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Maize
Maize
(/meɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico[1][2] about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels or seeds. Maize
Maize
has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with total production surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, not all of this maize is consumed directly by humans. Some of the maize production is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Columbian exchange

2 Names 3 Structure and physiology

3.1 Abnormal flowers

4 Genetics 5 Breeding

5.1 Global maize program 5.2 Genetic modification

6 Origin

6.1 Connection with 'parviglumis' subspecies 6.2 Spreading to the north

7 Cultivation

7.1 Planting 7.2 Harvesting

8 Production

8.1 United States

9 Pests

9.1 Insects 9.2 Diseases

10 Uses

10.1 Human food 10.2 Nutritional value 10.3 Feed and fodder for livestock 10.4 Chemicals 10.5 Bio-fuel 10.6 Commodity 10.7 Ornamental and other uses 10.8 United States
United States
usage breakdown

11 Comparison to other staple foods 12 Hazards

12.1 Pellagra 12.2 Allergy

13 Art 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History

Guilá Naquitz Cave
Guilá Naquitz Cave
in Oaxaca, Mexico
Mexico
is the site of early domestication of several food crops, including teosinte (an ancestor of maize).[4]

Cultivation of maize in an illustration from the 16th c. Florentine Codex

Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico.[5] Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat; scholars now indicate the adjacent Balsas River Valley of south-central Mexico
Mexico
as the center of domestication.[6] An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico
Mexico
about 9,000 years ago. The study also demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, maize spread from this region over the Americas
Americas
along two major paths. This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico
Mexico
before spreading to the lowlands.[7][8] Archaeologist
Archaeologist
Dolores Piperno has said:[6]

A large corpus of data indicates that it [maize] was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP [5600 BC] and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP [5000-4000 BC]. — Dolores Piperno, The Origins of Plant
Plant
Cultivation and Domestication
Domestication
in the New World Tropics: Patterns, Process, and New Developments

[page needed] Since then, even earlier dates have been published.[9] According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes. Evidence of cultivation in Peru
Peru
has been found dating to about 6700 years ago.[10] The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America.[11] Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres (1 in) long corn cobs, and only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection (rather than the current view that maize was exploited by interplanting with teosinte) by the indigenous people of the Americas
Americas
resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were usually several centimetres/inches long each.[12] The Olmec
Olmec
and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica; they cooked, ground and processed it through nixtamalization. It was believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas.[13] Research of the 21st century has established even earlier dates. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Maize
Maize
is the most widely grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States
United States
in 2014 (Production table). Approximately 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol.[14] Genetically modified maize
Genetically modified maize
made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States
United States
in 2009.[15] Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses (including grinding into cornmeal or masa, pressing into corn oil, and fermentation and distillation into alcoholic beverages like bourbon whiskey), and as chemical feedstocks. Columbian exchange After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes. Maize
Maize
flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian
Christian
belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ.[16] Some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate, even more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."[17] Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well.[18] Maize
Maize
spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. It was cultivated in Spain
Spain
just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and then spread to Italy, West Africa
Africa
and elsewhere.[18] Names

Many small male flowers make up the male inflorescence, called the tassel.

The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz.[19] It is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple.[20][21] In the United States,[20] Canada,[22] Australia, and New Zealand,[23] corn primarily means maize; this usage started as a shortening of "Indian corn".[20] "Indian corn" primarily means maize (the staple grain of indigenous Americans), but can refer more specifically to multicolored "flint corn" used for decoration.[24] In places outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand, corn often refers to maize in culinary contexts. The narrower meaning is usually indicated by some additional word, as in sweet corn, sweetcorn, corn on the cob, baby corn, the puffed confection known as popcorn and the breakfast cereal known as corn flakes. In Southern Africa, maize is commonly called mielie (Afrikaans) or mealie (English),[25] words derived from the Portuguese word for maize, milho.[26] Maize
Maize
is preferred in formal, scientific, and international usage because it refers specifically to this one grain, unlike corn, which has a complex variety of meanings that vary by context and geographic region.[21] Maize
Maize
is used by agricultural bodies and research institutes such as the FAO
FAO
and CSIRO. National agricultural and industry associations often include the word maize in their name even in English-speaking countries where the local, informal word is something other than maize; for example, the Maize
Maize
Association of Australia, the Indian Maize
Maize
Development Association, the Kenya Maize Consortium and Maize
Maize
Breeders Network, the National Maize
Maize
Association of Nigeria, the Zimbabwe Seed
Seed
Maize
Maize
Association. However, in commodities trading, corn consistently refers to maize and not other grains.[citation needed]

Structure and physiology The maize plant is often 3 m (10 ft) in height,[27] though some natural strains can grow 13 m (43 ft).[28] The stem is commonly composed of 20 internodes [29] of 18 cm (7.1 in) length.[27] A leaf, which grows from each node, is generally 9 cm (4 in) in width and 120 cm (4 ft) in length. Ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by around 3 millimetres (0.12 in) per day, to a length of 18 cm (7 in) [27] with 60 cm (24 in) being the maximum alleged in the subspecies.[30] They are female inflorescences, tightly enveloped by several layers of ear leaves commonly called husks. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears. These are the source of the "baby corn" used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine. The apex of the stem ends in the tassel, an inflorescence of male flowers. When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. Maize pollen is anemophilous (dispersed by wind), and because of its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel. Elongated stigmas, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. They are often pale yellow and 18 cm (7 in) in length, like tufts of hair in appearance. At the end of each is a carpel, which may develop into a "kernel" if fertilized by a pollen grain. The pericarp of the fruit is fused with the seed coat referred to as "caryopsis", typical of the grasses, and the entire kernel is often referred to as the "seed". The cob is close to a multiple fruit in structure, except that the individual fruits (the kernels) never fuse into a single mass. The grains are about the size of peas, and adhere in regular rows around a white, pithy substance, which forms the ear. The maximum size of kernels is reputedly 2.5 cm (1 in).[31] An ear commonly holds 600 kernels. They are of various colors: blackish, bluish-gray, purple, green, red, white and yellow. When ground into flour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does. It lacks the protein gluten of wheat and, therefore, makes baked goods with poor rising capability. A genetic variant that accumulates more sugar and less starch in the ear is consumed as a vegetable and is called sweet corn. Young ears can be consumed raw, with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures (usually during the summer months), the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries to inedibility. By the end of the growing season, the kernels dry out and become difficult to chew without cooking them tender first in boiling water.

Female inflorescence, with young silk

mature silk

Stalks, ears, and silk

Male flowers

Full-grown maize plants

Mature maize ear on a stalk

Planting density affects multiple aspects of maize. Modern farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which produces one ear per stalk.[32] Stands of silage maize are yet denser,[33] and achieve a lower percentage of ears and more plant matter. Maize
Maize
is a facultative short-day plant [34] and flowers in a certain number of growing degree days > 10 °C (50 °F) in the environment to which it is adapted.[35] The magnitude of the influence that long nights have on the number of days that must pass before maize flowers is genetically prescribed[36] and regulated by the phytochrome system.[37] Photoperiodicity can be eccentric in tropical cultivars such that the long days characteristic of higher latitudes allow the plants to grow so tall that they do not have enough time to produce seed before being killed by frost. These attributes, however, may prove useful in using tropical maize for biofuels.[38] Immature maize shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA). DIMBOA
DIMBOA
is a member of a group of hydroxamic acids (also known as benzoxazinoids) that serve as a natural defense against a wide range of pests, including insects, pathogenic fungi and bacteria. DIMBOA
DIMBOA
is also found in related grasses, particularly wheat. A maize mutant (bx) lacking DIMBOA
DIMBOA
is highly susceptible to attack by aphids and fungi. DIMBOA
DIMBOA
is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer
European corn borer
(family Crambidae). As maize matures, DIMBOA levels and resistance to the corn borer decline. Because of its shallow roots, maize is susceptible to droughts, intolerant of nutrient-deficient soils, and prone to be uprooted by severe winds.[39]

Maize
Maize
kernels

Maize
Maize
plant diagram

Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels

Zea mays 'Ottofile giallo Tortonese' – MHNT

Zea mays "strawberry"—MHNT

Zea mays "Oaxacan Green" MHNT

Variegated maize ears

Multicolored corn kernels (CSIRO)

