Mainz (/maɪnts/; German: [maɪ̯nt͡s] ( listen); Latin:
Mogontiacum, French: Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the
Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. It was the capital of the
Electorate of Mainz
Electorate of Mainz at the time of the Holy Roman Empire. In antiquity
Mainz was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine
and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire; it
was founded as a military post by the Romans in the late 1st century
BC and became the provincial capital of Germania Superior. During
World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the
city's center, including most of the historic buildings. The city is
located on the river
Rhine at its confluence with the Main opposite
Wiesbaden, in the western part of the
Frankfurt Rhine-Main region; in
the modern age,
Frankfurt shares much of its regional importance.
The city is famous as the home of the invention of the movable-type
printing press, as the first books printed using movable type were
Mainz by Gutenberg in the early 1450s. Until the
Mainz was usually referred to in English by its
French name: Mayence.
2.1 Roman Mogontiacum
2.2 Frankish Mainz
2.3 Christian Mainz
2.5 Republic of Mainz
2.6 Rhenish Hesse
2.7 Industrial expansion
2.8 20th century
2.9 Minority groups
4 Main sights
5.1 Coat of arms
8.1 USC Mainz
9.1 Wine centre
9.2 Other industries
10.1.1 Operational usage
10.2 Public transportation
10.4 Air transportation
11 Notable people
12 International relations
13 Alternative names
14 See also
15 Notes and references
17 External links
Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the west bank of the river
Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine. The
population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people
maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in
Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million
Mainz can easily be reached from
Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway (Line S8).
View north along the
Rhine with the old Winterhafen in the lower left,
the other port facilities further north
50th latitude on the Gutenbergplatz
Mainz is a river port city as the
Rhine which connects with its main
tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and, later, the Moselle and
thereby continental Europe with the
Port of Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam and thus the
North Sea. Mainz's history and economy are closely tied to its
proximity to the
Rhine historically handling much of the region's
waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal
transport is located on the North Side of the town. The river also
provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate; making
waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in
After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the
at what was to become the western edge of the city. The
Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare
steppe vegetation for this area.
Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC on the Kästrich
hill, the associated vici and canabae were erected in direction to the
Rhine. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the
importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on
Mainz experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification
Climate data for Mainz
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
See also: Timeline of Mainz
Remains of a Roman town gate from the late 4th century
The Roman stronghold or castrum Mogontiacum, the precursor to Mainz,
was founded by the Roman general Drusus perhaps as early as 13/12 BC.
As related by
Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well
established by four years later (the account of the death and funeral
of Nero Claudius Drusus), though several other theories suggest the
site may have been established earlier. Although the city is
situated opposite the mouth of the Main, the name of
Mainz is not from
Main, the similarity being perhaps due to diachronic analogy. Main is
Latin Menus, the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic
analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it
clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum. The name appears
to be Celtic and ultimately it is. However, it had also become Roman
and was selected by them with a special significance. The Roman
Gallia had adopted the Gallic god
Moguns, Mogonino), for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic
options: "the great one", similar to
Latin magnus, which was used in
aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and
Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified
as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or
The Drusus monument or
Drususstein (surrounded by the 17th century
citadel) raised by Drusus' men to commemorate him
Remains of the Roman aqueduct
Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times,
probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main
and the Rhine. The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and
the river. The castrum was the base of
Legio XIV Gemina
Legio XIV Gemina and XVI
Gallica (AD 9–43), XXII Primigenia, IV Macedonica (43–70), I
Adiutrix (70–88), XXI Rapax (70–89), and XIV Gemina (70–92),
Mainz was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the
Classis Germanica. Remains of Roman troop ships (navis lusoria) and a
patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and
may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt. A temple
Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in 2000
and is open to the public. The city was the provincial capital of
Germania Superior, and had an important funeral monument dedicated to
Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from
as far away as Lyon. Among the famous buildings were the largest
theatre north of the
Alps and a bridge across the Rhine. The city was
also the site of the assassination of emperor
Severus Alexander in
Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day
of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals, the Suebi, the
Alans, and other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine, possibly at Mainz.
Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death
by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of
the invasion of Gaul.
Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have
been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a
testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures were built
there at different times. The current citadel originated in 1660, but
it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War II. One of the
sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to
commemorate their Drusus.
