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The world's principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in societies.[1]

World
World
map color-coded to denote major religion affiliations (as of 2011[update])

Contents

1 History of religious categories 2 Classification 3 Religious demographics

3.1 Largest religions 3.2 Medium-sized religions

4 By region 5 Trends in adherence

5.1 World
World
Christian Encyclopedia

6 Maps of self-reported adherence 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

History of religious categories

An 1821 map of the world, where "Christians, Mahometans, and Pagans" correspond to levels of civilization (the map makes no distinction between Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism).

An 1883 map of the world divided into colors representing "Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Mohammedans and Pagans".

In world cultures, there have traditionally been many different groupings of religious belief. In Indian culture, different religious philosophies were traditionally respected as academic differences in pursuit of the same truth. In Islam, the Quran
Quran
mentions three different categories: Muslims, the People of the Book, and idol worshipers. Initially, Christians had a simple dichotomy of world beliefs: Christian civility versus foreign heresy or barbarity. In the 18th century, "heresy" was clarified to mean Judaism
Judaism
and Islam;[citation needed][2] along with paganism, this created a fourfold classification which spawned such works as John Toland's Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahometan Christianity,[3] which represented the three Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
as different "nations" or sects within religion itself, the "true monotheism." Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
described the original definition as follows: "Religion is properly the Worship
Worship
given to God, but 'tis also applied to the Worship
Worship
of Idols and false Deities."[4] At the turn of the 19th century, in between 1780 and 1810, the language dramatically changed: instead of "religion" being synonymous with spirituality, authors began using the plural, "religions," to refer to both Christianity
Christianity
and other forms of worship. Therefore, Hannah Adams's early encyclopedia, for example, had its name changed from An Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects... to A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious Denominations.[5][6] In 1838, the four-way division of Christianity, Judaism, Mahommedanism (archaic terminology for Islam) and Paganism
Paganism
was multiplied considerably by Josiah Conder's Analytical and Comparative View of All Religions Now Extant among Mankind. Conder's work still adhered to the four-way classification, but in his eye for detail he puts together much historical work to create something resembling our modern Western image: he includes Druze, Yezidis, Mandeans, and Elamites[clarification needed][7] under a list of possibly monotheistic groups, and under the final category, of "polytheism and pantheism," he listed Zoroastrianism, "Vedas, Puranas, Tantras, Reformed sects" of India as well as "Brahminical idolatry," Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Lamaism, "religion of China
China
and Japan," and "illiterate superstitions" as others.[8][9] The modern meaning of the phrase "world religion," putting non-Christians at the same level as Christians, began with the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions
Parliament of the World's Religions
in Chicago. The Parliament spurred the creation of a dozen privately funded lectures with the intent of informing people of the diversity of religious experience: these lectures funded researchers such as William James, D. T. Suzuki, and Alan Watts, who greatly influenced the public conception of world religions.[10] In the latter half of the 20th century, the category of "world religion" fell into serious question, especially for drawing parallels between vastly different cultures, and thereby creating an arbitrary separation between the religious and the secular.[11] Even history professors have now taken note of these complications and advise against teaching "world religions" in schools.[12] Others see the shaping of religions in the context of the nation-state as the "invention of traditions." Classification

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Further information: Comparative religion
Comparative religion
and Sociological classifications of religious movements Religious traditions fall into super-groups in comparative religion, arranged by historical origin and mutual influence. Abrahamic religions originate in West Asia,[13][14] Indian religions
Indian religions
in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
(South Asia)[15] and East Asian religions
East Asian religions
in East Asia.[16] Another group with supra-regional influence are Afro-American religion,[17] which have their origins in Central and West Africa.

