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Major League Baseball
Baseball
(MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American League
American League
(AL), with 15 teams in each league. The NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball
Baseball
in 2000.[6] The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball
Baseball
Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball
Baseball
Classic tournament. Baseball's first professional team was founded in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in 1869. The first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era; players rarely hit home runs during this time. Baseball
Baseball
survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression
Great Depression
and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 30 teams: 29 in the United States and one in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball
Baseball
broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world. MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015.[7]

Contents

1 Organizational structure 2 League organization 3 Teams 4 History

4.1 Founding 4.2 Dead-ball era 4.3 Rise in popularity 4.4 World War II era 4.5 Breaking the color barrier 4.6 Women in Baseball 4.7 Expanding west, south and north 4.8 Pitching dominance and rule changes 4.9 New stadiums and artificial surfaces 4.10 Steroid Era

5 Uniforms 6 Season structure

6.1 Spring training 6.2 Regular season 6.3 All-Star Game 6.4 Postseason

7 International play 8 Steroids in baseball 9 Media coverage

9.1 Television 9.2 Blackout policy 9.3 Radio and Internet 9.4 International broadcasting

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Organizational structure[edit] MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball
Baseball
Constitution. This document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876.[8] Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This is due in large part to the 1922 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball
Baseball
Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years.[9] The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates.[9][10] There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League
Federal League
in 1916; the last attempt at a new major league was the aborted Continental League in 1960.[9] The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president (business and media), chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, and chief baseball officer. [11] [12] The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees MLB.com
MLB.com
and each of the 30 teams' websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media
MLB Advanced Media
holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB also owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV.[13] It operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, and also has editorial independence from the league.[14] League organization[edit] In 1920, the weak National Commission, which had been created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.[15] For 60 years, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U.S. team (the Montreal Expos). Two teams (the Seattle
Seattle
Mariners and the Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays) were also added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an East and West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was added in each league in 1994. Through 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the World Series
World Series
and the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997.[16] In March 1995 two new franchises—the Arizona Diamondbacks
Arizona Diamondbacks
and Tampa Bay Devil Rays (now known simply as the Tampa Bay Rays)—were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998. This addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL. The original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league (15 per league, with 5 in each division). In order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it was unclear at the time if interleague play would continue after the 1998 season, as it had to be approved by the players' union. For this and other reasons, it was decided that both leagues should continue to have an even number of teams; one existing club would have to switch leagues. The Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
agreed in November 1997 to move from the AL to the NL, thereby making the NL a 16-team league.[17] Later, when the Houston Astros
Houston Astros
changed ownership prior to the 2013 season, the team moved from the NL Central to the AL West,[18][19] resulting in both leagues having three divisions of five teams each and allowing all teams to have a more balanced schedule.[18] Interleague play
Interleague play
is now held throughout the season.[18] In 2000 the AL and NL were dissolved as legal entities, and MLB became a single, overall league de jure, similar to the National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(NBA) and National Hockey League (NHL)—albeit with two components called "leagues" instead of "conferences." The same rules and regulations are used in both leagues, with one exception: the AL operates under the designated hitter rule, while the NL does not.[20][21] This difference in rules between leagues is unique to MLB; the other sports leagues of the U.S. and Canada have one set of rules for all teams. Teams[edit]

Braves Marlins Yankees Phillies Nationals Cubs Reds Astros Brewers Pirates Cardinals Diamondbacks Rockies Dodgers Padres Giants Orioles Red Sox Mets Rays Blue Jays White Sox Indians Tigers Royals Twins Angels Athletics Mariners Rangers

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Division Team City Stadium Capacity Coordinates Founded Joined Ref

American League

East Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles Baltimore, Maryland Oriole Park at Camden Yards 45,971 39°17′2″N 76°37′18″W / 39.28389°N 76.62167°W / 39.28389; -76.62167 ( Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles) 1901* [22]

Boston
Boston
Red Sox Boston, Massachusetts Fenway Park 37,949 42°20′47″N 71°5′51″W / 42.34639°N 71.09750°W / 42.34639; -71.09750 ( Boston
Boston
Red Sox) 1901 [23]

New York Yankees New York City, New York Yankee Stadium 49,638 40°49′45″N 73°55′35″W / 40.82917°N 73.92639°W / 40.82917; -73.92639 (New York Yankees) 1901* [24]

Tampa Bay Rays St. Petersburg, Florida Tropicana Field 31,042 27°46′6″N 82°39′12″W / 27.76833°N 82.65333°W / 27.76833; -82.65333 (Tampa Bay Rays) 1998 [25]

Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays Toronto, Ontario Rogers Centre 49,282 43°38′29″N 79°23′21″W / 43.64139°N 79.38917°W / 43.64139; -79.38917 ( Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays) 1977 [26]

Central Chicago
Chicago
White Sox Chicago, Illinois Guaranteed Rate Field 40,615 41°49′48″N 87°38′2″W / 41.83000°N 87.63389°W / 41.83000; -87.63389 ( Chicago
Chicago
White Sox) 1901 [27]

Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians Cleveland, Ohio Progressive Field 35,225 41°29′45″N 81°41′7″W / 41.49583°N 81.68528°W / 41.49583; -81.68528 ( Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians) 1901 [28]

Detroit
Detroit
Tigers Detroit, Michigan Comerica Park 41,297 42°20′21″N 83°2′55″W / 42.33917°N 83.04861°W / 42.33917; -83.04861 ( Detroit
Detroit
Tigers) 1901 [29]

Kansas City Royals Kansas City, Missouri Kauffman Stadium 37,903 39°3′5″N 94°28′50″W / 39.05139°N 94.48056°W / 39.05139; -94.48056 (Kansas City Royals) 1969 [30]

Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins Minneapolis, Minnesota Target Field 38,871 44°58′54″N 93°16′42″W / 44.98167°N 93.27833°W / 44.98167; -93.27833 ( Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins) 1901* [31]

West Houston
Houston
Astros Houston, Texas Minute Maid Park 41,676 29°45′25″N 95°21′20″W / 29.75694°N 95.35556°W / 29.75694; -95.35556 ( Houston
Houston
Astros) 1962 (NL) 2013 (AL) [32]

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Angels Anaheim, California Angel Stadium 45,957 33°48′1″N 117°52′58″W / 33.80028°N 117.88278°W / 33.80028; -117.88278 ( Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels
of Anaheim) 1961 [33]

Oakland Athletics Oakland, California Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum 35,067 37°45′6″N 122°12′2″W / 37.75167°N 122.20056°W / 37.75167; -122.20056 (Oakland Athletics) 1901* [34]

Seattle
Seattle
Mariners Seattle, Washington Safeco Field 47,943 47°35′29″N 122°19′57″W / 47.59139°N 122.33250°W / 47.59139; -122.33250 ( Seattle
Seattle
Mariners) 1977 [35]

Texas Rangers Arlington, Texas Globe Life Park in Arlington 48,114 32°45′5″N 97°4′58″W / 32.75139°N 97.08278°W / 32.75139; -97.08278 (Texas Rangers) 1961* [36]

National League

East Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves Atlanta, Georgia SunTrust Park 41,500 33°53′24″N 84°28′4″W / 33.89000°N 84.46778°W / 33.89000; -84.46778 ( Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves) 1871* (NA) 1876 (NL) [37]

Miami
Miami
Marlins Miami, Florida Marlins Park 36,742 25°46′41″N 80°13′11″W / 25.77806°N 80.21972°W / 25.77806; -80.21972 ( Miami
Miami
Marlins) 1993 [38]

New York Mets New York City, New York Citi Field 41,922 40°45′25″N 73°50′45″W / 40.75694°N 73.84583°W / 40.75694; -73.84583 (New York Mets) 1962 [39]

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Citizens Bank Park 43,651 39°54′21″N 75°9′59″W / 39.90583°N 75.16639°W / 39.90583; -75.16639 ( Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies) 1883 [40]

Washington Nationals Washington, D.C. Nationals Park 41,313 38°52′22″N 77°0′27″W / 38.87278°N 77.00750°W / 38.87278; -77.00750 (Washington Nationals) 1969* [41]