While yellow maizes derive their color from lutein and zeaxanthin, in red-colored maizes, the kernel coloration is due to anthocyanins and phlobaphenes. These latter substances are synthesized in the flavonoids synthetic pathway[40] from polymerisation of flavan-4-ols[41] by the expression of maize pericarp color1 (p1) gene[42] which encodes an R2R3 myb-like transcriptional activator[43] of the A1 gene encoding for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (reducing dihydroflavonols into flavan-4-ols)[44] while another gene (Suppressor of Pericarp
Pericarp
Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts as a suppressor.[45] The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesis of red phlobaphene pigments, while the P1-wr allele specifies colorless kernel pericarp and red cobs, and unstable factor for orange1 (Ufo1) modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of phlobaphene pigments.[42] The maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG bound by vertebrate Myb proteins.[46] Abnormal flowers Maize
Maize
flowers may sometimes exhibit mutations that lead to the formation of female flowers in the tassel. These mutations, ts4 and Ts6, prohibit the development of the stamen while simultaneously promoting pistil development.[47] This may cause inflorescences containing both male and female flowers, or hermaphrodite flowers.[48] Genetics

Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains

Maize
Maize
is an annual grass in the Gramineae
Gramineae
family, which includes such plants as wheat, rye, barley, rice, sorghum, and sugarcane. There are two major species of the Zea genus: Zea mays (maize) and Zea diploperennis, which is a perennial type of teosinte. The annual teosinte variety called Zea mays mexicana is the closest botanical relative to maize. It still grows in the wild as an annual in Mexico and Guatemala.[49] Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each has:

Flour
Flour
corn: Zea mays var. amylacea Popcorn: Zea mays var. everta Dent corn : Zea mays var. indentata Flint corn: Zea mays var. indurata Sweet corn: Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa Waxy corn: Zea mays var. ceratina Amylomaize: Zea mays Pod corn: Zea mays var. tunicata Larrañaga ex A. St. Hil. Striped maize: Zea mays var. japonica

This system has been replaced (though not entirely displaced) over the last 60 years by multivariable classifications based on ever more data. Agronomic data were supplemented by botanical traits for a robust initial classification, then genetic, cytological, protein and DNA evidence was added. Now, the categories are forms (little used), races, racial complexes, and recently branches. Maize
Maize
is a diploid with 20 chromosomes (n=10). The combined length of the chromosomes is 1500 cM. Some of the maize chromosomes have what are known as "chromosomal knobs": highly repetitive heterochromatic domains that stain darkly. Individual knobs are polymorphic among strains of both maize and teosinte. Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
used these knob markers to validate her transposon theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the 1983 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine. Maize
Maize
is still an important model organism for genetics and developmental biology today.[50] The Maize
Maize
Genetics
Genetics
Cooperation Stock Center, funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
and located in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, is a stock center of maize mutants. The total collection has nearly 80,000 samples. The bulk of the collection consists of several hundred named genes, plus additional gene combinations and other heritable variants. There are about 1000 chromosomal aberrations (e.g., translocations and inversions) and stocks with abnormal chromosome numbers (e.g., tetraploids). Genetic data describing the maize mutant stocks as well as myriad other data about maize genetics can be accessed at MaizeGDB, the Maize
Maize
Genetics
Genetics
and Genomics Database.[51] In 2005, the US National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
(NSF), Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) formed a consortium to sequence the B73 maize genome. The resulting DNA sequence data was deposited immediately into GenBank, a public repository for genome-sequence data. Sequences and genome annotations have also been made available throughout the project's lifetime at the project's official site.[52] Primary sequencing of the maize genome was completed in 2008.[53] On November 20, 2009, the consortium published results of its sequencing effort in Science.[54] The genome, 85% of which is composed of transposons, was found to contain 32,540 genes (By comparison, the human genome contains about 2.9 billion bases and 26,000 genes). Much of the maize genome has been duplicated and reshuffled by helitrons—group of rolling circle transposons.[55] Breeding

Field of maize in Liechtenstein

Maize
Maize
reproduces sexually each year. This randomly selects half the genes from a given plant to propagate to the next generation, meaning that desirable traits found in the crop (like high yield or good nutrition) can be lost in subsequent generations unless certain techniques are used. Maize
Maize
breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears. Modern breeding began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers. James L. Reid was one of the earliest and most successful developing Reid's Yellow Dent in the 1860s. These early efforts were based on mass selection. Later breeding efforts included ear to row selection, (C. G. Hopkins ca. 1896), hybrids made from selected inbred lines (G. H. Shull, 1909), and the highly successful double cross hybrids using 4 inbred lines (D. F. Jones ca. 1918, 1922). University supported breeding programs were especially important in developing and introducing modern hybrids. (Ref Jugenheimer Hybrid Maize
Maize
Breeding and Seed
Seed
Production pub. 1958) by the 1930s, companies such as Pioneer devoted to production of hybrid maize had begun to influence long term development. Internationally important seed banks such as International Maize
Maize
and Wheat
Wheat
Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the US bank at Maize
Maize
Genetics
Genetics
Cooperation Stock Center University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign maintain germplasm important for future crop development. Since the 1940s the best strains of maize have been first-generation hybrids made from inbred strains that have been optimized for specific traits, such as yield, nutrition, drought, pest and disease tolerance. Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in increasing output and reducing the need for cropland, pesticides, water and fertilizer.[56] There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that maize yield potential has increased over the past few decades. This suggests that changes in yield potential are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather than increase of yield potential per individual plant.[57] Global maize program

Panorama of cornfields in Nan Province, Thailand

CIMMYT operates a conventional breeding program to provide optimized strains. The program began in the 1980s. Hybrid seeds are distributed in Africa
Africa
by the Drought
Drought
Tolerant Maize
Maize
for Africa
Africa
project.[56] Genetic modification Main article: Transgenic maize Genetically modified
Genetically modified
(GM) maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in 2016.[58][59] Grown since 1997 in the United States and Canada, 92% of the US maize crop was genetically modified in 2016[58][60] and 33% of the worldwide maize crop was GM in 2016.[58][61] As of 2011, Herbicide-tolerant maize varieties were grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, El Salvador, the European Union, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and USA, and insect-resistant corn was grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, the EU, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, USA, and Uruguay.[62] In September 2000, up to $50 million worth of food products were recalled due to the presence of Starlink genetically modified corn, which had been approved only for animal consumption and had not been approved for human consumption, and was subsequently withdrawn from the market.[63] Origin See also: Origin of maize and interaction with teosintes Maize
Maize
is the domesticated variant of teosinte.[64] The two plants have dissimilar appearance, maize having a single tall stalk with multiple leaves and teosinte being a short, bushy plant. The difference between the two is largely controlled by differences in just two genes.[64] Several theories had been proposed about the specific origin of maize in Mesoamerica:[65][66]

It is a direct domestication of a Mexican annual teosinte, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River
Balsas River
valley in south-eastern Mexico, with up to 12% of its genetic material obtained from Zea mays ssp. mexicana through introgression. This theory was further confirmed by the 2002 study of Matsuoka et al.[7] It has been derived from hybridization between a small domesticated maize (a slightly changed form of a wild maize) and a teosinte of section Luxuriantes, either Z. luxurians or Z. diploperennis. It has undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte. (The term "teosinte" describes all species and subspecies in the genus Zea, excluding Zea mays ssp. mays.) It has evolved from a hybridization of Z. diploperennis by Tripsacum dactyloides.

In the late 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf suggested that domesticated maize was the result of a hybridization event between an unknown wild maize and a species of Tripsacum, a related genus. This theory about the origin of maize has been refuted by modern genetic testing, which refutes Mangelsdorf's model and the fourth listed above.[65]:40 The teosinte origin theory was proposed by the Russian botanist Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov
Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov
in 1931 and the later American Nobel Prize-winner George Beadle in 1932.[65]:10 It is supported experimentally and by recent studies of the plants' genomes. Teosinte and maize are able to cross-breed and produce fertile offspring. A number of questions remain concerning the species, among them:

how the immense diversity of the species of sect. Zea originated, how the tiny archaeological specimens of 3500–2700 BC could have been selected from a teosinte, and how domestication could have proceeded without leaving remains of teosinte or maize with teosintoid traits earlier than the earliest known until recently, dating from ca. 1100 BC.