Middle Eastern religions:[18]

Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
are the largest group, and these consist mainly of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and the Bahá'í Faith. They are named for the patriarch Abraham, and are unified by the practice of monotheism. Today, at least 3.8 billion people are followers of Abrahamic religions[19] and are spread widely around the world apart from the regions around East and Southeast Asia. Several Abrahamic organizations are vigorous proselytizers.[20]

Iranian religions, partly of Indo-European origins,[21][22] include Zoroastrianism, Yazdânism, Ætsæg Din, Ahl-e Haqq
Ahl-e Haqq
and historical traditions of Gnosticism
Gnosticism
(Mandaeism, Manichaeism). Indian religions, originated in Greater India
Greater India
and partly of Indo-European origins, they tend to share a number of key concepts, such as dharma, karma, reincarnation among others. They are of the most influence across the Indian subcontinent, East Asia, Southeast Asia, as well as isolated parts of Russia. The main Indian religions are Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Sikhism. East Asian religions
East Asian religions
consist of several East Asian religions
East Asian religions
which make use of the concept of Tao
Tao
(in Chinese) or Dō (in Japanese or Korean). They include many Chinese folk religions, Taoism
Taoism
and Confucianism, as well as Korean and Japanese religion influenced by Chinese thought. African religions:[18]

The religions of the tribal peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa, but excluding ancient Egyptian religion, which is considered to belong to the ancient Middle East;[18] African diasporic religions practiced in the Americas, imported as a result of the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
of the 16th to 18th centuries, building on traditional religions of Central and West Africa.

Indigenous ethnic religions, found on every continent, now marginalized by the major organized faiths in many parts of the world or persisting as undercurrents (folk religions) of major religions. Includes traditional African religions, Asian shamanism, Native American religions, Austronesian and Australian Aboriginal traditions, Chinese folk religions, and postwar Shinto. Under more traditional listings, this has been referred to as "paganism" along with historical polytheism. New religious movement
New religious movement
is the term applied to any religious faith which has emerged since the 19th century, often syncretizing, re-interpreting or reviving aspects of older traditions such as Ayyavazhi, Mormonism, Ahmadiyya, Pentecostalism, polytheistic reconstructionism, and so forth.

Religious demographics Further information: List of religious populations Main category: Religious demographics One way to define a major religion is by the number of current adherents. The population numbers by religion are computed by a combination of census reports and population surveys (in countries where religion data is not collected in census, for example the United States or France), but results can vary widely depending on the way questions are phrased, the definitions of religion used and the bias of the agencies or organizations conducting the survey. Informal or unorganized religions are especially difficult to count. There is no consensus among researchers as to the best methodology for determining the religiosity profile of the world's population. A number of fundamental aspects are unresolved:

Whether to count "historically predominant religious culture[s]"[23] Whether to count only those who actively "practice" a particular religion[24] Whether to count based on a concept of "adherence"[25] Whether to count only those who expressly self-identify with a particular denomination[26] Whether to count only adults, or to include children as well. Whether to rely only on official government-provided statistics[27] Whether to use multiple sources and ranges or single "best source(s)"

Largest religions

Worldwide percentage of Adherents by Religion, 2010[28]    Christianity
Christianity
(31.5%)    Islam
Islam
(23.2%)    Irreligion (16.3%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(15.0%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(7.1%)   Folk religions (5.9%)   Other religions (1%)

The table (below) and the pie chart list religions classified by philosophy; however, religious philosophy is not always the determining factor in local practice. Please note that this table includes heterodox movements as adherents to their larger philosophical category, although this may be disputed by others within that category. For example, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
include those who are culturally Christian and Muslim as well as indigenous people combining folk religions or shamanism with either. The population numbers below are computed by a combination of census reports, random surveys (in countries where religion data is not collected in census, for example the United States or France), and self-reported attendance numbers, but results can vary widely depending on the way questions are phrased, the definitions of religion used and the bias of the agencies or organizations conducting the survey. Informal or unorganized religions are especially difficult to count. Some organizations may wildly inflate their numbers.