Through a series of incursions during the 4th century
lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among
Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the
Alamanni. The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the
troops stationed at
Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors
had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included
chiefly peoples of the northern frontier.
The last emperor to station troops serving the western empire at Mainz
Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), who relied heavily on his
Magister militum per Gallias, Flavius Aëtius. By that time the army
included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies
along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the
Saxons and the Franks. The Franks
were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the
Belgae of the lower
Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly
attempted to extend their influence upstream. In 358 the emperor
Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior, which
they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in
European factions in the time of master Aëtius included Celts, Goths,
Franks, Saxons, Alamanni, Huns, Italians, and
Alans as well as
numerous other minor peoples. Aëtius played them all off against one
another in a masterly effort to keep the peace under Roman
sovereignty. He used Hunnic troops a number of times. At last a day of
reckoning arrived between Aëtius and Attila, both commanding
polyglot, multi-ethnic troops.
Attila went through
Alsace in 451,
devastating the country and destroying
Mainz and Triers with their
Roman garrisons. Shortly after he was thwarted by
Flavius Aëtius at
the Battle of Châlons, the largest of the ancient world.
Aëtius was not to enjoy the victory long. He was assassinated in 454
by the hand of his employer, who in turn was stabbed to death by
friends of Aëtius in 455. As far as the north was concerned this was
the effective end of the Roman empire there. After some sanguinary but
relatively brief contention a former subordinate of Aëtius, Ricimer,
became emperor, taking the name Patrician. His father was a Suebian;
his mother, a princess of the Visigoths. Patrician did not rule the
north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned
independently. The capital was at Soissons. Even then its status was
equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons.
Previously the first of the Merovingians, Clodio, had been defeated by
Aëtius at about 430. His son, Merovaeus, fought on the Roman side
against Attila, and his son, Childeric, served in the domain of
Soissons. Meanwhile, the
Franks were gradually infiltrating and
assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the
created a domain in the region of the former
Germania Superior with
capital at Cologne. They became known as the Ripuarian
opposed to the Salian Franks. It is unlikely that much of a population
transfer or displacement occurred. The former Belgae simply became
Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of
Childeric, became king of the Salians in 481, ruling from Tournai. In
486 he defeated Syagrius, last governor of the
Soissons domain, and
took northern France. He extended his reign to
490–491, and repelled the
Alamanni in 496. Also in that year he
converted to non-Arian Christianity.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the
the rule of
Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year
496. Clovis annexed the kingdom of
Cologne in 508. Thereafter, Mainz,
in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish
Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the
conversion of Clovis. His successor
Dagobert I reinforced the walls of
Mainz and made it one of his seats. A solidus of Theodebert I
(534–548) was minted at Mainz.
Charlemagne (768–814), through a succession of wars against other
tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe.
Mainz from its central
location became important to the empire and to Christianity.
Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks.
Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne,
distinctions between France and
Germany began to be made.
not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of
the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern
times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.
Free City of Mainz
Freie Stadt Mainz
c. 13 BC
City charter granted
by Abp Siegfried III
Charter revoked by
Abp Adolph II
Archbishopric of Mainz
Archbishopric of Mainz
Today part of
See also: Archbishopric of Mainz
Mainz Cathedral, western main tower
St. Stephan Mainz
St. Stephan Mainz (St. Stephan Church in Mainz) is famous for its Marc
In the early Middle Ages,
Mainz was a centre for the Christianisation
of the German and Slavic peoples. The first archbishop in Mainz,
Boniface, was killed in 754 while trying to convert the
Christianity and is buried in Fulda. Harald Klak, king of Jutland, his
family and followers, were baptized at
Mainz in 826, in the abbey of
St. Alban's. Other early archbishops of
Mainz include Rabanus
Maurus, the scholar and author, and
Willigis (975–1011), who began
construction on the current building of the
Mainz Cathedral and
founded the monastery of St. Stephan.
Monument to St.
St. Martin's Cathedral in Mainz, by Wenzel Hollar; pen-and-ink drawing
From the time of
Willigis until the end of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire in
Archbishops of Mainz
Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and
the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.
Besides Rome, the diocese of
Mainz today is the only diocese in the
world with an episcopal see that is called a
Holy See (sancta sedes).