The domestication of maize is of particular interest to researchers—archaeologists, geneticists, ethnobotanists, geographers, etc. The process is thought by some to have started 7,500 to 12,000 years ago. Research from the 1950s to 1970s originally focused on the hypothesis that maize domestication occurred in the highlands between the states of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
and Jalisco, because the oldest archaeological remains of maize known at the time were found there. Connection with 'parviglumis' subspecies

teosinte (top), maize-teosinte hybrid (middle), maize (bottom)

Genetic studies led by John Doebley identified Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River
Balsas River
valley in Mexico's southwestern highlands, and also known as Balsas teosinte, as being the crop wild relative teosinte genetically most similar to modern maize.[67] This has been confirmed by further more recent studies, which refined this hypothesis somewhat. Archaeobotanical studies published in 2009 now point to the middle part of the Balsas River valley as the more likely location of early domestication; this river is not very long, so these locations are not very distant. Stone milling tools with maize residue have been found in an 8,700-years old layer of deposits in a cave not far from Iguala, Guerrero.[68][69][70] Also, Doebley was part of the team that is credited with first finding, back in 2002, that maize had been domesticated only once, about 9000 years ago, and then spread throughout the Americas.[7][71] A primitive corn was being grown in southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America 7,000 years ago. Archaeological remains of early maize ears, found at Guila Naquitz Cave
Guila Naquitz Cave
in the Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Valley, date back roughly 6,250 years; the oldest ears from caves near Tehuacan, Puebla, date ca. 3,450 BC.[13] Maize
Maize
pollen dated to 7300 cal B.P. from San Andres, Tabasco, on the Caribbean coast has also been recovered.[69] As maize was introduced to new cultures, new uses were developed and new varieties selected to better serve in those preparations. Maize was the staple food, or a major staple – along with squash, Andean region potato, quinoa, beans, and amaranth – of most pre-Columbian North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures. The Mesoamerican civilization, in particular, was deeply interrelated with maize. Its traditions and rituals involved all aspects of maize cultivation – from the planting to the food preparation. Maize formed the Mesoamerican people's identity.

Stucco head of the Maya maize god, 550-850 AD.

It is unknown what precipitated its domestication, because the edible portion of the wild variety is too small and hard to obtain to be eaten directly, as each kernel is enclosed in a very hard bivalve shell. It is possible that, early on, teosinte may have been gathered as preferred feed for domestic animals.[citation needed] Also, back in 1939, George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily "popped" for human consumption, like modern popcorn.[72] Some have argued it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding to produce large, compressed ears for efficient cultivation. However, studies of the hybrids readily made by intercrossing teosinte and modern maize suggest this objection is not well founded. Spreading to the north Around 2500 BC, maize began to spread to the north; it was first cultivated in what is now the United States
United States
at several sites in New Mexico
Mexico
and Arizona, about 2100 BC.[73] During the first millennium AD, maize cultivation spread more widely in the areas north. In particular, the large-scale adoption of maize agriculture and consumption in eastern North America took place about A.D. 900. Native Americans cleared large forest and grassland areas for the new crop.[74] In 2005, research by the USDA
USDA
Forest Service suggested that the rise in maize cultivation 500 to 1,000 years ago in what is now the southeastern United States
United States
corresponded with a decline of freshwater mussels, which are very sensitive to environmental changes.[75] Cultivation Planting

Seedlings three weeks after sowing

Young stalks

Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones maize must be planted in the spring. Its root system is generally shallow, so the plant is dependent on soil moisture. As a C4 plant (a plant that uses C4 carbon fixation), maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than C3 plants (plants that use C3 carbon fixation) like the small grains, alfalfa and soybeans. Maize
Maize
is most sensitive to drought at the time of silk emergence, when the flowers are ready for pollination. In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the maize were "knee-high by the Fourth of July", although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate. Maize
Maize
used for silage is harvested while the plant is green and the fruit immature. Sweet corn
Sweet corn
is harvested in the "milk stage", after pollination but before starch has formed, between late summer and early to mid-autumn. Field maize is left in the field very late in the autumn to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be harvested until winter or even early spring. The importance of sufficient soil moisture is shown in many parts of Africa, where periodic drought regularly causes maize crop failure and consequent famine. Although it is grown mainly in wet, hot climates, it has been said to thrive in cold, hot, dry or wet conditions, meaning that it is an extremely versatile crop.[76]

Mature plants showing ears

Maize
Maize
was planted by the Native Americans in hills, in a complex system known to some as the Three Sisters. Maize
Maize
provided support for beans, and the beans provided nitrogen derived from nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria which live on the roots of beans and other legumes; and squashes provided ground cover to stop weeds and inhibit evaporation by providing shade over the soil.[77] This method was replaced by single species hill planting where each hill 60–120 cm (2.0–3.9 ft) apart was planted with three or four seeds, a method still used by home gardeners. A later technique was "checked maize", where hills were placed 40 in (1.0 m) apart in each direction, allowing cultivators to run through the field in two directions. In more arid lands, this was altered and seeds were planted in the bottom of 10–12 cm (3.9–4.7 in) deep furrows to collect water. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the maize fields of some Native American reservations. When maize is planted in rows, it also allows for planting of other crops between these rows to make more efficient use of land space.[78] In most regions today, maize grown in residential gardens is still often planted manually with a hoe, whereas maize grown commercially is no longer planted manually but rather is planted with a planter. In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers. Sometimes a third crop, winter wheat, is added to the rotation. Many of the maize varieties grown in the United States
United States
and Canada are hybrids. Often the varieties have been genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate or to provide protection against natural pests. Glyphosate
Glyphosate
is an herbicide which kills all plants except those with genetic tolerance. This genetic tolerance is very rarely found in nature. In the midwestern United States, low-till or no-till farming techniques are usually used. In low-till, fields are covered once, maybe twice, with a tillage implement either ahead of crop planting or after the previous harvest. The fields are planted and fertilized. Weeds are controlled through the use of herbicides, and no cultivation tillage is done during the growing season. This technique reduces moisture evaporation from the soil, and thus provides more moisture for the crop. The technologies mentioned in the previous paragraph enable low-till and no-till farming. Weeds compete with the crop for moisture and nutrients, making them undesirable. Harvesting

Mature maize ears

Harvesting maize, Jones County, Iowa

Before the 20th century, all maize harvesting was by manual labour, by grazing, or by some combination of those. Whether the ears were hand-picked and the stover was grazed, or the whole plant was cut, gathered, and shocked, people and livestock did all the work. Between the 1890s and the 1970s, the technology of maize harvesting expanded greatly. Today, all such technologies, from entirely manual harvesting to entirely mechanized, are still in use to some degree, as appropriate to each farm's needs, although the thoroughly mechanized versions predominate, as they offer the lowest unit costs when scaled to large farm operations. For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units. Before World War II, most maize in North America was harvested by hand. This involved a large numbers of workers and associated social events (husking or shucking bees). From the 1890s onward, some machinery became available to partially mechanize the processes, such as one- and two-row mechanical pickers (picking the ear, leaving the stover) and corn binders, which are reaper-binders designed specifically for maize (for example, Video on YouTube). The latter produce sheaves that can be shocked. By hand or mechanical picker, the entire ear is harvested, which then requires a separate operation of a maize sheller to remove the kernels from the ear. Whole ears of maize were often stored in corn cribs, and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. Today corn cribs with whole ears, and corn binders, are less common because most modern farms harvest the grain from the field with a combine and store it in bins. The combine with a corn head (with points and snap rolls instead of a reel) does not cut the stalk; it simply pulls the stalk down. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic matter for the soil. The ear of maize is too large to pass between slots in a plate as the snap rolls pull the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery. The combine separates out the husk and the cob, keeping only the kernels. When maize is a silage crop, the entire plant is usually chopped at once with a forage harvester (chopper) and ensiled in silos or polymer wrappers. Ensiling of sheaves cut by a corn binder was formerly common in some regions but has become uncommon.

Worldwide maize production

For storing grain in bins, the moisture of the grain must be sufficiently low to avoid spoiling. If the moisture content of the harvested grain is too high, grain dryers are used to reduce the moisture content by blowing heated air through the grain. This can require large amounts of energy in the form of combustible gases (propane or natural gas) and electricity to power the blowers.[79] Production Maize
Maize
is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain.[80] In 2014, total world production was 1.04 billion tonnes, led by the United States with 35% of the total (table). China
China
produced 21% of the global total.