Central Chicago
Chicago
Cubs Chicago, Illinois Wrigley Field 41,268 41°56′54″N 87°39′20″W / 41.94833°N 87.65556°W / 41.94833; -87.65556 ( Chicago
Chicago
Cubs) 1874 (NA) 1876 (NL) [42]

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds Cincinnati, Ohio Great American Ball Park 42,319 39°5′51″N 84°30′24″W / 39.09750°N 84.50667°W / 39.09750; -84.50667 ( Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds) 1882 (AA) 1890 (NL) [43]

Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Brewers Milwaukee, Wisconsin Miller Park 41,900 43°1′42″N 87°58′16″W / 43.02833°N 87.97111°W / 43.02833; -87.97111 ( Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Brewers) 1969* (AL) 1998 (NL) [44]

Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PNC Park 38,362 40°26′49″N 80°0′21″W / 40.44694°N 80.00583°W / 40.44694; -80.00583 ( Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates) 1882 (AA) 1887 (NL) [45]

St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals St. Louis, Missouri Busch Stadium 43,975 38°37′21″N 90°11′35″W / 38.62250°N 90.19306°W / 38.62250; -90.19306 ( St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals) 1882 (AA) 1892 (NL) [46]

West Arizona Diamondbacks Phoenix, Arizona Chase Field 48,519 33°26′43″N 112°4′1″W / 33.44528°N 112.06694°W / 33.44528; -112.06694 (Arizona Diamondbacks) 1998 [47]

Colorado Rockies Denver, Colorado Coors Field 50,398 39°45′22″N 104°59′39″W / 39.75611°N 104.99417°W / 39.75611; -104.99417 (Colorado Rockies) 1993 [48]

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers Los Angeles, California Dodger Stadium 56,000 34°4′25″N 118°14′24″W / 34.07361°N 118.24000°W / 34.07361; -118.24000 ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers) 1884* (AA) 1890 (NL) [49]

San Diego
San Diego
Padres San Diego, California Petco Park 40,162 32°42′26″N 117°9′24″W / 32.70722°N 117.15667°W / 32.70722; -117.15667 ( San Diego
San Diego
Padres) 1969 [50]

San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants San Francisco, California AT&T Park 41,915 37°46′43″N 122°23′21″W / 37.77861°N 122.38917°W / 37.77861; -122.38917 ( San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants) 1883* [51]

An asterisk (*) denotes a relocation of a franchise. See respective team articles for more information. History[edit] Main article: History of baseball in the United States Founding[edit] In the 1860s, aided by soldiers playing the game in camp during the Civil War, "New York"-style baseball expanded into a national game and spawned baseball's first governing body, The National Association of Base Ball Players. The NABBP existed as an amateur league for 12 years. By 1867, more than 400 clubs were members. Most of the strongest clubs remained those based in the northeastern U.S. For professional baseball's founding year, MLB uses the year 1869—when the first professional team, the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Red Stockings, was established.[52] A schism developed between professional and amateur ballplayers after the founding of the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
club. The NABBP split into an amateur organization and a professional organization. The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, often known as the National Association (NA), was formed in 1871.[53] Its amateur counterpart disappeared after only a few years.[54] The modern Chicago Cubs
Chicago Cubs
and Atlanta Braves
Atlanta Braves
franchises trace their histories back to the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in the 1870s.[55] In 1876, the National League
National League
of Professional Base Ball Clubs (later known as the National League
National League
or NL) was established after the NA proved ineffective. The league placed its emphasis on clubs rather than on players. Clubs could now enforce player contracts, preventing players from jumping to higher-paying clubs. Clubs were required to play the full schedule of games instead of forfeiting scheduled games when the club was no longer in the running for the league championship, which happened frequently under the NA. A concerted effort was made to curb gambling on games, which was leaving the validity of results in doubt. The first game in the NL—on Saturday, April 22, 1876 (at the Jefferson Street Grounds, Philadelphia)—is often pointed to as the beginning of MLB.[2][56]

National League
National League
Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles, 1896

The early years of the NL were tumultuous, with threats from rival leagues and a rebellion by players against the hated "reserve clause", which restricted the free movement of players between clubs. Competitor leagues formed regularly and also disbanded regularly. The most successful was the American Association (1882–1891), sometimes called the "beer and whiskey league" for its tolerance of the sale of alcoholic beverages to spectators. For several years, the NL and American Association champions met in a postseason championship series—the first attempt at a World Series. The two leagues merged in 1892 as a single 12-team NL, but the NL dropped four teams after the 1899 season. This led to the formation of the American League
American League
in 1901 under AL president Ban Johnson, and the resulting bidding war for players led to widespread contract-breaking and legal disputes. The war between the AL and NL caused shock waves throughout the baseball world. At a meeting at the Leland Hotel in Chicago
Chicago
in 1901, the other baseball leagues negotiated a plan to maintain their independence. A new National Association was formed to oversee these minor leagues.[57] While the NA continues to this day (known as Minor League Baseball), at the time Ban Johnson
Ban Johnson
saw it as a tool to end threats from smaller rivals who might expand in other territories and threaten his league's dominance. After 1902, the NL, AL, and NA signed a new National Agreement which tied independent contracts to the reserve-clause contracts. The agreement also set up a formal classification system for minor leagues, the forerunner of today's system that was refined by Branch Rickey.[58] Several other early defunct baseball leagues are officially considered major leagues, and their statistics and records are included with those of the two current major leagues. These include the AA, the Union Association (1884),[59] the Players' League (1890),[60] and the Federal League
Federal League
(1914–1915).[61][62] Both the UA and AA are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers[who?] because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. Some researchers, including Nate Silver, dispute the major-league status of the UA by pointing out that franchises came and went and that the St. Louis
St. Louis
club was deliberately "stacked"; the St. Louis club was owned by the league's president and it was the only club that was close to major-league caliber.[63] Dead-ball era[edit] Main article: Dead-ball era