Archbishops of Mainz
Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae, the
substitutes of the
Pope north of the Alps.
In 1244, Archbishop Siegfried III granted
Mainz a city charter, which
included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city
council. The city saw a feud between two archbishops in 1461, namely
Diether von Isenburg, who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral
chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau, who
had been named archbishop for
Mainz by the pope. In 1462, the
Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing 400
inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their
property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow
Adolf. Those who would not promise to follow Adolf (amongst them
Johannes Gutenberg) were driven out of the town or thrown into prison.
The new archbishop revoked the city charter of
Mainz and put the city
under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his
successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the
chapter and named by the Pope.
Jewish community of
Mainz dates to the 10th century AD. It is
noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah
(960–1040) taught there, among others. He concentrated on the study
of the Talmud, creating a German
Mainz is also the
legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz, composer of the
Unetanneh Tokef prayer. The Jews of Mainz,
Speyer and Worms created a
supreme council to set standards in
Jewish law and education in the
The city of
Mainz responded to the
Jewish population in a variety of
ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other
times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in 1012, 1462
(after which they were invited to return), and in 1474. Jews were
attacked in 1096 and by mobs in 1283. Outbreaks of the Black Death
were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred,
such as the burning of about 6,000 Jews alive in 1349.
Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue
by the architect
Manuel Herz was constructed in 2010 on the site of
the one destroyed under the Third Reich. The community itself has
1,034 members, according to the Central Council of Jews in Germany,
and at least twice as many Jews altogether since many are unaffiliated
Republic of Mainz
Main article: Republic of Mainz
During the French Revolution, the French Revolutionary army occupied
Mainz in 1792; the Archbishop of Mainz, Friedrich Karl Josef von
Erthal, had already fled to
Aschaffenburg by the time the French
marched in. On 18 March 1793, the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German
democrats from about 130 towns in the Rhenish Palatinate, proclaimed
the 'Republic of Mainz'. Led by Georg Forster, representatives of the
Mainz Republic in Paris requested political affiliation of the Mainz
Republic with France, but too late:
Prussia was not entirely happy
with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil (although the
Mainz was neither free nor democratic). Prussian
troops had already occupied the area and besieged
Mainz by the end of
March, 1793. After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz
surrendered on 23 July 1793; Prussians occupied the city and ended the
Republic of Mainz. It came to the
Battle of Mainz
Battle of Mainz in 1795 between
Austria and France. Members of the
Jacobin Club were mistreated
or imprisoned and punished for treason.
Tombstone of Jeanbon Baron de St. André, Prefect of Napoleonic Mainz
In 1797, the French returned. The army of Napoléon Bonaparte occupied
the German territory to the west of the Rhine, and the Treaty of Campo
Formio awarded France this entire area. On 17 February 1800, the
French Département du
Mont-Tonnerre was founded here, with
its capital, the
Rhine being the new eastern frontier of la Grande
Nation. Austria and
Prussia could not but approve this new border with
France in 1801. However, after several defeats in Europe during the
next years, the weakened Napoléon and his troops had to leave Mainz
in May 1814.
In 1816, the part of the former French Département which is known
Rhenish Hesse (German: Rheinhessen) was awarded to the
Mainz being the capital of the new Hessian province
of Rhenish Hesse. From 1816 to 1866, to the
German Confederation Mainz
was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had
a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.
In the afternoon of 18 November 1857, a huge explosion rocked Mainz
when the city's powder magazine, the Pulverturm, exploded.
Approximately 150 people were killed and at least 500 injured; 57
buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what
was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.
Austro-Prussian War in 1866,
Mainz was declared a neutral
zone. After the founding of the
German Empire in 1871,
Mainz no longer
was as important a stronghold, because in the war of 1870/71 France
had lost the territory of
Germany (which France had
occupied piece by piece 1630/1795), and this defined the new border
between the two countries.
Mainz towards the
Rhine (around 1890)
For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of
Mainz had suffered
from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other
inconveniences. In 1872 Mayor
Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz
persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the
city. Beginning in 1874, the city of
Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld,
an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the
the north of the rampart. The city expansion more than doubled the
urban area which allowed
Mainz to participate in the industrial
revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.