Maize
Maize
production – 2014[81]

Country Production (millions of tonnes)

 United States 361.1

 China 215.6

 Brazil 79.9

 Argentina 33.1

 Ukraine 28.5

 India 23.7

 Mexico 23.3

 World

1037.8

United States Main article: Corn production in the United States In 2016, maize (corn) production was forecast to be over 15 billion bushels, an increase of 11% over 2014 American production.[82] Based on conditions as of August 2016, the expected yield would be the highest ever for the United States.[82] The area of harvested maize was forecast to be 87 million acres, an increase of 7% over 2015.[82] Maize
Maize
is especially popular in Midwestern states such as Indiana
Indiana
and Illinois; in the latter, it was named the state's official grain in 2017.[83] Pests Insects

African armyworm
African armyworm
(Spodoptera exempta) African sugarcane borer ( Eldana
Eldana
saccharina) Common armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta) Common earwig
Common earwig
(Forficula auricularia) Corn delphacid
Corn delphacid
(Peregrinus maidis) Corn leaf aphid
Corn leaf aphid
(Rhopalosiphum maidis) Corn rootworms ( Diabrotica
Diabrotica
spp) including Western corn rootworm ( Diabrotica
Diabrotica
virgifera virgifera LeConte), Northern corn rootworm (D. barberi) and Southern corn rootworm (D. undecimpunctata howardi) Corn silkfly (Euxesta stigmatias) Asian corn borer
Asian corn borer
(Ostrinia furnacalis) European corn borer
European corn borer
(Ostrinia nubilalis) (ECB) Fall armyworm
Fall armyworm
(Spodoptera frugiperda) Some sweet corn varieties have developed partial resistance to fall army worms by producing a unique 33-kD proteinase that significantly retards fall army worm growth.[84][85] Corn earworm/Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea) Lesser cornstalk borer
Lesser cornstalk borer
(Elasmopalpus lignosellus) Maize weevil
Maize weevil
(Sitophilus zeamais) Northern armyworm, Oriental armyworm or Rice
Rice
ear-cutting caterpillar (Mythimna separata) Southwestern corn borer
Southwestern corn borer
(Diatraea grandiosella) Stalk borer (Papaipema nebris)

The susceptibility of maize to the European corn borer
European corn borer
and corn rootworms, and the resulting large crop losses which are estimated at a billion dollars worldwide for each pest,[86][87][88] led to the development of transgenics expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. "Bt maize" is widely grown in the United States
United States
and has been approved for release in Europe. Diseases Main article: List of maize diseases

Rust Corn smut
Corn smut
or common smut (Ustilago maydis): a fungal disease, known in Mexico
Mexico
as huitlacoche, which is prized by some as a gourmet delicacy in itself Northern corn leaf blight (Purdue Extension site) (Pioneer site) Southern corn leaf blight Maize
Maize
downy mildew (Peronosclerospora spp.) Maize
Maize
dwarf mosaic virus Maize
Maize
streak virus Stewart's wilt
Stewart's wilt
(Pantoea stewartii) Goss's wilt (Clavibacter michiganensis) Grey leaf spot Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) Stalk rot Ear rot

Uses Human food

Vegetable
Vegetable
maize (sweet corn)

Maize
Maize
being roasted over an open flame in India.

Cut white sweet corn

Dried maize mote, also known as hominy, is used in Mexican cuisine

Maize
Maize
and cornmeal (ground dried maize) constitute a staple food in many regions of the world. Maize
Maize
is central to Mexican food. Virtually every dish in Mexican cuisine uses maize. In the form of grain or cornmeal, maize is the main ingredient of tortillas, tamales, pozole, atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchiladas, tostadas and many more. In Mexico
Mexico
even a fungus of maize, known as huitlacoche is considered a delicacy. Introduced into Africa
Africa
by the Portuguese in the 16th century, maize has become Africa's most important staple food crop.[89] Maize
Maize
meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă of Romania, to cornmeal mush in the US (and hominy grits in the South) or the food called mealie pap in South Africa
Africa
and sadza, nshima and ugali in other parts of Africa. Maize
Maize
meal is also used as a replacement for wheat flour, to make cornbread and other baked products. Masa
Masa
(cornmeal treated with limewater) is the main ingredient for tortillas, atole and many other dishes of Central American food. Popcorn
Popcorn
consists of kernels of certain varieties that explode when heated, forming fluffy pieces that are eaten as a snack. Roasted dried maize ears with semihardened kernels, coated with a seasoning mixture of fried chopped spring onions with salt added to the oil, is a popular snack food in Vietnam. Cancha, which are roasted maize chulpe kernels, are a very popular snack food in Peru, and also appears in traditional Peruvian ceviche. An unleavened bread called makki di roti is a popular bread eaten in the Punjab region
Punjab region
of India
India
and Pakistan. Chicha
Chicha
and chicha morada (purple chicha) are drinks typically made from particular types of maize. The first one is fermented and alcoholic, the second is a soft drink commonly drunk in Peru. Corn flakes
Corn flakes
are a common breakfast cereal in North America and the United Kingdom, and found in many other countries all over the world. Maize
Maize
can also be prepared as hominy, in which the kernels are soaked with lye in a process called nixtamalization; or grits, which are coarsely ground hominy. These are commonly eaten in the Southeastern United States, foods handed down from Native Americans, who called the dish sagamite. The Brazilian dessert canjica is made by boiling maize kernels in sweetened milk. Maize
Maize
can also be harvested and consumed in the unripe state, when the kernels are fully grown but still soft. Unripe maize must usually be cooked to become palatable; this may be done by simply boiling or roasting the whole ears and eating the kernels right off the cob. Sweet corn, a genetic variety that is high in sugars and low in starch, is usually consumed in the unripe state. Such corn on the cob is a common dish in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Cyprus, some parts of South America, and the Balkans, but virtually unheard of in some European countries. Corn on the cob
Corn on the cob
was hawked on the streets of early 19th-century New York City by poor, barefoot "Hot Corn Girls", who were thus the precursors of hot dog carts, churro wagons, and fruit stands seen on the streets of big cities today.[90] The cooked, unripe kernels may also be shaved off the cob and served as a vegetable in side dishes, salads, garnishes, etc. Alternatively, the raw unripe kernels may also be grated off the cobs and processed into a variety of cooked dishes, such as maize purée, tamales, pamonhas, curau, cakes, ice creams, etc.

Maizes on fire

Maize
Maize
is a major source of starch. Cornstarch
Cornstarch
(maize flour) is a major ingredient in home cooking and in many industrialized food products. Maize
Maize
is also a major source of cooking oil (corn oil) and of maize gluten. Maize
Maize
starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol. Grain alcohol from maize is traditionally the source of Bourbon whiskey. Maize
Maize
is sometimes used as the starch source for beer. Within the United States, the usage of maize for human consumption constitutes about 1/40th of the amount grown in the country. In the United States
United States
and Canada, maize is mostly grown to feed livestock, as forage, silage (made by fermentation of chopped green cornstalks), or grain. Maize
Maize
meal is also a significant ingredient of some commercial animal food products, such as dog food. Nutritional value

Sweetcorn, yellow, raw (seeds only)

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 360 kJ (86 kcal)

Carbohydrates

18.7 g

Starch 5.7 g

Sugars 6.26 g

Dietary fiber 2 g

Fat

1.35 g

Protein

3.27 g

Tryptophan 0.023 g

Threonine 0.129 g

Isoleucine 0.129 g

Leucine 0.348 g

Lysine 0.137 g

Methionine 0.067 g

Cystine 0.026 g

Phenylalanine 0.150 g

Tyrosine 0.123 g

Valine 0.185 g

Arginine 0.131 g

Histidine 0.089 g

Alanine 0.295 g

Aspartic acid 0.244 g

Glutamic acid 0.636 g

Glycine 0.127 g

Proline 0.292 g

Serine 0.153 g

Vitamins

Vitamin
Vitamin
A equiv. lutein zeaxanthin

(1%) 9 μg 644 μg

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(13%) 0.155 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(5%) 0.055 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(12%) 1.77 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(14%) 0.717 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(7%) 0.093 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(11%) 42 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(8%) 6.8 mg