Cy Young, 1911 baseball card

The period between 1900 and 1919 is commonly referred to as the "Dead-Ball Era." Games of this era tended to be low scoring and were often dominated by pitchers, such as Walter Johnson, Cy Young, Christy Mathewson, Mordecai Brown, and Grover Cleveland
Cleveland
Alexander. The term also accurately describes the condition of the baseball itself. The baseball used American rather than the modern Australian wool yarn and was not wound as tightly, affecting the distance that it would travel.[64] More significantly, balls were kept in play until they were mangled, soft and sometimes lopsided. During this era, a baseball cost three dollars, equal to $42.35 today (in inflation-adjusted U.S. dollars), and owners were reluctant to purchase new balls. Fans were expected to throw back fouls and (rare) home runs. Baseballs also became stained with tobacco juice, grass, and mud, and sometimes the juice of licorice, which some players would chew for the purpose of discoloring the ball.[65] Also, pitchers could manipulate the ball through the use of the spitball. (In 1921 use of this pitch was restricted to a few pitchers with a grandfather clause). Additionally, many ballparks had large dimensions, such as the West Side Grounds
West Side Grounds
of the Chicago
Chicago
Cubs, which was 560 feet (170 m) to the center field fence, and the Huntington Avenue Grounds
Huntington Avenue Grounds
of the Boston
Boston
Red Sox, which was 635 feet (194 m) to the center field fence, thus home runs were rare, and "small ball" tactics such as singles, bunts, stolen bases, and the hit-and-run play dominated the strategies of the time.[66] Hitting methods like the Baltimore
Baltimore
Chop were used to increase the number of infield singles.[67] On a successful Baltimore
Baltimore
chop, the batter hits the ball forcefully into the ground, causing it to bounce so high that the batter reaches first base before the ball can be fielded and thrown to the first baseman.[68] The adoption of the foul strike rule in the early twentieth century quickly sent baseball from a high-scoring game to one where scoring runs became a struggle. Prior to the institution of this rule, foul balls were not counted as strikes: a batter could foul off any number of pitches with no strikes counted against him; this gave an enormous advantage to the batter. In 1901, the NL adopted the foul strike rule, and the AL followed suit in 1903.[69] After the 1919 World Series
1919 World Series
between the Chicago White Sox
Chicago White Sox
and Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds, baseball was rocked by allegations of a game fixing scheme known as the Black Sox Scandal. Eight players—Joe Jackson, Eddie Cicotte, Claude "Lefty" Williams, George "Buck" Weaver, Arnold "Chick" Gandil, Fred McMullin, Charles "Swede" Risberg, and Oscar "Happy" Felsch—intentionally lost the World Series
World Series
in exchange for a ring worth $100,000 ($1,064,705.88 in 2016 dollars).[70] Despite being acquitted, all were permanently banned from Major League Baseball.[71] Rise in popularity[edit] Baseball's popularity increased in the 1920s and 1930s. The 1920 season was notable for the death of Ray Chapman
Ray Chapman
of the Cleveland Indians. Chapman, who was struck in the head by a pitch and died a few hours later, became the only MLB player to die of an on-field injury, a tragedy which led directly to both leagues requiring the placing into play new, white baseballs whenever a ball became scuffed or dirty, helping bring the "dead-ball" era to an end. The following year, the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
made their first World Series appearance.[72] By the end of the 1930s, the team had appeared in 11 World Series, winning eight of them.[73] Yankees slugger Babe Ruth
Babe Ruth
had set the single season home run record in 1927, hitting 60 home runs; a few years earlier, Ruth had set the same record with 29 home runs.[74] Affected by the difficulties of the Great Depression, baseball's popularity had begun a downward turn in the early 1930s. By 1932, only two MLB teams turned a profit. Attendance had fallen, due at least in part to a 10% federal amusement tax added to baseball ticket prices. Baseball
Baseball
owners cut their rosters from 25 men to 23 men, and even the best players took pay cuts. Team executives were innovative in their attempts to survive, creating night games, broadcasting games live by radio and rolling out promotions such as free admission for women. Throughout the period of the Great Depression, no MLB teams moved or folded.[75] World War II era[edit] The onset of World War II created a significant shortage of professional baseball players, as more than 500 men left MLB teams to serve in the military. Many of them played on service baseball teams that entertained military personnel in the US or in the Pacific. MLB teams of this time largely consisted of young men, older players, and those with a military classification of 4F, indicating mental, physical, or moral unsuitability for service. Men like Pete Gray, a one-armed outfielder, got the chance to advance to the major leagues. However, MLB rosters did not include any black players through the end of the war.[76] Black players, many of whom served in the war, were still restricted to playing Negro league baseball.[77] Wartime blackout restrictions, designed to keep outdoor lighting at low levels, caused another problem for baseball. These rules limited traveling and night games to the point that the 1942 season nearly had to be canceled.[77] On January 14, 1942, MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and pleaded for the continuation of baseball during the war in hopes for a start of a new major league season. President Roosevelt responded, "I honestly feel that it would be best for the country to keep baseball going. There will be fewer people unemployed and everybody will work longer hours and harder than ever before. And that means that they ought to have a chance for recreation and for taking their minds off their work even more than before."[78] With the approval of President Roosevelt, spring training began in 1942 with few repercussions. The war interrupted the careers of stars including Stan Musial, Bob Feller, Ted Williams, and Joe DiMaggio, but baseball clubs continued to field their teams.[79] Breaking the color barrier[edit] Main article: Baseball
Baseball
color line Branch Rickey, president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, began making efforts to introduce a black baseball player to the previously all-white professional baseball leagues in the mid-1940s. He selected Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
from a list of promising Negro league players. After obtaining a commitment from Robinson to "turn the other cheek" to any racial antagonism directed at him, Rickey agreed to sign him to a contract for $600 a month. In what was later referred to as "The Noble Experiment", Robinson was the first black baseball player in the International League
International League
since the 1880s, joining the Dodgers' farm club, the Montreal Royals, for the 1946 season.[80] The following year, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his major league debut at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, including more than 14,000 black patrons. Black baseball fans began flocking to see the Dodgers when they came to town, abandoning the Negro league teams that they had followed exclusively. Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspaper writers and white major league players. Manager Leo Durocher
Leo Durocher
informed his team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded."[81] After a strike threat by some players, NL President Ford Frick
Ford Frick
and Baseball
Baseball
Commissioner Happy Chandler
Happy Chandler
let it be known that any striking players would be suspended. Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players, including Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese
Pee Wee Reese
who said, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them."[82] That year, Robinson won the inaugural Major League Baseball
Baseball
Rookie of the Year Award (separate NL and AL Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949).[83] Less than three months later, Larry Doby
Larry Doby
became the first African-American to break the color barrier in the American League with the Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians.[84] The next year, a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Satchel Paige
Satchel Paige
was signed by the Indians and the Dodgers added star catcher Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
and Don Newcombe, who was later the first winner of the Cy Young
Cy Young
Award for his outstanding pitching.[85] Women in Baseball[edit] Main article: Women in baseball Major League Baseball
Baseball
banned the signing of women to contracts in 1952, but that ban was lifted in 1992.[86] As of 2018, there have been no female professional players in the MLB. Expanding west, south and north[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
relocation of 1950s–1960s

Dodger Stadium
Dodger Stadium
in 2007

From 1903 to 1953, the two major leagues consisted of two eight-team leagues. The 16 teams were located in ten cities, all in the northeastern and midwestern United States: New York City
New York City
had three teams and Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and St. Louis
St. Louis
each had two teams. St. Louis
St. Louis
was the southernmost and westernmost city with a major league team. The longest possible road trip, from Boston
Boston
to St. Louis, took about 24 hours by railroad. In 1953, the NL's Boston Braves became the Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Braves. In 1954, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns became the Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles. In 1955, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Athletics became the Kansas City Athletics. Baseball
Baseball
experts consider the Brooklyn/ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers' boss Walter O'Malley
Walter O'Malley
to be "perhaps the most influential owner of baseball's early expansion era."[87] Before the 1958 Major League Baseball
Baseball
season, he moved the Brooklyn Dodgers to Los Angeles.[88] When O'Malley moved the Dodgers from Brooklyn, he appeared on the cover of Time.[89] O'Malley was also influential in persuading the rival New York Giants to move west to become the San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants. The Giants were already suffering from slumping attendance records at their aging ballpark, the Polo Grounds. Had the Dodgers moved out west alone, the St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals—1,600 mi (2,575 km) away[90][91]—would have been the closest NL team. The joint move made West Coast road trips economical for visiting teams.[92] O'Malley invited San Francisco
San Francisco
Mayor George Christopher
George Christopher
to New York to meet with Giants owner Horace Stoneham.[92] Stoneham was considering moving the Giants to Minnesota,[93] but he was convinced to join O'Malley on the West Coast at the end of 1957. The meetings between Stoneham, Christopher and O'Malley occurred against the wishes of Ford Frick, the Commissioner of Baseball.[94] The dual moves were successful for both franchises—and for MLB.[88] The Dodgers set a single-game MLB attendance record in their first home appearance with 78,672 fans.[92] In 1961, the first Washington Senators franchise moved to Minneapolis–St. Paul to become the Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins. Two new teams were added to the American League
American League
at the same time: the Los Angeles Angels (who soon moved from downtown L.A. to nearby Anaheim) and a new Washington Senators franchise. The NL added the Houston Astros
Houston Astros
and the New York Mets
New York Mets
in 1962. The Astros (known as the "Colt .45s" during their first three seasons) became the first southern major league franchise since the Louisville Colonels folded in 1899 and the first franchise to be located along the Gulf Coast. The Mets established a reputation for futility by going 40–120 during their first season of play in the nation's media capital—and by playing only a little better in subsequent campaigns—but in their eighth season (1969) the Mets became the first of the 1960s expansion teams to play in the postseason, culminating in a World Series
World Series
title over the heavily favored Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles. In 1966, the major leagues moved to the "Deep South" when the Braves moved to Atlanta. In 1968, the Kansas City Athletics
Kansas City Athletics
moved west to become the Oakland Athletics. In 1969, the American and National Leagues both added two expansion franchises. The American League
American League
added the Seattle
Seattle
Pilots (who became the Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
after one disastrous season in Seattle) and the Kansas City Royals. The NL added the first Canadian franchise, the Montreal Expos, as well as the San Diego Padres. In 1972, the second Washington Senators moved to the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex to become the Texas Rangers. In 1977, baseball expanded again, adding a second Canadian team, the Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays, as well as the Seattle
Seattle
Mariners. Subsequently, no new teams were added until the 1990s and no teams moved until 2005. In 1993, the NL added the Florida Marlins
Florida Marlins
in the Miami
Miami
area and the Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies
in Denver. In 1998, the Brewers switched leagues by joining the National League and two new teams were added: the NL's Arizona Diamondbacks
Arizona Diamondbacks
in Phoenix and the American League's Tampa Bay Devil Rays
Tampa Bay Devil Rays
in St. Petersburg, Florida. After the 2001 season, the team owners voted in favor of contraction. Several MLB teams had been considered for elimination in early talks about contraction, but the Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
and the Minnesota Twins
Minnesota Twins
were the two teams that came closest to folding under the plan. Plans for MLB contraction were halted when the Twins landlord was awarded a court injunction that required the team to play its 2002 home games at their stadium. MLB owners agreed to hold off on reducing the league's size until at least 2006.[95] The Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
became the first franchise in over three decades to move when they became the Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
in 2005. This move left Canada with just one team, but it also returned baseball to the United States capital city after a 33-year absence. This franchise shift, like many previous ones, involved baseball's return to a city which had been previously abandoned. Not counting the short-lived Federal League, Montreal is the only city granted an MLB franchise since 1901 that does not currently host a team. Pitching dominance and rule changes[edit]