Eduard Kreyßig was the man who made this happen. Having been the
master builder of the city of
Mainz since 1865, Kreyßig had the
vision for the new part of town, the Neustadt. He also planned the
first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and
persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the
Rhine side to the west end of the town. The main station was built
from 1882 to 1884 according to the plans of Philipp Johann Berdellé.
Mainz including expansion zone the
Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art
public buildings, including the
Mainz town hall — which was the
largest of its kind in
Germany at that time — as well a synagogue,
Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.
Kreyßig's last work was Christ Church (Christuskirche), the largest
Protestant church in the city and the first building constructed
solely for the use of a Protestant congregation. In 1905 the
demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was
taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.
After World War I the French occupied
Mainz between 1919 and 1930
according to the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June
Rhineland (in which
Mainz is located) was to be a
demilitarized zone until 1935 and the French garrison, representing
the Triple Entente, was to stay until reparations were paid.
Mainz participated in the
Rhineland separatist movement that
proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in 1924. The
French withdrew on 30 June 1930.
Adolf Hitler became chancellor of
Germany in January, 1933 and his political opponents, especially those
of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.
Some were able to move away from
Mainz in time. One was the political
organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner, who went to Laubach, where
as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his
opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a 900-page
In March, 1933, a detachment from the National Socialist Party in
Worms brought the party to Mainz. They hoisted the swastika on all
public buildings and began to denounce the
Jewish population in the
newspapers. In 1936 the forces of the
Third Reich reentered the
Rhineland with a great fanfare, the first move of the Third Reich's
meteoric expansion. The former
Triple Entente took no action.
During World War II the citadel at
Mainz hosted the Oflag XII-B
prisoner of war camp.
The Bishop of Mainz, Albert Stohr, formed an organization to help Jews
escape from Germany.
During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent
of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. Mainz
was captured on 22 March 1945 against uneven German resistance
(staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city) by the
90th Infantry Division under William A. McNulty, a formation of the
XII Corps under Third Army commanded by General George S. Patton,
Jr. Patton used the ancient strategic gateway through Germania
Superior to cross the
Rhine south of Mainz, drive down the Danube
Czechoslovakia and end the possibility of a Bavarian redoubt
Alps in Austria when the war ended.
From 1945 to 1949, the city was part of the French zone of occupation.
When the federal state of
Rhineland-Palatinate was founded on 30
August 1946 by the commander of the French army on the French
occupation zone Marie Pierre Kœnig,
Mainz became capital of the new
state. In 1962, the diarist, Friedrich Kellner, returned to spend
his last years in Mainz. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his
writings, is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition:
The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner.
Following the withdrawal of French forces from Mainz, the United
States Army Europe occupied the military bases in Mainz. Today USAREUR
only occupies McCulley Barracks in Wackernheim and the
Dunes for training area.
Mainz is home to the headquarters of the
Rhineland-Palatinate and other units.
The following list shows the largest minority groups in
Mainz as of
Soviet Union[clarification needed]
Mainz skyline May, 2007, from South Railway bridge over the Rhine
Mainz May 2011, Schillerplatz, looking southeast
Market square and cathedral
The destruction caused by the bombing of
Mainz during World War II led
to the largest building boom in the history of the town. During the
last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent
of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.
The destructive attack on the afternoon of 27 February 1945 remains
the most destructive of all 33 bombings that
Mainz has suffered in
World War II in the collective memory of most of the population living
then. The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already
hard-hit city largely leveled.
Town Hall by Jacobsen
Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly.
While cities such as
Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central
authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in
rebuilding Mainz. The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz
to expand and to become a model city.