Minerals

Iron

(4%) 0.52 mg

Magnesium

(10%) 37 mg

Manganese

(8%) 0.163 mg

Phosphorus

(13%) 89 mg

Potassium

(6%) 270 mg

Zinc

(5%) 0.46 mg

Other constituents

Water 75.96 g

Link to USDA
USDA
Database entry One ear of medium size (6-3/4" to 7-1/2" long) maize has 90 grams of seeds

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA
USDA
Nutrient Database

Raw, yellow, sweet maize kernels are composed of 76% water, 19% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat (table). In a 100-gram serving, maize kernels provide 86 calories and are a good source (10-19% of the Daily Value) of the B vitamins, thiamin, niacin, pantothenic acid (B5) and folate (right table for raw, uncooked kernels, USDA
USDA
Nutrient Database). In moderate amounts, they also supply dietary fiber and the essential minerals, magnesium and phosphorus whereas other nutrients are in low amounts (table). Maize
Maize
has suboptimal amounts of the essential amino acids tryptophan and lysine, which accounts for its lower status as a protein source.[91] The indigenous Americans overcame this deficiency with the inclusion of beans in their diet.[citation needed] Feed and fodder for livestock See also: Corn stover
Corn stover
§ Uses Maize
Maize
is a major source of both grain feed and fodder for livestock. It is fed to the livestock in various ways. When it is used as a grain crop, the dried kernels are used as feed. They are often kept on the cob for storage in a corn crib, or they may be shelled off for storage in a grain bin. The farm that consumes the feed may produce it, purchase it on the market, or some of both. When the grain is used for feed, the rest of the plant (the corn stover) can be used later as fodder, bedding (litter), or soil amendment. When the whole maize plant (grain plus stalks and leaves) is used for fodder, it is usually chopped all at once and ensilaged, as digestibility and palatability are higher in the ensilaged form than in the dried form. Maize
Maize
silage is one of the most valuable forages for ruminants.[92] Before the advent of widespread ensilaging, it was traditional to gather the corn into shocks after harvesting, where it dried further. With or without a subsequent move to the cover of a barn, it was then stored for weeks to several months until fed to the livestock. Today ensilaging can occur not only in siloes but also in silage wrappers. However, in the tropics maize can be harvested year-round and fed as green forage to the animals.[93] Chemicals Starch
Starch
from maize can also be made into plastics, fabrics, adhesives, and many other chemical products. The corn steep liquor, a plentiful watery byproduct of maize wet milling process, is widely used in the biochemical industry and research as a culture medium to grow many kinds of microorganisms.[94] Chrysanthemin
Chrysanthemin
is found in purple corn and is used as a food coloring. Bio-fuel See also: Corn ethanol
Corn ethanol
and Corn stover "Feed maize" is being used increasingly for heating;[95] specialized corn stoves (similar to wood stoves) are available and use either feed maize or wood pellets to generate heat. Maize
Maize
cobs are also used as a biomass fuel source. Maize
Maize
is relatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been developed which use maize kernels as a fuel. They feature a large hopper that feeds the uniformly sized maize kernels (or wood pellets or cherry pits) into the fire. Maize
Maize
is increasingly used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol fuel.[96] When considering where to construct an ethanol plant, one of the site selection criteria is to ensure there is locally available feedstock.[97] Ethanol
Ethanol
is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. High fuel prices in mid-2007 led to higher demand for ethanol, which in turn led to higher prices paid to farmers for maize. This led to the 2007 harvest being one of the most profitable maize crops in modern history for farmers. Because of the relationship between fuel and maize, prices paid for the crop now tend to track the price of oil.[citation needed] The price of food is affected to a certain degree by the use of maize for biofuel production. The cost of transportation, production, and marketing are a large portion (80%) of the price of food in the United States. Higher energy costs affect these costs, especially transportation. The increase in food prices the consumer has been seeing is mainly due to the higher energy cost. The effect of biofuel production on other food crop prices is indirect. Use of maize for biofuel production increases the demand, and therefore price of maize. This, in turn, results in farm acreage being diverted from other food crops to maize production. This reduces the supply of the other food crops and increases their prices.[98][99]

Farm-based maize silage digester located near Neumünster
Neumünster
in Germany, 2007. Green inflatable biogas holder is shown on top of the digester

Maize
Maize
is widely used in Germany as a feedstock for biogas plants. Here the maize is harvested, shredded then placed in silage clamps from which it is fed into the biogas plants. This process makes use of the whole plant rather than simply using the kernels as in the production of fuel ethanol. A biomass gasification power plant in Strem near Güssing, Burgenland, Austria, began in 2005. Research is being done to make diesel out of the biogas by the Fischer Tropsch
Fischer Tropsch
method. Increasingly, ethanol is being used at low concentrations (10% or less) as an additive in gasoline (gasohol) for motor fuels to increase the octane rating, lower pollutants, and reduce petroleum use (what is nowadays also known as "biofuels" and has been generating an intense debate regarding the human beings' necessity of new sources of energy, on the one hand, and the need to maintain, in regions such as Latin America, the food habits and culture which has been the essence of civilizations such as the one originated in Mesoamerica; the entry, January 2008, of maize among the commercial agreements of NAFTA has increased this debate, considering the bad labor conditions of workers in the fields, and mainly the fact that NAFTA "opened the doors to the import of maize from the United States, where the farmers who grow it receive multimillion dollar subsidies and other government supports. (...) According to OXFAM UK, after NAFTA went into effect, the price of maize in Mexico
Mexico
fell 70% between 1994 and 2001. The number of farm jobs dropped as well: from 8.1 million in 1993 to 6.8 million in 2002. Many of those who found themselves without work were small-scale maize growers.").[100] However, introduction in the northern latitudes of the US of tropical maize for biofuels, and not for human or animal consumption, may potentially alleviate this. As a result of the US federal government announcing its production target of 35 billion US gallons (130,000,000 m3) of biofuels by 2017, ethanol production will grow to 7 billion US gallons (26,000,000 m3) by 2010, up from 4.5 billion in 2006, boosting ethanol's share of maize demand in the US from 22.6 percent to 36.1 percent.[101] Commodity Maize
Maize
is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity using corn futures contracts. These "futures" are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade
Chicago Board of Trade
(CBOT) under ticker symbol C. They are delivered every year in March, May, July, September, and December.[102] Ornamental and other uses Main article: Corn construction Some forms of the plant are occasionally grown for ornamental use in the garden. For this purpose, variegated and colored leaf forms as well as those with colorful ears are used. Corncobs can be hollowed out and treated to make inexpensive smoking pipes, first manufactured in the United States
United States
in 1869.

Children playing in a maize kernel box

An unusual use for maize is to create a "corn maze" (or "maize maze") as a tourist attraction. The idea of a maize maze was introduced by the American Maze
Maze
Company who created a maze in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1993.[103] Traditional mazes are most commonly grown using yew hedges, but these take several years to mature. The rapid growth of a field of maize allows a maze to be laid out using GPS at the start of a growing season and for the maize to grow tall enough to obstruct a visitor's line of sight by the start of the summer. In Canada and the US, these are popular in many farming communities. Maize
Maize
kernels can be used in place of sand in a sandboxlike enclosure for children's play.[104] Stigmas from female maize flowers, popularly called corn silk, are sold as herbal supplements.[citation needed] Maize
Maize
is used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". It is particularly popular in Europe for coarse fishing. Additionally, feed corn is sometimes used by hunters to bait animals such as deer or wild hogs. United States
United States
usage breakdown The breakdown of usage of the 12.1-billion-bushel (307-million-tonne) 2008 US maize crop was as follows, according to the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Report by the USDA.[105]

Use Amount

million bushels million tonnes percentage

livestock feed 5,250 133.4 43.4

ethanol production 3,650 92.7 30.2

exports 1,850 47.0 15.3

production of starch, corn oil, sweeteners (HFCS, etc.) 943 24.0 7.8

human consumption—grits, corn flour, corn meal, beverage alcohol 327 8.3 2.7

In the US since 2009/2010, maize feedstock use for ethanol production has somewhat exceeded direct use for livestock feed; maize use for fuel ethanol was 5,130 million bushels (130 million tonnes) in the 2013/2014 marketing year.[106] A fraction of the maize feedstock dry matter used for ethanol production is usefully recovered as DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles). In the 2010/2011 marketing year, about 29.1 million tonnes of DDGS were fed to US livestock and poultry.[107] Because starch utilization in fermentation for ethanol production leaves other grain constituents more concentrated in the residue, the feed value per kg of DDGS, with regard to ruminant-metabolizable energy and protein, exceeds that of the grain. Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants.[107] Comparison to other staple foods