Religion Number of followers (in millions) Cultural tradition Founded References

Christianity 01 !2,420 Abrahamic religions Middle East [28][29]

Islam 02 !1,800 Abrahamic religions Middle East [30][31]

Hinduism 03 !1,150 Indian religions
Indian religions
(Dharmic) Indian subcontinent [28]

Buddhism 05 !520 Indian religions
Indian religions
(Dharmic) Indian subcontinent [29]

Folk religion 04 !400 Organized religion Worldwide [32]

Medium-sized religions The following are medium-sized world religions:

Religion Number of followers (in millions) Cultural tradition Founded References

Taoism 01 !12–173 Chinese religions China [33]

Shinto 02 !100 Japanese religions Japan [34][35]

Falun Gong 03 !80–100 Chinese religions China, 20th century [36]

Sikhism 04 !30 Indian religions
Indian religions
(Dharmic) Indian subcontinent, 15th century [37]

Judaism 05 !17 Abrahamic religions Levant
Levant
(Middle East) [28]

Korean shamanism 06 !5–15 Korean religions Korea [38]

Caodaism 07 !5–9 Vietnamese religions Vietnam, 20th century [39]

Bahá'í Faith 08 !5–7.3 Abrahamic religions Iran, 19th century [40][41][nb 1]

Tenriism 09 !5 Japanese religions Japan, 19th century [42]

Jainism 10 !4 Indian religions
Indian religions
(Dharmic) Indian subcontinent, 7th to 9th century BC [43]

Cheondoism 11 !3–4 Korean religions Korea, 19th century [44]

Hoahaoism 12 !1.5–3 Vietnamese religions Vietnam, 20th century [45]

By region Further information: Religions by country

Religions by country
Religions by country
according to The World
World
Factbook - CIA[46] Religion
Religion
by region Religion
Religion
in Africa Religion
Religion
in Antarctica Religion
Religion
in Asia

Religion
Religion
in the Middle East Muslim world
Muslim world
(SW Asia and N Africa)

Religion
Religion
in Europe

Religion
Religion
in the European Union

Religion
Religion
in North America Religion
Religion
in Oceania Religion
Religion
in South America

Trends in adherence Further information: Growth of religion Since the late 19th century, the demographics of religion have changed a great deal. On the one hand, since the 19th century, large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
have been converted to Christianity, and this area of the world has the highest population growth rate. On the other hand, some countries with a historically large Christian population have experienced a significant decline in the numbers of professed active Christians: see demographics of atheism. Symptoms of the decline in active participation in Christian religious life include declining recruitment for the priesthood and monastic life, as well as diminishing attendance at church. In the realm of Western culture, there has been an increase in the number of people who identify themselves as secular humanists. In many countries, such as the People's Republic of China, communist governments have discouraged religion, making it difficult to count the actual number of believers. However, after the collapse of communism in numerous countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, religious life has been experiencing resurgence there, both in the form of traditional Eastern Christianity
Christianity
and particularly in the forms of Neopaganism and East Asian religions.[citation needed] World
World
Christian Encyclopedia Following is some available data based on the work of the World Christian Encyclopedia:[47]

Trends in annual growth of adherence

1970–1985[48] 1990–2000[49][50] 2000–2005[51] % change 1970–2010 (40 yrs)[41]

3.65%: Bahá'í Faith 2.65%: Zoroastrianism 1.84%: Islam 9.85%: Daoism

2.74%: Islam 2.28%: Bahá'í Faith 1.70%: Bahá'í Faith 4.26%: Bahá'í Faith

2.34%: Hinduism 2.13%: Islam 1.62%: Sikhism 4.23%: Islam

1.67%: Buddhism 1.87%: Sikhism 1.57%: Hinduism 3.08%: Sikhism

1.64%: Christianity 1.69%: Hinduism 1.32%: Christianity 2.76%: Buddhism

1.09%: Judaism 1.36%: Christianity

2.62%: Hinduism

1.09%: Buddhism

2.60%: Jainism

2.50%: Zoroastrianism

across 40 yrs, world total 2.16%

2.10%: Christianity

0.83%: Confucianism

0.37%: unaffiliated (inc. atheists, agnostics, religious but not affiliated)

-0.03%: Judaism

-0.83%: Shintoism

Maps of self-reported adherence

Map showing self-reported religiosity by country. Based on a 2006–2008 worldwide survey by Gallup. 