Mainz lay within the
French-controlled sector of
Germany and it was a French architect and
town-planner, Marcel Lods, who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of
an ideal architecture. But the very first interest of the
inhabitants was the restoration of housing areas. Even after the
failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French
(founding of the
Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, elevation of
Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early
resumption of the
Mainz carnival) driving the city in a positive
development after the war. The City Plan of 1958 by
Ernst May allowed
a regulated reconstruction for the first time. In 1950, the seat of
the government of
Rhineland-Palatinate had been transferred to the new
Mainz and in 1963 the seat of the new ZDF, notable architects were
Adolf Bayer, Richard Jörg and Egon Hartmann. At the time of the
two-thousand-years-anniversary in 1962 the city was largely
reconstructed. During the 1950s and 1960s the Oberstadt had been
extended, Münchfeld and Lerchenberg added as suburbs, the
Altstadttangente (intersection of the old town), new neighbourhoods as
Westring and Südring contributed to the extension. By 1970 there
remained only a few ruins. The new town hall of
Mainz had been
Arne Jacobsen and finished by Dissing+Weitling. The town
used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo erecting a new office and
warehouse building to contact him. The urban renewal of the old town
changed the inner city. In the framework of the preparation of the
cathedrals millennium, pedestrian zones were developed around the
cathedral, in northern direction to the Neubrunnenplatz and in
southern direction across the Leichhof to the Augustinerstraße and
Kirschgarten. The 1980s brought the renewal of the façades on the
Markt and a new inner-city neighbourhood on the Kästrich. During the
1990s the Kisselberg between
Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort
Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal
of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping
center at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising
building at the same place.
The Deutschhaus, the House of Parliament of Rhineland-Palatinate
Kaiserstraße ("Emperor Street") with boulevard and Christuskirche
Theodor Heuss Bridge
Interior of the Augustinian Church
Romano-Germanic Central Museum (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum).
It is home to Roman, Medieval, and earlier artifacts.
Museum of Ancient Seafaring
Museum of Ancient Seafaring (Museum für Antike Schifffahrt). It
houses the remains of five Roman boats from the late 4th century,
discovered in the 1980s.
Roman remains, including Jupiter's column, Drusus' mausoleum, the
ruins of the theatre and the aqueduct.
Mainz Cathedral of St. Martin (Mainzer Dom), over 1,000 years old.
St. John's Church, 7th-century church building
Iron Tower (Eisenturm, tower at the former iron market), a
Wood Tower (Holzturm, tower at the former wood market), a
15th-century gate tower.
Gutenberg Museum – exhibits an original Gutenberg Bible amongst
many other printed books from the 15th century and later.
Mainz Old Town – what's left of it, the quarter south of the
cathedral survived World War II.
The old arsenal, the central arsenal of the fortress
Mainz during the
17th and 18th century
The Electoral Palace (Kurfürstliches Schloss), residence of the
The Marktbrunnen, one of the largest Renaissance fountains in Germany.
Domus Universitatis (1615), for centuries the tallest edifice in
Christ Church (Christuskirche), built 1898–1903, bombed in 1945 and
rebuilt in 1948–1954.
The Church of St. Stephan, with post-war windows by Marc Chagall.
The ruins of the church St. Christoph, a World War II memorial
Schönborner Hof (1668).
Rococo churches of St. Augustin (the Augustinerkirche, Mainz) and St.
Peter (the Peterskirche, Mainz).
Church of St. Ignatius (1763).
Erthaler Hof (1743)
Bassenheimer Hof (1750)
The Botanischer Garten der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, a
botanical garden maintained by the university
Landesmuseum Mainz, state museum with archaeology and art.
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF) – one of the largest public German
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cultural heritage monuments in
New synagogue in Mainz
Mainz – museum for contemporary art
The city of
Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the
main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district
administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the
chairman of the district administration. This local council decides on
important issues affecting the local area, however, the final decision
on new policies is made by the Mainz's municipal council.
In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of
Rhineland-Palatinate, which refers to municipalities of more than
150,000 inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.
Districts of the town are:
Until 1945, the districts of Bischofsheim (now an independent town),
Ginsheim-Gustavsburg (which together are an independent town) belonged
to Mainz. The former suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel, and Kostheim — (in
short, AKK) are now administrated by the city of
Wiesbaden (on the
north bank of the river). The AKK was separated from
Mainz when the
Rhine was designated the boundary between the French occupation zone
(the later state of Rhineland-Palatinate) and the U.S. occupation zone
(Hesse) in 1945.
Coat of arms
Main article: Wheel of Mainz
The coat of arms of
Mainz is derived from the coat of arms of the
Archbishops of Mainz
Archbishops of Mainz and features two six-spoked silver wheels
connected by a silver cross on a red background.
Mainz Rad and FSV
Mainz 05 flags on the Domplatz
Mainz is home to a Carnival, the Mainzer Fassenacht or Fastnacht,
which has developed since the early 19th century.
