v t e

Cradle of Humankind

Sites

Bolt's Farm Cooper's Cave Drimolen Gladysvale Gondolin Haasgat Kromdraai Makapan Valley Malapa Minaars Cave Motsetsi Plovers Lake Rising Star Cave Sterkfontein Swartkrans Wonder Cave

Fossils

Australopithecus
Australopithecus
africanus

Taung Child Mrs. Ples Little Foot

Australopithecus
Australopithecus
sediba Paranthropus robustus Homo naledi Homo gautengensis

Anthropology

Scientists

Lee Berger C.K. Brain Robert Broom H. B. S. Cooke Ronald J. Clarke Raymond Dart Andre Keyser John T. Robinson Phillip V. Tobias

Expeditions

Rising Star Expedition

Underground Astronauts

v t e

Prehistoric cave sites, rock shelters and cave paintings

Paleoanthropological sites Cave
Cave
paintings Caves containing pictograms

Europe

Armenia

Areni-1

Austria

Drachenhöhle Gudenus Lurgrotte Salzofen Tischofer

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Awirs Belle-Roche Claminforge Goyet Naulette Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes Ramioul Scladina Spy Trou de l’Abîme

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Badanj Ledenjača

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Bacho Kiro Devetashka Magura Kozarnika

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Aetokremnos

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Amatérská Býčí skála Koněprusy Kůlna Mladeč Šipka

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Wolf

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Vézère Valley World Heritage Site Bara Bahau Bernifal Cap Blanc Castel Merle Abri Castanet Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil Abri Audi Abri Chadourne Les Combarelles Cro-Magnon Font-de-Gaume Laugerie-Basse Laugerie-Haute La Micoque La Mouthe Pataud Abri du Poisson Lascaux La Madeleine Rouffignac

Other World Heritage Sites Chauvet

Other caves with decoration Arcy-sur-Cure Gargas Cosquer Cussac Fontéchevade La Chaire a Calvin La Marche Lombrives Marsoulas Le Mas-d'Azil Mayrières supérieure Niaux Pair-non-Pair Pech Merle Roc-aux-Sorciers Renne Trois Frères Villars

Other caves Arago Aurignac Azé Balauzière Bonne-Femme Bouillon Bruniquel Calès Cauna La Chapelle-aux-Saints Combe Grenal La Ferrassie Fées Fontbrégoua Lazaret Le Moustier Noisetier La Quina Raymonden Le Regourdou Rochereil Vallonnet

Germany

Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura
Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura
World Heritage Site Geisenklösterle Hohle Fels Hohlenstein-Stadel Sirgenstein Vogelherd

Other caves Baumann's Brillenhöhle Kleine Feldhofer Lichtenstein Ofnet

Gibraltar

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Baradla Szelim

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Paradise

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Serbia

Hadži-Prodan's Pešturina Risovača Mala Balanica

Slovakia

Čertova pec Domica Jasovská

Slovenia

Betal Divje Babe Pekel Potok

Spain

Cave of Altamira
Cave of Altamira
and Paleolithic Cave
Cave
Art of Northern Spain
Spain
World Heritage Site Altamira Caves in Cantabria

Chufín Covalanas La Garma Hornos de la Peña Monte Castillo

El Castillo Las Chimeneas Las Monedas La Pasiega

El Pendo

Tito Bustillo Altxerri Santimamiñe

Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin
Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin
World Heritage Site (Valencia) Araña Roca dels Moros

Other World Heritage Sites Atapuerca Siega Verde

Other caves with decoration Bacinete Barranc del Migdia Las Caldas Los Casares Iberian Southern Tip los Murciélagos Nerja Niño Ojo Guareña Peñas de Cabrera la Pileta Praileaitz Sidrón

Other caves Ángel Antón Armintxe Axlor Bedmar dels Bous Don Gaspar Guanches El Mirón del Valle

Switzerland

Wildkirchli

United Kingdom

Aveline's Hole Bontnewydd Cathole Coygan Creswell Crags Gough's Heathery Burn High Pasture Kendrick's Kents Long Hole Oldbury Portbraddon Red Lady of Paviland Sand Thor's

Asia

Afghanistan

Darra-e Kur

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Areni-1

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Allar Azokh Buzeyir Damjili Tağlar Zar