World
World
map showing the percentages of people who regard religion as "non-important" according to a 2002 Pew survey 

Religions of the world, mapped by distribution. 

Predominant religions of the world, mapped by state 

Map showing the prevalence of "Abrahamic religion" (purple), and "Indian religion" (yellow) religions in each country. 

Map showing the relative proportion of Christianity
Christianity
(red) and Islam (green) in each country as of 2006 

Distribution of world religions by country/state, and by smaller administrative regions for the largest countries (2012 data).   % Christian population   % Islam
Islam
population   % all other religions but Judaism (Equal parts cyan/magenta - Judaism)  

See also

Religion
Religion
portal

See also: Category: Religion
Religion
by country.

Dharma Irreligion List of religious populations Numinous Religious conversion Religious text State religion

Notes

^ Historically, the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
arose in 19th century Persia, in the context of Shia Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
considers itself an independent religious tradition, which draws from Islam
Islam
but also other traditions. The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
may also be classed as a new religious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered sufficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable.

References

^ Masuzawa, Tomoko (2005). The Invention of World
World
Religions. Chicago University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50989-1.  ^ Glaser, Daryl; Walker, David M. (2007-09-12). Twentieth-Century Marxism: A Global Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 9781135979744.  ^ Toland, John; La Monnoye, Bernard de (1718-01-01). Nazarenus, or, Jewish, gentile, and Mahometan Christianity : containing the history of the antient Gospel of Barnabas, and the modern Gospel of the Mahometans ... also the original plan of Christianity
Christianity
explain'd in the history of the Nazarens ... with the relation of an Irish manuscript of the four Gospels, as likewise a summary of the antient Irish Christianity. London : J. Brotherton, J. Roberts and A. Dodd.  ^ Masuzawa, Tomoko (2012-04-26). The Invention of World
World
Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 9780226922621.  ^ Masuzawa 2005. pp. 49–61 ^ Masuzawa, Tomoko (2012-04-26). The Invention of World
World
Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 9780226922621.  ^ Masuzawa, Tomoko (2012-04-26). The Invention of World
World
Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 9780226922621.  ^ Masuzawa 2005, pp. 65–6 ^ Masuzawa, Tomoko (2012-04-26). The Invention of World
World
Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 9780226922621.  ^ Masuzawa 2005, 270–281 ^ Stephen R. L. Clark. " World
World
Religions and World
World
Orders". Religious studies 26.1 (1990). ^ Joel E. Tishken. "Ethnic vs. Evangelical Religions: Beyond Teaching the World
World
Religion
Religion
Approach". The History Teacher 33.3 (2000). ^ Spirituality
Spirituality
and Psychiatry - Page 236, Chris Cook, Andrew Powell, A. C. P. Sims - 2009 ^ "Abraham, Father of the Middle East". www.dangoor.com. Retrieved 2016-11-08.  ^ "The Religions of the Indian Subcontinent Stretch Back for Millennia". About.com Education. Retrieved 2016-11-08.  ^ Neusner, Jacob (2009-10-07). World
World
Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9781611640472.  ^ Neusner, Jacob (2009-10-07). World
World
Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9781611640472.  ^ a b c Charles Joseph Adams, Classification of religions: geographical, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Statistician, Howard Steven Friedman; Teacher, health economist for the United Nations;; University, Columbia (2011-04-25). "5 Religions with the Most Followers Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-11-08.  ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World
World
Religions. Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.  ^ Samuel 2010. ^ Anthony 2007. ^ Pippa Norris; Ronald Inglehart (2007-01-06), Sacred and Secular, Religion
Religion
and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge University Press, pp. 43–44, retrieved 2006-12-29  ^ Pew Research Center (2002-12-19). "Among Wealthy Nations U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2006-10-12.  ^ adherents.com (2005-08-28). "Major Religions of the World
World
Ranked by Number of Adherents". adherents.com. Retrieved 2006-10-12.  ^ worldvaluessurvey.org (2005-06-28). " World
World
Values Survey". worldvaluessurvey.org. Retrieved 2006-10-12.  ^ unstats.un.org (2007-01-06). "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 2007-01-06.  ^ a b c d "The Global Religious Landscape". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research center. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2013.  ^ a b " Christianity
Christianity
2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ " Christianity
Christianity