Graph showing, by year, the average number of runs per MLB game

By the late 1960s, the balance between pitching and hitting had swung in favor of the pitchers. In 1968—later nicknamed "the year of the pitcher"[96]— Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
player Carl Yastrzemski
Carl Yastrzemski
won the American League batting title with an average of just .301, the lowest in the history of Major League Baseball.[97] Detroit Tigers
Detroit Tigers
pitcher Denny McLain won 31 games, making him the only pitcher to win 30 games in a season since Dizzy Dean
Dizzy Dean
in 1934.[98] St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
starting pitcher Bob Gibson
Bob Gibson
achieved an equally remarkable feat by allowing an ERA of just 1.12.[99] Following these pitching performances, in December 1968 the MLB Playing Rules Committee voted to reduce the strike zone from knees to shoulders to top of knees to armpits and lower the pitcher's mound from 15 to 10 inches, beginning in the 1969 season.[100] In 1973, the American League, which had been suffering from much lower attendance than the National League, sought to increase scoring even further by initiating the designated hitter (DH) rule.[101] New stadiums and artificial surfaces[edit] Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, as baseball expanded, NFL football had been surging in popularity, making it economical for many of these cities to build multi-purpose stadiums instead of single-purpose baseball fields. Because of climate and economic issues, many of these facilities had playing surfaces made from artificial turf, as well as the oval designs characteristic of stadiums designed to house both baseball and football.[102] This often resulted in baseball fields with relatively more foul territory than older stadiums. These characteristics changed the nature of professional baseball, putting a higher premium on speed and defense over home-run hitting power, since the fields were often too big for teams to expect to hit many home runs and foul balls hit in the air could more easily be caught for outs. Teams began to be built around pitching—particularly their bullpens—and speed on the basepaths. Artificial surfaces meant balls traveled quicker and bounced higher, so it became easier to hit ground balls "in the hole" between the corner and middle infielders. Starting pitchers were no longer expected to throw complete games; it was enough for a starter to go 6–7 innings and turn the game over to the team's closer, a position which grew in importance over these decades. As stolen bases increased, home run totals dropped. After Willie Mays hit 52 home runs in 1965, only one player (George Foster) reached that mark until the 1990s. Steroid Era[edit] Routinely in the late 1990s and early 2000s, baseball players hit 40 or 50 home runs in a season, a feat that was considered rare even in the 1980s. It has since become apparent that at least some of this power surge was a result of players using steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs. Uniforms[edit] Main articles: Major League Baseball
Baseball
uniforms and Baseball
Baseball
uniform

A baseball team and its uniforms in the 1870s. Note that the team is integrated, in contrast to 20th century MLB, which was segregated until 1947.

A baseball uniform is a type of uniform worn by baseball players, and by some non-playing personnel, such as field managers and coaches. It is worn to indicate the person's role in the game and—through the use of logos, colors, and numbers—to identify the teams and their players, managers, and coaches.[103] Traditionally, home uniforms display the team name on the front, while away uniforms display the team's home location. In modern times, however, exceptions to this pattern have become common, with teams using their team name on both uniforms.[104] Most teams also have one or more alternate uniforms, usually consisting of the primary or secondary team color on the vest instead of the usual white or gray.[104] In the past few decades throwback uniforms have become popular.[105] The New York Knickerbockers were the first baseball team to use uniforms, taking the field on April 4, 1849, in pants made of blue wool, white flannel shirts (jerseys) and straw hats.[106][107][108] Caps and other types of headgear have been a part of baseball uniforms from the beginning.[109][110] Baseball
Baseball
teams often wore full-brimmed straw hats or no cap at all since there was no official rule regarding headgear.[111] Under the 1882 uniform rules, players on the same team wore uniforms of different colors and patterns that indicated which position they played.[112] In the late 1880s, the Detroit
Detroit
Wolverines and Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
of the National League
National League
and the Brooklyn Bridegrooms
Brooklyn Bridegrooms
of the American Association were the first to wear striped uniforms.[113] By the end of the 19th century, teams began the practice of having two different uniforms, one for when they played at home in their own baseball stadium and a different one for when they played away (on the road) at the other team's ballpark.[104] It became common to wear white pants with a white color vest at home and gray pants with a gray or solid (dark) colored vest when away.[104] By 1900, both home and away uniforms were standard across the major leagues.[114] Season structure[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
schedule Spring training[edit] Main article: Spring training

A Grapefruit League
Grapefruit League
game at the former Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
camp in Vero Beach, Florida

Spring training
Spring training
is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training
Spring training
allows new players to audition for roster and position spots, and gives existing team players practice time prior to competitive play. The teams are divided into the Cactus League[115] and the Grapefruit League.[116] Spring training
Spring training
has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warmer climates to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, and spring training usually coincides with spring break for many college students. Autograph seekers also find greater access to players during spring training. Spring training
Spring training
typically lasts almost two months, starting in mid February and running until just before the season opening day, traditionally the first week of April. As pitchers benefit from a longer training period, pitchers and catchers begin spring training several days before the rest of the team.[117] Regular season[edit] The current MLB regular season, consisting of 162 games per team, typically begins on the first Sunday in April and ends on the first Sunday in October. Each team's schedule is typically organized into three-game series, with occasional two- or four-game series.[118] Postponed games or continuations of suspended games can result in an ad hoc one-game or five-game series. A team's series are organized into homestands and road trips that group multiple series together. Teams generally play games five to seven days per week, commonly having Monday or Thursday as an off day. Frequently, games are scheduled at night. Sunday games are generally played during the afternoon, allowing teams to travel to their next destination prior to a Monday night game. In addition, teams will play day games frequently on Opening Day, holidays, and getaway days. Each team plays 19 games against each of its four divisional opponents. It plays one home series and one away series, amounting to six or seven games, against the 10 other teams in its league. A team also plays one of the divisions in the other league, rotating each year, with two opponents in a three-game home series, two in a three-game away series, and one with four games split between home and away. Furthermore, each team has an interleague "natural rival" (in many cases its counterpart in the same metro area) with which it plays two home games and two away games each year. With an odd number of teams in each league (15), it is necessary to have two teams participate in interleague play for most days in the season, except when two or more teams have a day off. Each team plays 20 interleague games throughout the season, usually with just one interleague game per day, but for one weekend in late May all teams will participate in an interleague series. Use of the DH rule is determined by the home team's league rules. Before 2013, interleague play was structured differently: there would be one weekend in mid-May and another period consisting typically of the last two-thirds of June in which all teams played interleague games (save for two NL teams each day), and no interleague games were scheduled outside those dates. (Before 2013, season-long interleague play was not necessary, because each league had an even number of teams. In 2013, the Houston Astros moved to the American League, so that each league would have 15 teams.[119]) Over the course of a season, teams compete for one of the five playoff berths in their league. They can win one of these berths by either winning their division, or by capturing a wild card spot.[120] After the conclusion of the 162-game season, an additional tie-breaking game (or games) may be needed to determine postseason participation.[121] All-Star Game[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
All-Star Game