Nutrient contents in %DV of common foods (raw, uncooked) per 100 g

Protein Fiber Vitamins Minerals

Food DV Q DV A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 Ch. C D E K Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Cu Mn Se

cooking Reduction %

10 30 20 25

25 35 0 0 30

10 15 20 10 20 5 10 25

Corn 20 55 6 1 13 4 16 4 19 19 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 11 31 34 15 1 20 10 42 0

Rice 14 71 1.3 0 12 3 11 20 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 6 7 2 0 8 9 49 22

Wheat 27 51 40 0 28 7 34 19 21 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 20 36 51 12 0 28 28 151 128

Soybean(dry) 73 132 31 0 58 51 8 8 19 94 0 24 10 0 4 59 28 87 70 70 51 0 33 83 126 25

Pigeon pea(dry) 42 91 50 1 43 11 15 13 13 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 29 46 37 40 1 18 53 90 12

Potato 4 112 7.3 0 5 2 5 3 15 4 0 0 33 0 0 2 1 4 6 6 12 0 2 5 8 0

Sweet potato 3 82 10 284 5 4 3 8 10 3 0 0 4 0 1 2 3 3 6 5 10 2 2 8 13 1

Spinach 6 119 7.3 188 5 11 4 1 10 49 0 4.5 47 0 10 604 10 15 20 5 16 3 4 6 45 1

Dill 7 32 7 154 4 17 8 4 9 38 0 0 142 0 0 0 21 37 14 7 21 3 6 7 63 0

Carrots 2

9.3 334 4 3 5 3 7 5 0 0 10 0 3 16 3 2 3 4 9 3 2 2 7 0

Guava 5 24 18 12 4 2 5 5 6 12 0 0 381 0 4 3 2 1 5 4 12 0 2 11 8 1

Papaya 1 7 5.6 22 2 2 2 2 1 10 0 0 103 0 4 3 2 1 2 1 7 0 0 1 1 1

Pumpkin 2 56 1.6 184 3 6 3 3 3 4 0 0 15 0 5 1 2 4 3 4 10 0 2 6 6 0

Sunflower
Sunflower
oil 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 205 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Egg 25 136 0 10 5 28 0 14 7 12 22 45 0 9 5 0 5 10 3 19 4 6 7 5 2 45

Milk 6 138 0 2 3 11 1 4 2 1 7 2.6 0 0 0 0 11 0 2 9 4 2 3 1 0 5

Chicken Liver 34 149 0 222 20 105 49 62 43 147 276

30 0 4 0 1 50 5 30 7 3 18 25 13 78

Ch. = Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium; %DV = % daily value i.e. % of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) Note: All nutrient values including protein and fiber are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters. [108][109] Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group[110][111] Q = Quality of Protein
Protein
in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability.[111] The following table shows the nutrient content of maize and major staple foods in a raw harvested form. Raw forms are not edible and cannot be digested. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption. In sprouted or cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these staples are different from that of raw form of these staples reported in the table below.

Nutrient content of major staple foods per 100 g portion[112]

Nutrient component: Maize
Maize
/ Corn[A] Rice
Rice
(white)[B] Rice
Rice
(brown)[I] Wheat[C] Potato[D] Cassava[E] Soybean
Soybean
(Green)[F] Sweet potato[G] Yam[Y] Sorghum[H] Plantain[Z] RDA

Water (g) 10 12 10 13 79 60 68 77 70 9 65 3000

Energy (kJ) 1528 1528 1549 1369 322 670 615 360 494 1419 511 8368–10,460

Protein
Protein
(g) 9.4 7.1 7.9 12.6 2.0 1.4 13.0 1.6 1.5 11.3 1.3 50

Fat
Fat
(g) 4.74 0.66 2.92 1.54 0.09 0.28 6.8 0.05 0.17 3.3 0.37

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
(g) 74 80 77 71 17 38 11 20 28 75 32 130

Fiber (g) 7.3 1.3 3.5 12.2 2.2 1.8 4.2 3 4.1 6.3 2.3 30

Sugar
Sugar
(g) 0.64 0.12 0.85 0.41 0.78 1.7 0 4.18 0.5 0 15

Calcium
Calcium
(mg) 7 28 23 29 12 16 197 30 17 28 3 1000

Iron (mg) 2.71 0.8 1.47 3.19 0.78 0.27 3.55 0.61 0.54 4.4 0.6 8

Magnesium
Magnesium
(mg) 127 25 143 126 23 21 65 25 21 0 37 400

Phosphorus
Phosphorus
(mg) 210 115 333 288 57 27 194 47 55 287 34 700

Potassium (mg) 287 115 223 363 421 271 620 337 816 350 499 4700

Sodium
Sodium
(mg) 35 5 7 2 6 14 15 55 9 6 4 1500

Zinc
Zinc
(mg) 2.21 1.09 2.02 2.65 0.29 0.34 0.99 0.3 0.24 0 0.14 11

Copper
Copper
(mg) 0.31 0.22

0.43 0.11 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.18 - 0.08 0.9

Manganese (mg) 0.49 1.09 3.74 3.99 0.15 0.38 0.55 0.26 0.40 - - 2.3

Selenium
Selenium
(μg) 15.5 15.1

70.7 0.3 0.7 1.5 0.6 0.7 0 1.5 55

Vitamin
Vitamin
C (mg) 0 0 0 0 19.7 20.6 29 2.4 17.1 0 18.4 90

Thiamin
Thiamin
(B1)(mg) 0.39 0.07 0.40 0.30 0.08 0.09 0.44 0.08 0.11 0.24 0.05 1.2

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)(mg) 0.20 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.06 0.03 0.14 0.05 1.3

Niacin
Niacin
(B3) (mg) 3.63 1.6 5.09 5.46 1.05 0.85 1.65 0.56 0.55 2.93 0.69 16

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5) (mg) 0.42 1.01 1.49 0.95 0.30 0.11 0.15 0.80 0.31 - 0.26 5

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6 (mg) 0.62 0.16 0.51 0.3 0.30 0.09 0.07 0.21 0.29 - 0.30 1.3

Folate
Folate
Total (B9) (μg) 19 8 20 38 16 27 165 11 23 0 22 400

Vitamin
Vitamin
A (IU) 214 0 0 9 2 13 180 14187 138 0 1127 5000

Vitamin
Vitamin
E, alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.49 0.11 0.59 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0.39 0 0.14 15

Vitamin
Vitamin
K1 (μg) 0.3 0.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0 1.8 2.6 0 0.7 120

Beta-carotene
Beta-carotene
(μg) 97 0

5 1 8 0 8509 83 0 457 10,500

Lutein+zeaxanthin (μg) 1355 0

220 8 0 0 0 0 0 30

Saturated fatty acids (g) 0.67 0.18 0.58 0.26 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.04 0.46 0.14

Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 1.25 0.21 1.05 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.01 0.99 0.03

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 2.16 0.18 1.04 0.63 0.04 0.05 3.20 0.01 0.08 1.37 0.07

A yellow corn

B raw unenriched long-grain white rice

C hard red winter wheat

D raw potato with flesh and skin

E raw cassava

F raw green soybeans

G raw sweet potato

H raw sorghum

Y raw yam

Z raw plantains

I raw long-grain brown rice

Hazards Pellagra Main article: Pellagra When maize was first introduced into farming systems other than those used by traditional native-American peoples, it was generally welcomed with enthusiasm for its productivity. However, a widespread problem of malnutrition soon arose wherever maize was introduced as a staple food. This was a mystery, since these types of malnutrition were not normally seen among the indigenous Americans, for whom maize was the principal staple food.[113] It was eventually discovered that the indigenous Americans had learned to soak maize in alkali-water—made with ashes and lime (calcium oxide) since at least 1200–1500 BC by Mesoamericans
Mesoamericans
and North Americans—which liberates the B-vitamin niacin, the lack of which was the underlying cause of the condition known as pellagra.[114] Maize
Maize
was introduced into the diet of nonindigenous Americans without the necessary cultural knowledge acquired over thousands of years in the Americas. In the late 19th century, pellagra reached epidemic proportions in parts of the southern US, as medical researchers debated two theories for its origin: the deficiency theory (which was eventually shown to be true) said that pellagra was due to a deficiency of some nutrient, and the germ theory said that pellagra was caused by a germ transmitted by stable flies. A third theory, promoted by the eugenicist Charles Davenport, held that people only contracted pellagra if they were susceptible to it due to certain "constitutional, inheritable" traits of the affected individual.[115] Once alkali processing and dietary variety were understood and applied, pellagra disappeared in the developed world. The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet have also contributed to its demise. Pellagra
Pellagra
still exists today in food-poor areas and refugee camps where people survive on donated maize.[116] Allergy Main article: Corn allergy Maize
Maize
contains lipid transfer protein, an indigestible protein that survives cooking. This protein has been linked to a rare and understudied allergy to maize in humans.[117] The allergic reaction can cause skin rash, swelling or itching of mucous membranes, diarrhea, vomiting, asthma and, in severe cases, anaphylaxis. It is unclear how common this allergy is in the general population. Art