2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group". Pew Research Center. 2017-04-06. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ "Folk Religionists". Pew Research Center. December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.  ^ 2010 Chinese Spiritual Life Survey conducted by the Purdue University's Center on Religion
Religion
and Chinese Society. Statistics published in: Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, David Strait. People's Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011 Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. On: Religions & Christianity in Today's China, Vol. II, 2012, No. 3, pp. 29-54, ISSN 2192-9289. ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ "Japan: International Religious Freedom Report 2006". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor; U.S. Department of State. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Jessica Gelt, "Falun Gong, banned in China, finds a loud protest voice in the U.S. through Shen Yun dance troupe", Los Angeles Times, 9 April 2016. ^ "Sikhism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 August 2017.  ^ Self-reported figures from 1999; North Korea
Korea
only (South Korean followers are minimal according to census). In The A to Z of New Religious Movements by George D. Chryssides. ISBN 0-8108-5588-7. ^ Sergei Blagov. " Caodaism
Caodaism
in Vietnam : Religion
Religion
vs Restrictions and Persecution Archived 9 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.". IARF World
World
Congress, Vancouver, Canada, July 31, 1999. ^ Other Religions. Pew Forum report. ^ a b Grim, Brian J (2012). "Rising restrictions on religion" (PDF). International Journal of Religious Freedom. 5 (1): 17–33. ISSN 2070-5484. Retrieved April 25, 2013.  ^ Self-reported figures printed in Japanese Ministry of Education's 宗教年間 Shuukyou Nenkan, 2003 ^ "Jainism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 August 2017.  ^ Self-reported figures from North Korea
Korea
(South Korean followers are minimal according to census): "Religious Intelligence UK report". Religious Intelligence. Religious Intelligence. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Janet Alison Hoskins. What Are Vietnam's Indigenous Religions?. Center for Southeast Asian Studies Kyoto University. ^ "The World
World
Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-08.  ^ The results have been studied and found "highly correlated with other sources of data", but "consistently gave a higher estimate for percent Christian in comparison to other cross-national data sets." Hsu, Becky; Reynolds, Amy; Hackett, Conrad; Gibbon, James (2008-07-09). "Estimating the Religious Composition of All Nations" (PDF). Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 47 (4): 678. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00435.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2010.  ^ International Community, Bahá'í (1992). "How many Bahá'ís are there?". The Bahá'ís. p. 14. . ^ Barrett, David A. (2001). World
World
Christian Encyclopedia. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-507963-9.  ^ Barrett, David; Johnson, Todd (2001). "Global adherents of the World's 19 distinct major religions" (PDF). William Carey Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2006-10-12.  ^ Staff (May 2007). "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions". Foreign Policy. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 

Sources

Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 

External links

Animated history of World
World
Religions—from the " Religion
Religion
& Ethics" part of the BBC website, interactive animated view of the spread of world religions (requires Flash plug-in). BBC A-Z of Religions and Beliefs Major World
World
Religions International Council for Inter-Religious Cooperation International Imam Organization

v t e

Religion

Major religious groups
Major religious groups
and religious denominations

Abrahamic

Judaism

Orthodox

Haredi Hasidic Modern

Conservative Reform Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic Haymanot

Christianity

Catholicism

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern Christianity

Church of the East

Assyrian Church of the East

Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy

Ethiopian Orthodoxy

Independent Catholicism

Old Catholicism

Protestantism

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptists Calvinism

Presbyterianism Congregationalism Continental Reformed

Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Evangelicalism

Nontrinitarianism

Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Jesuism

Nondenominational

Islam

Sunni

Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i

Shia

Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah

Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism

Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith

Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam

Others

Bábism

Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith

Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism

Dharmic

Hinduism

Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese

Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

Caucasian Celtic

Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism

East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

.