President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
throwing out the first pitch at the 1962 All-Star Game at DC Stadium

In early-to-mid July, just after the midway point of the season, the Major League Baseball
Baseball
All-Star Game is held during a four-day break from the regular-season schedule. The All-Star Game features a team of players from the American League
American League
(AL)—led by the manager of the previous AL World Series
World Series
team—and a team of players from the National League
National League
(NL), similarly managed, in an exhibition game. From 1959 to 1962, two games were held each season, one was held in July and one was held in August. The designated-hitter rule was used in the All-Star Game for the first time in 1989. Following games used a DH when the game was played in an AL ballpark. Since 2010, the DH rule has been in effect regardless of venue.[122] The first official All-Star Game was held as part of the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago, Illinois, and was the idea of Arch Ward, then sports editor for The Chicago
Chicago
Tribune.[123] Initially intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one. Ward's contribution was recognized by Major League Baseball
Baseball
in 1962 with the creation of the " Arch Ward Trophy", given to the All-Star Game's Most Valuable Player each year.[124] (In 1970, it was renamed the Commissioner's Trophy, until 1985, when the name change was reversed. In 2002, it was renamed the Ted Williams
Ted Williams
Most Valuable Player Award.) Beginning in 1947, the eight position players in each team's starting lineup have been voted into the game by fans.[125] The fan voting was discontinued after a 1957 ballot-box-stuffing scandal in Cincinnati: seven of the eight slots originally went to Reds players, two of whom were subsequently removed from the lineup to make room for Willie Mays and Hank Aaron. Fan voting was reinstated in 1970 and has continued ever since, including Internet voting in recent years. The 2002 contest in Milwaukee
Milwaukee
controversially ended in an 11-inning tie when both managers ran out of pitchers. In response, starting in 2003 the league which wins the All-Star game received home-field advantage in the World Series: the league champion hosted the first two games at its own ballpark as well as the last two (if necessary). The National League
National League
did not win an All-Star game and thus gain home-field advantage until 2010; it was able to overcome this disadvantage and win in three of the seven World Series
World Series
from 2003 to 2009.[126][127] This was discontinued after the 2016 season. MLB All-Stars from both leagues have worn uniforms from their respective teams at the game with one exception. In the 1933 All-Star Game, the National League
National League
All-Star Team members wore special gray uniforms with "National League" written in navy blue letters across the front of the jersey.[128][129] Postseason[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
postseason

World Series
World Series
Records

Team Number of Series won Last Series won Series played

New York Yankees
New York Yankees
(AL) † 27 2009 40

St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
(NL) 11 2011 19

Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
(AL) † 9 1989 14

San Francisco Giants
San Francisco Giants
(NL) † 8 2014 20

Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
(AL) † 8 2013 12

Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
(NL) † 6 1988 19

Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds (NL) 5 1990 9

Pittsburgh Pirates
Pittsburgh Pirates
(NL) 5 1979 7

Detroit Tigers
Detroit Tigers
(AL) 4 1984 11

Chicago Cubs
Chicago Cubs
(NL) 3 2016 11

Atlanta Braves
Atlanta Braves
(NL) † 3 1995 9

Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
(AL) † 3 1983 7

Minnesota Twins
Minnesota Twins
(AL) † 3 1991 6

Chicago White Sox
Chicago White Sox
(AL) 3 2005 5

Philadelphia Phillies
Philadelphia Phillies
(NL) 2 2008 7

Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
(AL) 2 1948 6

New York Mets
New York Mets
(NL) 2 1986 5

Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Royals
(AL) 2 2015 4

Toronto Blue Jays
Toronto Blue Jays
(AL) 2 1993 2

Miami Marlins
Miami Marlins
(NL) † 2 2003 2

Houston Astros
Houston Astros
(NL to AL, 2013) † 1 [AL] 2017 2 (1 [NL], 1 [AL])

Arizona Diamondbacks
Arizona Diamondbacks
(NL) 1 2001 1

Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels
(AL) † 1 2002 1

San Diego Padres
San Diego Padres
(NL) 0   2

Texas Rangers (AL) † 0   2

Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
(AL to NL, 1998) † 0   1 [AL]

Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies
(NL) 0   1

Tampa Bay Rays
Tampa Bay Rays
(AL) † 0   1

Seattle Mariners
Seattle Mariners
(AL) 0   0

Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
(NL) † 0   0

AL=American League NL=National League

† Totals include a team's record in a previous city or under another name (see team article for details).

‡ Have not yet played in a World Series.

More detail at World Series
World Series
and List of World Series
World Series
champions Source: MLB.com

When the regular season ends after the first Sunday in October (or the last Sunday in September), ten teams enter the postseason playoffs. These ten teams consist of six teams that are division champions by earning the best regular season overall win-loss record for their respective divisions, and four who are "wild-card" teams that are each one of two teams in their respective leagues who have earned the best regular season win-loss record, but are not division champions. Four rounds of series of games are played to determine the champion:

Wild Card Game, a one-game playoff between the two wild-card teams in each league. American League
American League
Division Series and National League
National League
Division Series, each a best-of-five-games series. American League
American League
Championship Series and National League
National League
Championship Series, each a best-of-seven-games series played between the winning teams from the Division Series. The league champions are informally referred to as the pennant winners. World Series, a best-of-seven-games series played between the pennant winners of each league.

Within each league, the division winners are the #1, #2 and #3 seeds, based on win–loss records. The team with the best record among non division winners will be the first wildcard and the #4 seed. The team with the second best record among non division winners will be the second wildcard and the #5 seed. In the wildcard round, the #5 seed will play at the #4 seed in a one-game playoff. For the division series, the matchup will be the #1 seed against the Wild Card Game winner and the #2 seed against the #3 seed.[130] Since 2017, home-field advantage in the World Series
World Series
is determined by regular-season records of the two league champions, replacing a system used for the prior 14 seasons where the champion of the league that won the All-Star Game would receive home-field advantage. Because each postseason series is split between the home fields of the two teams, home-field advantage does not usually play a large role in the postseason unless the series goes to its maximum number of games, giving one team an additional game at home. However, the first two games of a postseason series are hosted by the same team. That team may have an increased chance of starting the series with two wins,[131] thereby gaining some momentum for the rest of the series.[132] Use of the DH rule in the World Series
World Series
is only used when the series is at the American League
American League
Champions' home field. National League
National League
home games will play the traditional rules with each teams pitching staff batting.[133] International play[edit] See also: MLB Japan
Japan
All-Star Series Since 1986 an All-Star team from MLB is sent to a biennial end-of-the-season tour of Japan, dubbed as MLB Japan
Japan
All-Star Series, playing exhibition games in a best-of format against the All-Stars from Nippon Professional Baseball
Baseball
(NPB) or recently as of 2014 their national team Samurai Japan. In 2008, MLB played the MLB China Series in the People's Republic of China. It was a series of two spring-training games between the San Diego Padres and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers. The games were an effort to popularize baseball in China.[134] MLB played the MLB Taiwan Series in Taiwan in November 2011. It was a series of five exhibition games played by a team made up of MLB players called the MLB All-Stars and the Chinese Taipei National Team. The MLB All-Stars swept the series, five games to zero.[135] At the end of the 2011 season, it was announced that the Seattle Mariners
Seattle Mariners
and the Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
would play their season openers in Japan.[136] In October 2013, Phil Rogers of the Chicago
Chicago
Tribune wrote that MLB was considering postseason all-star tours in Taiwan and Korea; baseball is increasing in popularity in both countries.[137] The Arizona Diamondbacks
Arizona Diamondbacks
opened the 2014 season against Los Angeles Dodgers on March 22–23 in Australia.[138] The teams played each other at the historic Sydney Cricket Ground, which has a seating capacity of 46,000. The two games represented the first MLB regular-season play held in that country. The games counted as home games for the Diamondbacks, so they played 79 home games at Chase Field.[139] Together with the World Baseball
Baseball
Softball Confederation, MLB sponsors the World Baseball
Baseball
Classic, an international baseball tournament contested by national teams. Steroids in baseball[edit] See also: Banned substances in baseball in the United States
Banned substances in baseball in the United States
and List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
players suspended for performance-enhancing drugs