Gold maize. Moche culture
Moche culture
300 A.D., Larco Museum, Lima, Peru

Water tower
Water tower
in Rochester, Minnesota
Rochester, Minnesota
being painted as an ear of maize

Maize
Maize
has been an essential crop in the Andes
Andes
since the pre-Columbian era. The Moche culture
Moche culture
from Northern Peru
Peru
made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Maize
Maize
was represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally.[118] In the United States, maize ears along with tobacco leaves are carved into the capitals of columns in the United States
United States
Capitol building. Maize
Maize
itself is sometimes used for temporary architectural detailing when the intent is to celebrate the fall season, local agricultural productivity and culture. Bundles of dried maize stalks are often displayed often along with pumpkins, gourds and straw in autumnal displays outside homes and businesses. A well-known example of architectural use is the Corn Palace
Corn Palace
in Mitchell, South Dakota, which uses cobs and ears of colored maize to implement a mural design that is recycled annually. Another well known example is the Field of Corn in Dublin, Ohio, where hundreds of concrete ears of corn lay in a grassy field. A maize stalk with two ripe ears is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 1 lipa coin, minted since 1993.[119] See also

Food portal Agriculture and Agronomy portal

Blue corn Purple corn Columbian Exchange Corn syrup Crop
Crop
circle Detasseling List of maize dishes List of sweetcorn varieties Post-harvest losses (grains) Protein
Protein
per unit area Push–pull technology, pest control strategy for maize and sorghum Zein

References

^ "The Evolution of Corn". University of Utah HEALTH SCIENCES. Retrieved 2 January 2016.  ^ "Archaeological evidence of teosinte domestication from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca". PNAS. Retrieved 2 April 2018.  ^ Linda Campbell Franklin, "Corn," in Andrew F. Smith (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013 (pp. 551–558), p. 553. ^ Benz, Bruce F. (2005). "Archaeological evidence of teosinte domestication from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences of the United States
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Archived August 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. GMO Compass, March 29, 2010, retrieved August 10, 2010 ^ Rebecca Earle, The Body of the Conquistador: Food, Race, and the Colonial Experience in Spanish America, 1492–1700. New York: Cambridge University Press 2012, pp. 17, 151. ^ Earle, The Body of the Conquistador, p. 5. ^ a b Earle, The Body of the Conquistador, p. 144. ^ "maize". Oxford English Dictionary, online edition. 2012. Accessed June 7, 2012. ^ a b c "corn". Oxford English Dictionary, online edition. 2012. Accessed June 7, 2012. ^ a b Ensminger, Audrey H. (1994). Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. CRC Press. p. 479. ISBN 0-8493-8980-1. The word "maize" is preferred in international usage because in many countries the term "corn", the name by which the plant is known in the United States, is synonymous with the leading cereal grain; thus, in England "corn" refers to wheat, and in Scotland and Ireland it refers to oats.  ^ Boberg, Charles (2010). The English Language in Canada: Status, History and Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 1-139-49144-X.  ^ Rhodes, L. L.; Eagles, H. A. (1984). "Origins of maize in New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 27 (2): 151–156. doi:10.1080/00288233.1984.10430414.  ^ "Indian corn", Merriam-Webster Dictionary, definition 3, accessed June 7, 2012 ^ "mealie", Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, 2012. Accessed June 7, 2012. ^ [1], Oxford Dictionaries – Language Matters, accessed January 7, 2015 ^ a b c Wellhausen, Edwin John (1952). Races of Maize
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Shells With Bioengineered Corn ^ a b "Corn genetics study". U N I V E R S E. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ a b c Wilkes, Garrison (8 March 2004). "Chapter 1.1 Corn, strange and marvelous: but is a definitive origin known?". In Smith, C. Wayne; Betrán, Javier; Runge, E. C. A. Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3–63. ISBN 978-0-471-41184-0.  ^ Hyams, Edward (1990). The Last of the Incas: The Rise and Fall of an American Empire. Dorset Press. ISBN 978-0-88029-595-6.  ^ Doebley, John F. (2004). "The genetics of maize evolution" (PDF). Annual Review of Genetics. 38: 37–59. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.38.072902.092425. PMID 15568971.  ^ ""Wild grass became maize crop more than 8,700 years ago", National Science Foundation, News Release at Eurekalert March 24, 2009". March 23, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ a b Ranere, Anthony J.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; et al. (2009). "The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River
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Valley, Mexico" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (13): 5014–5018. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812590106. PMC 2664064 . PMID 19307573.  ^ Ranere, Anthony J.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; et al. (2009). " Starch
Starch
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Balsas River
Valley, Mexico" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (13): 5019–5024. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812525106. PMC 2664021 . PMID 19307570.  ^ Michael Balter, Corn: It's Not for Cocktails. March 23, 2009 news.sciencemag.org ^ NORMAN H. HOROWITZ, National Academy of Sciences. GEORGE WELLS BEADLE 1903–1989 (PDF) ^ Roney, p. 4 ^ Thomas E. Emerson, Kristin M. Hedman and Mary L. Simon, Marginal Horticulturalists or Maize
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Agriculturalists? Archaeobotanical, Paleopathological, and Isotopic Evidence Relating to Langford Tradition Maize
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Consumption. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 30, No. 1 (SPRING, 2005), pp. 67-118 https://www.jstor.org/stable/20708222 ^ Evan Peacock, Wendell R. Haag & Melvin L. Warren, Jr. (2005). "Prehistoric decline in freshwater mussels coincident with the advent of maize agriculture" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 19 (2): 547–551. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00036.x. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2011). "The World: A History", p. 470. Penguin Academics, London. ISBN 0-205-75930-0 ^ Mann, Charles C. (July 2011). "Cotton (or Anchovies) and Maize". 1491: New Revelations of the Americas
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Before Columbus (2nd ed.). New York: Vintage Books. pp. 225–229. ISBN 978-1-4000-3205-1.  ^ Diderot, Denis. "Maize". The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert: Collaborative Translations Project. Retrieved April 1, 2015.  ^ Van Devender, Karl (July 2011). "Grain Drying Concepts and Options" (PDF). University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture. Retrieved December 15, 2013.  ^ International Grains Council (international organization)
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(2013). "International Grains Council Market Report 28 November 2013" (PDF).  ^ " Maize
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production, 2016" (PDF). US Department of Agriculture. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  ^ Janssen, Kim (December 28, 2017). "Exciting days for corn lovers as corn to become official state grain of Illinois". Chicago Tribune.  ^ "fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)". entnemdept.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2017-11-14.  ^ Pechan, Tibor; Ye, Lijun; Chang, Yu-min; Mitra, Anurina; Lin, Lei; Davis, Frank M.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S. (2000-07-01). "A Unique 33-kD Cysteine Proteinase Accumulates in Response to Larval Feeding in Maize
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Genotypes Resistant to Fall Armyworm and Other Lepidoptera". The Plant
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Pest Diagnostic Laboratory. Western corn rootworm ^ Ostlie KR et al. University of Minnesota Extension Office. Last Reviewed 2008. Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management ^ "The cassava transformation in Africa". The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ^ Solon Robinson. Hot Corn: Life Scenes in New York Illustrated (Series appearing in 1853 in the NY Tribune, later as a book) ^ "Chapter 8: Improvement of maize diets; from corporate document: Maize
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in human nutrition". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 1992. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Edouard N., Lebas F., 2017. Maize
Maize
silage. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/13883 Last updated on June 22, 2017, 14:24 ^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Edouard N., Lebas F., 2017. Maize
Maize
green forage. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/358 Last updated on June 21, 2017, 10:16 ^ Liggett, R. Winston; Koffler, H. (December 1948). "Corn steep liquor in microbiology". Bacteriological Reviews. 12 (4): 297–311. PMC 180696 . PMID 16350125.  ^ "Corn for Home Heat: A Green Idea That Never Quite Popped". 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ Torres, Andres F.; Slegers, Petronella M.; Noordam-Boot, Cornelie M. M.; Dolstra, Oene; Vlaswinkel, Louis; van Boxtel, Anton J. B.; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M. (2016-03-15). " Maize
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feedstocks with improved digestibility reduce the costs and environmental impacts of biomass pretreatment and saccharification". Biotechnology for Biofuels. 9: 63. doi:10.1186/s13068-016-0479-0. ISSN 1754-6834. PMC 4791978 . PMID 26981155.  ^ "Fuel Ethanol
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Plants – Thermal Kinetics Engineering, PLLC". Thermal Kinetics Engineering, PLLC. Retrieved 2017-07-07.  ^ Mark Clayton (January 28, 2008). " Christian
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Science Monitor. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ "Iowa Renewable Fuels Association". Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ "Revista Envío – Are Free Trade Agreements Free? Are They Development Strategies?".  ^ "IBISWorld". Archived from the original on 2008-04-02.  ^ CBOT Corn Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest ^ About the American Maze, The American Maze
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Company ^ " Maize
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Quest Fun Park: Corn Box". Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 8, 2007.  ^ "2009 US Corn Stats" (PDF). Iowa Corn. Retrieved December 2, 2010.  ^ United States
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Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Corn supply, disappearance, and share of total corn used for ethanol. www.ers.usda.gov/datafiles/US_Bioenergy/Feedstocks/table05.xls (Excel file, accessed June 29, 2015). ^ a b Hoffman, L. and A. Baker. 2011. Estimating the substitution of distillers'grains for corn and soybean meal in the U.S. feed complex. United States
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Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. FDS-11-l-01. 62 pp. ^ "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28". United States
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Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service.  ^ "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis". NutritionData.com.  ^ " USDA
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Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 10, 2016.  ^ "The origins of maize: the puzzle of pellagra". EUFIC > Nutrition > Understanding Food. The European Food Information Council. December 2001. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved September 14, 2006.  ^ Staller, John; Carrasco, Michael (24 November 2009). Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Food, Culture, and Markets in Ancient Mesoamerica. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-4419-0471-3.  ^ Chase, Allan (April 1980). The Legacy of Malthus: the social costs of the new scientific racism. University of Illinois
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Further reading