Cambodia

Laang Spean

China

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East Timor

Jerimalai Laili Lene Hara

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Satsurblia

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Belum Bhimbetka Edakkal Gudiyam Pahargarh

Indonesia

Harimaru Liang Bua Pettakere

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Iraq

Hazar Merd Shanidar

Israel

Amud HaYonim Kebara Manot Misliya Nahal Me'arot Nahal Hemar Nahal Oren Qafzeh Qesem Skhul Tabun Zuttiyeh

Japan

Minatogawa Pinza-Abu Shiraho Saonetabaru Yamashita

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Iraq
ed-Dubb

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Tham An Mah Tam Pa Ling

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Antelias Jeita Kaukaba Ksar Akil Ras Baalbek I Ras El Kelb Nachcharini

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Niah

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Padah-Lin

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Sanghao

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Spirit Tham Lod

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Dzhebel

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Tsodilo

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Enkapune Ya Muto Njoro River

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Liphofung

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Haua Fteah Uan Muhuggiag

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Hercules Ifri n'Amr or Moussa Ifri Oudadane Jebel Irhoud Kelif el Boroud Taforalt

Mozambique

Ngalue

Namibia

Apollo 11 The White Lady

Nigeria

Rop

Somalia

Dhambalin Laas Geel

South Africa

Cradle of Humankind, World Heritage Site Cooper's Drimolen Gladysvale Gondolin Haasgat Kromdraai Makapansgat Malapa Motsetsi Plovers Lake Rising Star Sterkfontein Swartkrans

Other caves Blombos Border Boomplaas Byneskranskop Cango Diepkloof Elands Bay Howieson's Poort Klasies River Melkhoutboom Nelson Bay Pinnacle Point Sibudu Wonderwerk

Tanzania

Kondoa Irangi Luxmanda Mumba

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Nyero

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Kalemba Mumbwa

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Las Manos

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Quadiriki

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Actun Tunichil Muknal Barton Creek Midnight Terror

Brazil

Maquiné Pedra Pintada Peruaçu Rei do Mato Toca da Tira Peia

Canada

Bluefish Charlie Lake

Chile

Fell Milodón

Colombia

El Abra Chiribiquete Piedras del Tunjo Sáchica Tequendama Tibitó

Cuba

Ambrosio Calero Centella Cura Patana Pluma Punta del Este

Curaçao

Hato

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Pomier

Jamaica

Long Mile

Mexico

Chan Hol Coxcatlan Dzibilchaltún Las Flechas Frightful Guilá Naquitz Oxtotitlán Sac Actun

Peru

Chivateros Guitarrero Pikimachay Qillqatani Toquepala T'uqu T'uquyuq

Suriname

Werehpai

United States

Arnold Research Baker Bonfire Bull Thistle Burnet Cherry Creek Colorado Millennial Danger Daugherty's Durango Dust Dutchess Quarry Fort Rock Franktown Gatecliff Graham Hidden Hidden Valley Hogup Humboldt La Grange Last Supper Levi LoDaisKa Lovelock Mammoth Mantle's Marmes Martz Meadowcroft Modoc Mummy On Your Knees Paisley Pendejo Pictograph Rockhouse Cliffs Russell Sandia Shoup Sisyphus Stanfield-Worley Tainter Tomaquag Trail Creek Trinchera Ventana Wilson Butte

Oceania

Australia

Abrakurrie Acheron Ballawinne Beeton Shelter Beginner's Luck Blanche Bradshaws Bone Burrup Cave
Cave
Bay Cliefden Cloggs Devil's Lair Eagles Reach Fossil Gabarnmung Jenolan Koongine Koonalda Kutikina Mackintosh 90/1 Madjedbebe Mammoth Mannalargenna Mudgegonga Murrawijinie Murujuga Naracoorte New Guinea II Nunamira ORS 7 Tarragal Ubirr Wargata Mina Warratyi Warreen Wellington

Guam

Gadao's Mahlac Talagi

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Makauwahi

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Pindai

New Zealand

Moncks Ruakuri

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Chugai'

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Kilu

Samoa

Falemauga

Tuvalu

Nanumanga

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