Rafael Palmeiro
Rafael Palmeiro
(batter), one of the MLB players suspended for steroid use[140]

In 1998, both Mark McGwire
Mark McGwire
and Sammy Sosa
Sammy Sosa
hit more than the long-standing single-season MLB record of 61 home runs. Barry Bonds topped the record in 2001 with 73 home runs. McGwire, Bonds and Sosa became the subjects of speculation regarding the use of performance-enhancing substances. McGwire later admitted that he used a steroid hormone that was still legal in baseball during the 1998 season.[141] Baseball's original steroid testing policy, in effect from 2002 to 2005, provided for penalties ranging from a ten-game suspension for a first positive test to a one-year suspension for a fourth positive test. Players were tested at least once per year, with the chance that several players could be tested many times per year.[142] A 2006 book, Game of Shadows
Game of Shadows
by San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle investigative reporters Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada, chronicled alleged extensive use of performance enhancers, including several types of steroids and growth hormone by baseball superstars Barry Bonds, Gary Sheffield, and Jason Giambi. Former Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell was appointed by Selig on March 30, 2006[143] to investigate the use of performance-enhancing drugs in MLB. The appointment was made after several influential members of the U.S. Congress made negative comments about both the effectiveness and honesty of MLB's drug policies and Commissioner Selig.[144] The day before the Mitchell Report
Mitchell Report
was to be released in 2007, Selig said, "I haven't seen the report yet, but I'm proud I did it."[145][146] The report said that after mandatory random testing began in 2004, HGH treatment for athletic enhancement became popular among players, as HGH is not detectable in tests. It pointed out that HGH is likely a placebo with no performance-enhancing effects.[147] The report included substance use allegations against at least one player from each MLB team.[148] According to ESPN, some people questioned whether Mitchell's director role with the Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
created a conflict of interest, especially because no "prime [Sox] players were in the report."[149] The report named several prominent Yankees who were parts of World Series clubs; there is a long-running and fierce Yankees–Red Sox rivalry. Former U.S. prosecutor John M. Dowd brought up Mitchell's conflict of interest,[150] but he later said that the former senator had done a good job.[151] Mitchell acknowledged that his "tight relationship with Major League Baseball
Baseball
left him open to criticism",[152] but he said that readers who examine the report closely "will not find any evidence of bias, of special treatment of the Red Sox".[152] On January 10, 2013, MLB and the players union reached an agreement to add random, in-season HGH testing. They also agreed to implement a new test to reveal the use of testosterone for the 2013 season.[153] The current MLB drug policy provides for an 80-game suspension for a first positive test, a 162-game suspension for a second positive test, and a lifetime suspension for a third positive test.[154] In 2009, allegations surfaced against Alex Rodriguez
Alex Rodriguez
and David Ortiz, and Manny Ramirez received a 50-game suspension after testing positive for banned substances. In early April 2011, Ramirez retired from baseball rather than face a 100-game suspension for his second positive steroid test.[155] He would later unretire, having the suspension dropped to 50 games, and would serve those in 2012. Media coverage[edit] Television[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
on television See also: List of current Major League Baseball
Baseball
broadcasters Several networks televise baseball games, including Fox, ESPN, and MLB Network. Since 2008, Fox Sports has broadcast MLB games on Fox Saturday Baseball
Baseball
throughout the entire season; Fox previously only broadcast games from May to September.[156] Fox also holds rights to the All-Star Game each season. Fox also alternates League Championship Series broadcasts, broadcasting the American League
American League
Championship Series (ALCS) in odd-numbered years and the National League Championship Series (NLCS) in even-numbered years. Fox broadcasts all games of the World Series. ESPN
ESPN
continues to broadcast MLB games through 2013 as well, beginning with national Opening Day coverage.[157] ESPN
ESPN
broadcasts Sunday Night Baseball, Monday Night Baseball, Wednesday Night Baseball, and Baseball
Baseball
Tonight. ESPN
ESPN
also has rights to the Home Run Derby
Home Run Derby
at the All-Star Game each July.[146] TBS airs Sunday afternoon regular season games (non-exclusive) nationally. In 2007, TBS began its exclusive rights to any tiebreaker games that determine division or wild card champions; it also airs exclusive coverage of the Division Series round of the playoffs.[158] TBS carries the League Championship Series
League Championship Series
that are not included under Fox's television agreement; TBS shows the NLCS in odd-numbered years and the ALCS in even-numbered years.[159] In January 2009, MLB launched the MLB Network, featuring news and coverage from around the league, and airing 26 live games in the 2009 season.[160] Each team also has local broadcasts for all games not carried by Fox on Saturdays or ESPN
ESPN
on Sunday nights. These games are typically split between a local broadcast television station and a local or regional sports network (RSN), though some teams only air local games through RSNs or through their own team networks. As Canada only contains one team, Sportsnet
Sportsnet
broadcasts Toronto Blue Jays
Toronto Blue Jays
games nationally.[161] The channel is owned by Rogers Communications, who is also the parent company of the Blue Jays.[161] Sportsnet
Sportsnet
also televises Fox's Saturday afternoon games, the All-Star Game, playoff games, and the World Series.[161][162] In April 2011, TSN2
TSN2
began carrying ESPN
ESPN
Sunday Night Baseball
Baseball
in Canada.[163] Blackout policy[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
blackout policy See also: Syndication exclusivity

MLB blackout map in the United States

Canadian MLB blackout map

MLB has several blackout rules.[164] A local broadcaster has priority to televise games of the team in their market over national broadcasters. For example, at one time TBS showed many Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves games nationally and internationally in Canada. Fox Sports Networks also show many games in other areas. If the Braves played a team that FSN or another local broadcaster showed, the local station will have the broadcast rights for its own local market, while TBS would have been blacked out in the same market during the game. A market that has a local team playing in a weekday ESPN
ESPN
or ESPN2
ESPN2
game and is shown on a local station will see ESPNews, or, in the past, another game scheduled on ESPN
ESPN
or ESPN2
ESPN2
at the same time (if ESPN
ESPN
or ESPN2
ESPN2
operates a regional coverage broadcasting and operates a game choice), or will be subject to an alternative programming feed.[165] MLB's streaming Internet video service is also subject to the same blackout rules. Radio and Internet[edit] Main article: Major League Baseball
Baseball
on the radio ESPN
ESPN
Radio holds national broadcast rights and broadcasts Sunday Night Baseball
Baseball
weekly throughout the season in addition to all playoff games.[166] The rights to the World Series
World Series
are exclusive to ESPN. In addition, each team employs its own announcers, who broadcast during the regular season. Most teams operate regional networks to cover their fan bases; some of these supposedly regional networks (such as the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
Radio Network) have a national reach with affiliates located across the United States.[167] Major League Baseball
Baseball
has an exclusive rights deal with XM Satellite Radio, which includes the channel MLB Network
MLB Network
Radio and live play-by-play of all games.[168] Many teams also maintain a network of stations that broadcast their games in Spanish; the former Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
broadcast their games in both English and French. MLB games are also broadcast live on the internet. All television and radio broadcasts of games are available via subscription to MLB.tv
MLB.tv
at Major League Baseball's website, MLB.com, and radio-only broadcasts are also available via subscription to MLB.com
MLB.com
Gameday Audio.[169] Radio station affiliates are officially forbidden from streaming games through their Internet feeds. Blackout rules are still applied for live television broadcasts, but not radio broadcasts. International broadcasting[edit] ESPN
ESPN
Deportes televises a large number of MLB games in Spanish throughout Latin America.[170] Wapa 2 airs games in Puerto Rico, including spring training games and most of the World Baseball
Baseball
Classic games involving the team from Puerto Rico.[171] In Brazil, ESPN
ESPN
Brasil has exclusive rights on TV ( ESPN
ESPN
and ESPN+) and Internet (WatchESPN),[172] with Fox Sports also broadcasting some games. Five in the United Kingdom previously screened MLB games, including the All-Star Game and the postseason games, on Sunday and Wednesday usually starting at 1 am BST. Most recently, Johnny Gould and Josh Chetwynd
Josh Chetwynd
presented MLB on Five on that station.[173] The channel covered baseball beginning on its opening night in 1997, but for financial reasons, the decision was made not to pick up MLB for the 2009 season.[174] ESPN
ESPN
UK show live and recorded games several times a week—it is available with BT Sport
BT Sport
and (on a subscriber-basis) Virgin Media in the UK.[175] ESPN
ESPN
America televised a large number of games in the UK and dozens of other countries; in May 2013, ESPN announced that it would shut down the channel on July 31, 2013.[176][177] In Australia, MLB games are regularly shown on ESPN
ESPN
Australia (subscription).[178] In the Middle East & North Africa, MLB games are broadcast on beIN Sports channels.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Baseball
Baseball
portal