Aureliano Brandolni; Andrea Brandolini (2006). Il mais in Italia: storia naturale e agricola. Bergamo, Italy: CRF press. XII+370 pages and 80 colour pages  Clampitt, Cynthia. Maize: How Corn Shaped the U.S. Heartland (2015) Ferro, D.N. & Weber, D.C. "Managing Sweet Corn Pests in Massachusetts".  Bonavia, Duccio (13 May 2013). Maize: Origin, Domestication, and Its Role in the Development of Culture. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02303-1. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maize.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Zea mays

Maize
Maize
Genetics
Genetics
and Genomics Database Maize
Maize
Genetics
Genetics
Cooperation Stock Center "Zea mays". Germplasm
Germplasm
Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States
United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA).   "Maize". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Maize
Maize
and corn

Varieties

Baby Blue Dent Field Flint Flour MON 810 MON 863 Quality Protein
Protein
Maize Shoepeg Sweet Genetically modified
Genetically modified
maize Waxy Bolivia varieties Ecuador varieties Italian varieties Sweetcorn varieties

Parts

Cob Kernel Stover

Processing

Amylomaize Corn construction Maize
Maize
milling Nixtamalization Wet-milling Popcorn
Popcorn
maker

Pathology

BBCH-scale Corn allergy Maize
Maize
streak virus

Maize production

Raw materials

Cornmeal Masa Mielie-meal Oil Samp Starch Steep liquor Syrup

Beverages

Atole Bourbon Champurrado Chicha Colada morada Pinolillo Pozol Tejate Tejuino Tesgüino

Dishes

Arepa Bread Conkies Cookie Corn flakes Corn on the cob Cou-cou Fufu Grits Hallaca Hominy Humita Johnnycake Kačamak Kuymak List of maize dishes Mazamorra Mămăligă Milho Frito Mush Nachos Nshima Pamonha Pap Pashofa Piki Polenta Popcorn Pudding corn Pupusa Sadza Sagamite Taco Tamale Tortilla Ugali

Corn syrup

Glucose syrup High-fructose corn syrup

Public relations

High-maltose corn syrup

Non-food

Biofuel Cornstalk fiddle

Misc.

List of popcorn brands

v t e

Cereals and pseudocereals

Cereals

Gramineae

Barley Fonio Job's tears Maize
Maize
(Corn) Millets Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Teff Triticale Zizania

Wheat
Wheat
(Triticum)

Bread Durum Khorasan Red Fife Norin 10 Winter

Farro

Einkorn Emmer Spelt

Pseudocereals

Polygonaceae

Buckwheat Tartary buckwheat

Amaranthaceae

Amaranth

A. caudatus A. cruentus A. hypochondriacus Celosia

Chenopodiaceae

Quinoa Pitseed goosefoot Cañihua

Lamiaceae

Chia

Fabaceae

Wattleseed

See also Triticeae Neolithic founder crops Neolithic Revolution History of agriculture Natufian culture Fertile Crescent Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Aswad Domestication Green Revolution Genetic engineering Selective breeding Crop
Crop
wild relative

v t e

Lists of countries by agricultural output rankings

Cereals

Barley Buckwheat Maize Millet Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Triticale Wheat

exports

Fruit

Apples Apricots Bananas Citrus

Oranges

Plums Pear Grapes Mango Tomatoes

Vegetables

Artichoke Onion Potato Rapeseed Soybean Cucumber

Other

Cacao Cassava Coffee Cotton Fish Garlic Milk Sugar
Sugar
beet Sugar
Sugar
cane Sunflower
Sunflower
seed Tea Tobacco Wine

Related

Irrigation Land use

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

v t e

Major model organisms in genetics

Lambda phage E. coli Chlamydomonas Tetrahymena Budding yeast Fission yeast Neurospora Maize Arabidopsis Medicago truncatula C. elegans Drosophila Xenopus Zebrafish Rat Mouse

v t e

Bioenergy

Biofuels

Alcohol Algae fuel Bagasse Babassu oil Biobutanol Biodiesel Biogas Biogasoline Corn stover Ethanol

cellulosic mixtures

Methanol Stover

Corn stover

Straw Cooking oil

Vegetable
Vegetable
oil

Water hyacinth Wood gas

Energy from foodstock

Barley Cassava Coconut oil Grape Hemp Maize Oat Palm oil Potato Rapeseed Rice Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor Soybean Sugarcane Sugar
Sugar
beet Sunflower Wheat Yam Camelina
Camelina
sativa

Non-food energy crops

Arundo Big bluestem Camelina Chinese tallow Duckweed Jatropha curcas Millettia pinnata Miscanthus giganteus Switchgrass Salicornia Wood fuel

Technology

BECCS Bioconversion Biomass
Biomass
heating systems Biorefinery Fischer–Tropsch process Industrial biotechnology Pellets

mill stove

Thermal depolymerization

Concepts

Cellulosic ethanol
Cellulosic ethanol
commercialization Energy content of biofuel Energy crop Energy forestry EROEI Food vs. fuel Issues Sustainable biofuel

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q11575 APDB: 52296 EoL: 1294019 EPPO: ZEAMX FoC: 200026507 GBIF: 5290052 GrassBase: imp10873 GRIN: 42207 iNaturalist: 48448 IPNI: 426810-1 ITIS: 42269 NCBI: 4577 Plant
Plant
List: kew-450362 PLANTS: ZEMA Tropicos: 25510055 VASCAN: 8024 WCSP: 450362

Authority control

LCCN: sh85032625 GND: 4037135-9 BNF: cb119468261 (data) HDS: 2

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