Carnival in Mainz
has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices
under the shelter of cap and bells. Today, the uniforms of many
Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms
of the French and Prussian troops of the past. The height of the
carnival season is on
Rosenmontag ("rose Monday"), when there is a
large parade in Mainz, with more than 500,000 people celebrating in
The first ever Katholikentag, a festival-like gathering of German
Catholics, was held in
Mainz in 1848.
Forum of the
Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Johannes Gutenberg, credited with the invention of the modern printing
press with movable type, was born here and died here. The Mainz
University, which was refounded in 1946, is named after Gutenberg; the
University of Mainz
University of Mainz that dated back to 1477 had been closed
down by Napoleon's troops in 1798.
Mainz was one of three important centers of
Jewish theology and
learning in Central Europe during the Middle Ages. Known collectively
as Shum, the cities of Speyer, Worms and
Mainz played a key role in
the preservation and propagation of Talmudic scholarship.
The city is the seat of Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (literally,
"Second German Television", ZDF), one of two federal nationwide TV
broadcasters. There are also a couple of radio stations based in
Other cultural aspects of the city include:
As city in the Greater Region,
Mainz participated in the program of
the year of
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture 2007.
Walk of Fame of Cabaret
Walk of Fame of Cabaret may be found nearby the Schillerplatz.
The music publisher
Schott Music is located in Mainz.
One of the oldest brass instrument manufacturers in the world, Gebr.
Alexander is located in Mainz.
Fans of Gospel music enjoy the yearly performances of Colours of
University of Mainz
University of Applied Sciences Mainz
Catholic University of Applied Sciences Mainz
The local football club
1. FSV Mainz 05
1. FSV Mainz 05 has a long history in the
German football leagues. Since 2004 it has competed in the Bundesliga
(First German soccer league) except a break in second level in
Mainz is closely associated with renowned coach
Jürgen Klopp, who spent the vast majority of his playing career at
the club and was also the manager for seven years, leading the club to
Bundesliga football for the first time. After leaving
Mainz Klopp went
on to win two
Bundesliga titles and reaching a Champions League final
with Borussia Dortmund. In the summer 2011 the club opened its new
stadium called Coface Arena. Further relevant football clubs are TSV
Schott Mainz, SV Gonsenheim, Fontana Finthen, FC Fortuna
The local wrestling club ASV
Mainz 1888 is currently in the top
division of team wrestling in Germany, the Bundesliga. In 1973, 1977
and 2012 the ASV
Mainz 1888 won the German championship.
In 2007 the
Mainz Athletics won the German Men's Championship in
As a result of the 2008 invasion of Georgia by Russian troops, Mainz
acted as a neutral venue for the Georgian Vs Republic of Ireland
The biggest basketball club in the city is the ASC Theresianum Mainz.
Its men's team is playing in the Regionalliga and its women's team is
playing in the 2.DBBL.
Mainz (University Sports Club Mainz) is a
German sports club based in Mainz. It was founded on 9 September
1959 by Berno Wischmann primarily for students of the University
of Mainz. It is considered one of the most powerful Athletics Sports
clubs in Germany. 50 athletes of USC have distinguished themselves in
a half-century in club history at Olympic Games, World and European
Championships. In particular in the decathlon dominated USC athletes
for decades: Already at the European Championships in Budapest in 1966
Mainz won three (Werner von Moltke, Jörg Mattheis and Horst Beyer)
all decathlon medals. In the all-time list of the USC, there are nine
athletes who have achieved more than 8,000 points – at the head of
Siegfried Wentz (8762 points in 1983) and Guido Kratschmer (1980 world
record with 8667 points). Most successful athlete of the association
is more fighter, sprinter and long jumper Ingrid Becker (Olympic
champion in 1968 in the pentathlon and Olympic champion in 1972 in the
4 × 100 Metres Relay and European champion in 1971 in the long jump).
Most famous athletes of the present are the sprinter Marion Wagner
(world champion in 2001 in the 4 × 100 Metres Relay) and the pole
vaulters Carolin Hingst (Eighth of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing) and
Three world titles adorn the balance of USC Mainz. For the discus
thrower Lars Riedel attended (1991 and 1993) and the already mentioned
sprinter Marion Wagner (2001). Added to 5 titles at the European
Championships, a total of 65 international medals and 260 victories at
the German Athletics Championships.