Australian Baseball
Baseball
League Baseball
Baseball
Assistance Team (B.A.T.) Baseball
Baseball
in the United States Baseball
Baseball
in Canada Going To Bat Foundation List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
awards List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
retired numbers List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
spring training ballparks List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
stadiums List of all-time Major League Baseball
Baseball
win-loss records List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
managers Hall of Fame Magic number MLB attendance MLB Industry Growth Fund Major League Baseball
Baseball
Players Association, the labor union representing players for collective bargaining negotiations with franchise owners Reviving Baseball
Baseball
in Inner Cities (RBI) (ages 13–18) National all-stars tournament (ages 16–18) List of professional sports leagues Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada List of professional sports teams in the United States and Canada List of American and Canadian cities by number of major professional sports franchises

References[edit]

^ "The Commissionership: A Historical Perspective". Major League Baseball
Baseball
Advanced Media. Retrieved March 11, 2016. The strength of the American League
American League
grew as an increasing number of National League players opted for the higher salaries offered by the new association. Faced with the prospect of losing many of its best players, the NL chose peace and declared the AL its equal in 1903. This led to a new National Agreement and the birth of the World Series. The American and National Leagues were established as major leagues and all other associations comprised the minor leagues, which fell under the jurisdiction of the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues.  ^ a b c Noble, Marty (September 23, 2011). "MLB carries on strong, 200,000 games later: Look what they started on a ballfield in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1876". MLB.com. MLB Advanced Media. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2018.  ^ "MLB Executives". MLB.com. Retrieved September 19, 2017.  ^ "Team-by-team information". MLB.com. Retrieved September 19, 2017.  ^ " World Series
World Series
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Further reading[edit]

Banner, Stuart. The Baseball
Baseball
Trust: A History of Baseball's Antitrust Exemption. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. Bouton, Jim. Ball Four: My Life and Hard Times Throwing the Knuckleball in the Major Leagues. World Publishing Company, 1970. Buchanan, Lamont, The World Series
World Series
and Highlights of Baseball, E. P. Dutton & Company, 1951. Cohen, Richard M., Neft, David, Johnson, Roland T., Deutsch, Jordan A., The World Series, 1976, Dial Press. Deutsch, Jordan A., Cohen, Richard M., Neft, David, Johnson, Roland T., The Scrapbook History of Baseball, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1975. King, Corretta. Jackie Robinson. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. James, Bill. The Historical Baseball
Baseball
Abstract. New York: Villard, 1985 (with many subsequent editions). Lanigan, Ernest, Baseball
Baseball
Cyclopedia, 1922, originally published by Baseball
Baseball
Magazine. Lansch, Jerry, Glory Fades Away: The Nineteenth Century World Series Rediscovered, Taylor Publishing, 1991. ISBN 0-87833-726-1. Murphy, Cait. Crazy '08: How a Cast of Cranks, Rogues, Boneheads, and Magnates Created the Greatest Year in Baseball
Baseball
History. New York: Smithsonian Books, 2007. ISBN 978-0-06-088937-1. Okkonen, Marc. Baseball
Baseball
Uniforms of the 20th Century: The Official Major League Baseball
Baseball
Guide, 1991. Ritter, Lawrence. The Glory of their Times. New York: MacMillan, 1966. Revised edition, New York: William Morrow, 1984. Ross, Brian. "Band of Brothers". Minor League News, April 6, 2005. Available at Minor League News. Seymour, Harold. Baseball: The Early Years. 2v. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960. ISBN 0-19-500100-1. Turkin, Hy, and Thompson, S. C., The Official Encyclopedia of Baseball, 1951, A.S. Barnes and Company Tygiel, Jules. Past Time: Baseball
Baseball
as History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-514604-2. The New York Times, The Complete Book of Baseball: A Scrapbook History, 1980, Bobbs Merrill.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutMajor League Baseballat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Official website ArmchairGM MLB Portal Ballparks.com Baseball
Baseball
History Site Baseball
Baseball
Prospectus Baseball
Baseball
Think Factory Boxscore Archive contains official play-by-play and boxscores since 2002. ESPN
ESPN
Baseball
Baseball
Index ESPN
ESPN
Video Archive: Major League Baseball Pitch In For Baseball
Baseball
– A MLB and MLB International partner charity The Baseball
Baseball
Page Urban Youth Academy (MLB) "MLB, China Baseball
Baseball
League Team to Tour China", VOAnews.com, March 3, 2005. Voice of America.

v t e

Major League Baseball
Baseball
(2018)

American League

East

Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles Boston
Boston
Red Sox New York Yankees Tampa Bay Rays Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays

Central

Chicago
Chicago
White Sox Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians Detroit
Detroit
Tigers Kansas City Royals Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins

West

Houston
Houston
Astros Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Angels Oakland Athletics Seattle
Seattle
Mariners Texas Rangers

National League

East

Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves Miami
Miami
Marlins New York Mets Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies Washington Nationals

Central

Chicago
Chicago
Cubs Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Brewers Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals

West

Arizona Diamondbacks Colorado Rockies Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers San Diego
San Diego
Padres San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants

Schedule

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Jackie Robinson
Day Civil Rights Game All-Star Game Interleague play International games World Baseball
Baseball
Classic

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AL

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Business

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History

History

AL

Seasons Tie-breakers

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Records Awards Retired numbers Hall of Fame

Steroid usage

Drug policy

suspensions

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Barry Bonds
perjury case

Timeline

Timeline of Major League Baseball

History of team nicknames

Dead-ball era Live-ball era Golden age of baseball Defunct and relocated teams Relocation of the 1950s–60s Expansion

1961 1962 1969 1977 1993 1998

Commissioner: Rob Manfred League Presidents

NL AL

v t e

American League

Organization

Parent league: Major League Baseball Partner league: National League Origins: (History Western League) Honorary president: Frank Robinson

Current teams

East

Baltimore
Baltimore
Orioles Boston
Boston
Red Sox New York Yankees Tampa Bay Rays Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays

Central

Chicago
Chicago
White Sox Cleveland
Cleveland
Indians Detroit
Detroit
Tigers Kansas City Royals Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins

West

Houston
Houston
Astros Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Angels Oakland Athletics Seattle
Seattle
Mariners Texas Rangers

Former, relocated, and disestablished teams

Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
(1901–1902) Kansas City Athletics
Kansas City Athletics
(1955–1967) Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
I (1901) Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
II (1970–1997) Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Athletics (1901–1954) Seattle
Seattle
Pilots (1969) St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns (1902–1953) Washington Senators I (1901–1960) Washington Senators II (1961–1971)

Championship play

List of champions Championship Series Division Series Wild Card winners

Related articles

Designated hitter Professional baseball

v t e

National League

Organization

Parent league: Major League Baseball Partner league: American League Honorary president: Bill Giles

Current teams

East

Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves Miami
Miami
Marlins New York Mets Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Phillies Washington Nationals

Central

Chicago
Chicago
Cubs Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Brewers Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Pirates St. Louis
St. Louis
Cardinals

West

Arizona Diamondbacks Colorado Rockies Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers San Diego
San Diego
Padres San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants

Former, relocated, and disestablished teams

19th-century National League
National League
teams Boston
Boston
Beaneaters/Braves (1883–1952) Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Braves (1953–1965) Brooklyn Dodgers (1883–1957) New York Giants (1883–1957) Houston
Houston
Colt .45s/Astros (1962–2012) Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
(1969–2004)

Championship play

List of champions Championship Series Division Series Wild Card winners

Related articles

Professional baseball

v t e

Histories of teams in Major League Baseball

American League

East

Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
New York Yankees
New York Yankees
• Tampa Bay Rays • Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays

Central

Chicago White Sox
Chicago White Sox
Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
Detroit Tigers
Detroit Tigers
• Kansas City Royals • Minnesota
Minnesota
Twins

West

Houston Astros
Houston Astros
Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels
Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
Seattle Mariners
Seattle Mariners
• Texas Rangers

National League

East

Atlanta Braves
Atlanta Braves
Miami Marlins
Miami Marlins
New York Mets
New York Mets
• Philadelphia Phillies • Washington Nationals

Central

Chicago Cubs
Chicago Cubs
Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Reds • Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
• Pittsburgh Pirates • St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
(Part I · II · III · IV)

West

Arizona Diamondbacks
Arizona Diamondbacks
Colorado Rockies
Colorado Rockies
Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
San Diego Padres
San Diego Padres
San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants

Relocated teams

Milwaukee Brewers
Milwaukee Brewers
(1901) • Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
(1901–02) • Boston Braves (1870–1953) • St. Louis
St. Louis
Browns (1902–53) • Philadelphia Athletics (1901–54) • New York Giants (1883–1957) • Brooklyn Dodgers (1883–1957) • Washington Senators (1901–60) • Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Braves (1953–65) • Kansas City Athletics
Kansas City Athletics
(1955–67) • Seattle
Seattle
Pilots (1969) • Washington Senators (1961–71) • Montreal Expos (1969–2004)

Defunct teams

New York Mutuals
New York Mutuals
(1876) • Athletic of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(1876) • Hartford Dark Blues
Hartford Dark Blues
(1875–76) • St. Louis
St. Louis
Brown Stockings (1876–77) • Louisville Grays
Louisville Grays
(1876–77) • Indianapolis Blues (1878) • Milwaukee
Milwaukee
Grays (1878) • Syracuse Stars (1878) • Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Red Stockings (1876–79) • Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Stars (1880) • Worcester Worcesters
Worcester Worcesters
(1880–82) • Providence Grays
Providence Grays
(1878–85) • Buffalo Bisons (1879–85) • Cleveland
Cleveland
Blues (1879–84) • Troy Trojans (1879–82) • St. Louis
St. Louis
Maroons (1885–86) • Kansas City Cowboys (1886) • Detroit
Detroit
Wolverines (1881–88) • Indianapolis Hoosiers (1887–89) • Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
(1886–89) • Cleveland
Cleveland
Spiders (1887–99) • Baltimore Orioles
Baltimore Orioles
(1892–99) • Louisville Colonels (1892–99) • Washington Senators (1891–99)

v t e

Major League Baseball
Baseball
seasons

Pre-modern era

Beginnings

1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881

Competition

1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891

NL monopoly

1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900

Modern era

Deadball era

1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920

Liveball era

1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941

World War II

1942 1943 1944 1945

Postwar

1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960

First expansion

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968

Birth of division play

1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

Wildcard begins

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Wildcard expansion

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

See also

Major League Baseball
Baseball
schedule Major League Baseball

v t e

Major League Baseball
Baseball
records

Baseball
Baseball
statistics (types of records)

General

Record holders Single-game records Single-season records Record breakers by season Records considered unbreakable

Batting leaders

Career

Batting average On-base percentage Times on base Slugging percentage OPS Hits

3,000 club Progressive

Singles Doubles Triples Home runs

500 club Progressive

Extra base hits RBIs Total bases Walks

Intentional

HBP Strikeouts Games played At-bats Plate appearances

Annual

Batting average Doubles Triples Home runs RBI

Season

Batting average Triples Home run

Progressive

Game

Home runs Hitting for the cycle Grand slams RBI

Game Inning

Hits

Misc

Consecutive game hitting streak On-base plus slugging Hits Home runs Doubles Triples RBIs

Baserunning leaders

Career

Runs Stolen bases

Annual

Runs Stolen bases

Game

Runs

Misc

Stolen bases Runs

Pitching leaders

Career

Wins

300 club

Losses Games started Games finished Innings pitched Strikeouts

3,000 club

Saves Complete games Shutouts ERA WHIP Walks Hit batsmen Wild pitches Batters faced

Annual

Wins Saves Shutouts Strikeouts ERA

Game

No-hitter Perfect game

List of perfect games

Strikeouts

Game Inning Immaculate innings

Misc

Wins

Fielding leaders

Career

Putouts

C 1B 2B SS 3B OF

LF CF RF

P

Errors

C 1B 2B SS 3B OF

LF

Assists Passed balls

Annual

Putouts Errors

Managing records

Wins and winning percentage

Multiple stat records

Triple Crown 20–20–20 club 30–30 club 40–40 club

Other

Consecutive games played Longest winning streaks Longest losing streaks

v t e

Major League Baseball
Baseball
players by national origin

Australia Bahamas Brazil Canada China Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Jamaica Japan South Korea Mexico Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Puerto Rico Taiwan Venezuela Virgin Islands

Current players by nationality European players First player from each country

v t e

Professional baseball leagues

Americas

Major

Major League Baseball

American League National League

Minor

Triple-A

International League Pacific Coast League Mexican League

Double-A

Eastern League Southern League Texas League

Class A Advanced

California League Carolina League Florida State League

Class A

Midwest League South Atlantic League

Class A Short Season

New York–Penn League Northwest League

Rookie Advanced

Appalachian League Pioneer League

Rookie

Arizona League Dominican Summer League Gulf Coast
Gulf Coast
League

Independent

American Association Atlantic League Can-Am League Empire League Frontier League Pacific Association Pecos League United Shore League

Off-season

MLB-affiliated

Arizona Fall League Dominican Professional Baseball
Baseball
League Liga Paralela Mexican Pacific League Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Baseball
Baseball
League Venezuelan Professional Baseball
Baseball
League

Independent

Colombian Professional Baseball
Baseball
League Nicaraguan Professional Baseball
Baseball
League Panamanian Professional Baseball
Baseball
League Veracruz Winter League

Defunct Major Leagues

All-American Girls Professional Baseball
Baseball
League American Association Continental League Cuban League Federal League National Association Negro league baseball Players' League Union Association United States Baseball
Baseball
League

Defunct minor leagues

Asia

China

Major

China Baseball
Baseball
League

Japan

Major

Nippon Professional Baseball

Central League Pacific League

Minor

Eastern League Western League

Off-season

Miyazaki Phoenix League

Independent

Baseball
Baseball
Challenge League Shikoku Island League Plus

Women's

Japan
Japan
Women's Baseball
Baseball
League

South Korea

Major

KBO League

Minor

KBO Futures League

Taiwan

Major: Chinese Professional Baseball
Baseball
League Minor: Popcorn League

Europe

Euro

Euro League Baseball

Italy

Major

Italian Baseball
Baseball
League 1D

Minor

Italian Baseball
Baseball
League 2D

Netherlands

Major

Honkbal Hoofdklasse

Minor

Honkbal Overgangsklasse

Rookie

Honkbal Rookie League

Oceania

Australia

MLB-affiliated:

Australian Baseball
Baseball
League

Inter-league and Professional National Team Championships

Asia Professional Baseball
Baseball
Championship Caribbean Series Triple-A National Championship Game World Baseball
Baseball
Classic

v t e

Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada

Canadian Football League Major League Baseball Major League Soccer National Basketball Association National Football League Nati

.