The players of USC's basketball section played from the season 1968/69
to the season 1974/75 in the National Basketball League (BBL) of the
German Basketball Federation (DBB). As a finalist to winning the DBB
Cup in 1971 USC
Mainz played in the 1971–72 FIBA European Cup
Winners' Cup against the Italian Cup winners of Fides Napoli.
The Baseball and Softball Club
Mainz Athletics is a German baseball
and softball club located in the city of
Rhineland-Palatinate. The Athletics is one of the largest clubs in the
Bundesliga Süd in terms of membership, claiming to have
hundreds of active players. The club has played in the
Bundesliga for more than two decades, and has won the German
Championship in 2007 and 2016.
Bonifatius center building
Mainz is one of the centers of the
German wine economy as a center
for wine trade and the seat of the state's wine minister. Due to the
importance and history of the wine industry for the federal state,
Rhineland-Palatinate is the only state to have such a department.
Since 2008, the city is also member of the Great Wine Capitals Global
Network (GWC), an association of well-known wineculture-cities of the
world. Many wine traders also work in the town. The sparkling wine
producer Kupferberg produced in Mainz-Hechtsheim and even
now located on the other side of the river
Rhine — had been founded
once in Mainz. The famous Blue Nun, one of the first branded wines,
had been marketed by the family Sichel.
Mainz had been a wine growing region since Roman times and the image
of the wine town
Mainz is fostered by the tourist center. The Haus des
Deutschen Weines (English: House of German Wine), is located in beside
the theater. The Mainzer Weinmarkt (wine market) is one of the great
wine fairs in Germany.
The Schott AG, one of the world's largest glass manufactures, as well
as the Werner & Mertz, a large chemical factory, are based in
Mainz. Other companies such as IBM, QUINN Plastics, or Novo Nordisk
have their German administration in
Mainz as well.
Johann-Joseph Krug, founder of France's famous Krug champagne house in
1843, was born in
Mainz in 1800.
View to the Rheinreede, container cranes 2007, laid down in 2010.
Mainz is a major transport hub in southern Germany. It is an important
component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest
inter-modal port in Germany. The Port of Mainz, now handling mainly
containers, is a sizable industrial area to the north of the city,
along the banks of the Rhine. In order to open up space along the
city's riverfront for residential development, it was shifted further
northwards in 2010.
Aerial photograph of Mainz
Mainz Central Station
Mainz Central Station or
Mainz Hauptbahnhof, is frequented by 80,000
travelers and visitors each day and is therefore one of the busiest 21
stations in Germany. It is a stop for the S-Bahn line S8 of the
Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund. Additionally, the
Mainbahn line to
Frankfurt Hbf starts at the station. It is served by 440 daily local
and regional trains (StadtExpress, RE and RB) and 78 long-distance
trains (IC, EC and ICE). Intercity-Express lines connect
Worms Hauptbahnhof and Koblenz
Hauptbahnhof. It is a terminus of the West
Rhine Railway and the
Ludwigshafen railway, as well as the Alzey–
erected by the
Hessische Ludwigsbahn in 1871. Access to the East Rhine
Railway is provided by the Kaiserbrücke, a railway bridge across the
Rhine at the north end of Mainz.
Number of passenger tracks
7 main line,
1 tramway station,
2 tracks each
The station is an interchange point for the
Mainz tramway network, and
an important bus junction for the city and region (RNN, ORN and MVG).
Mainz offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities and
events, including several miles of on-street bike lanes. The
Rhine Cycle Route) is an international cycle route,
running from the source to the mouth of the Rhine, traversing four
countries at a distance of 1,300 km (810 mi). Another
cycling tour runs towards Bingen and further to the Middle Rhine, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site (2002).
Mainz is served by
Frankfurt Airport, the busiest airport by passenger
Germany by far, the third busiest in Europe and the ninth
busiest worldwide in 2009. Located about 10 miles (16 kilometres) east
of Mainz, it is connected to the city by an S-Bahn line.
Mainz Finthen Airport, located just 3 miles (5 km)
southwest of Mainz, is used by general aviation only. Another airport,
Frankfurt-Hahn Airport located about 50 miles (80 km) west of
Mainz, is served by a few low-cost carriers.
List of people related to Mainz
Archbishops of Mainz
List of mayors of Mainz
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Mainz is twinned with:
Watford, United Kingdom, since 1956
Dijon, France, since 1957
Longchamp, France, with Mainz-Laubenheim, since 1966
Zagreb, Croatia, since 1967
Rodeneck, Italy, with Mainz-Finthen, since 1977
Valencia, Spain, since 1978
Haifa, Israel, since 1981
Erfurt, former East Germany, since 1988
Baku, Azerbaijan, since 1984
Louisville, Kentucky, USA, since 1994
Mainz has a number of different names in other languages and dialects.
Latin it is known as Mogontiacum or Moguntiacum and, in the local
West Middle German
West Middle German dialect, it is Määnz or Meenz. It is known as
Mayence in French, Magonza in Italian, Maguncia in Spanish, Mogúncia
in Portuguese, Moguncja in Polish, Magentza (מגנצא) in Yiddish,
and Mohuč in Czech and Slovakian. Its former English name Mentz is
shared by two American cities named in its honor.
Peter Schöffer, apprentice of Gutenberg and early printer
Notes and references
^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015"
Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 2016.
^ Mainz#Further reading
^ Olaf Höckmann:
Mainz als römische Hafenstadt. p. 87–106.
in: Michael J. Klein (editor): Die Römer und ihr Erbe. Fortschritt
durch Innovation und Integration. Philipp von Zabern,
Mainz historic weather averages". Intellicast. June 2011. Retrieved
21 September 2009.
^ The earliest certain evidence of the existence of Mogontiacum is the
account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of
the future emperor, Tiberius, given in Suetonius' life of Drusus. Few
leaders have been as loved and as popular as Drusus. He fell from his
horse in 9 BC, contracted gangrene and lingered several days. His
Tiberius reached him in just a few days riding post-horses
over the Roman roads and served as the chief mourner, walking with the
deceased in a funeral procession from the summer camp where he had
fallen to Mogontiacum, where the soldiers insisted on a funeral. The
body was transported to Rome, cremated in the Campus Martis and the
ashes placed in the tomb of Augustus, who was still alive, and wrote
poetry and delivered a state funeral oration for him. If Drusus
founded Mogontiacum the earliest date is the start of his campaign, 13
BC. Some hypothesize that Mogontiacum was constructed at one of two
earlier opportunities, one when
Marcus Agrippa campaigned in the
region in 42 BC or by
Julius Caesar himself after 58 BC. Lack of
evidence plays a part in favoring 13 BC. No sources cite Mogontiacum
before 13 BC, no legions are known to have been stationed there, and
no coins survive.[this quote needs a citation]
^ von Elbe, Joachim (1975). Roman Germany: a guide to sites and
museums. Mainz: P. von Zabern. p. 253.
^ A second hypothesis suggests that Moguns was a wealthy Celt whose
estate was taken for the fort and that a tax district was formed on
the area parallel to other tax districts with a -iacum suffix
(Arenacum, Mannaricium). There is no evidence for this supposedly
wealthy man or his estate, but there is plenty for the god. According
Carl Darling Buck in Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, -yo-
and -k- are general Indo-European formative suffices and are not
related to taxes. As the loyalty of the
Vangiones was unquestioned and
Drusus was campaigning over the Rhine, it is unlikely Mogontiacum
would have been built to collect taxes from the Vangiones, who were
not a Roman municipium.
^ "Mainz, temple of
Isis – Livius".
^ "Isis-Tempel in Mainz".
^ Michael Kulikowski, "Barbarians in Gaul, Usurpers in Britain"
Britannia 31 (2000:325–345).
^ Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians,
(Longman Group, 1999), 229.
^ Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A distant mirror. Random House Digital,
Inc. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-307-29160-8. Retrieved 27 August
^ de:Neue Synagoge Mainz
^ Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage: French Fortifications, 1715–1815: An
Illustrated History McFarland, 30 November 2009 online
^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic
Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division,
1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 164
^ original text of Kœnig's order No. 57 Archived 28 September 2011 at
the Wayback Machine.; as can be found on Landeshauptarchiv
Rheinland-Pfalz (main-archive of Rhineland-Palatinate) Archived 24 May
2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ History of
^ Aerial view Archived 8 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. of the
total destruction from the repeated US & RAF bombing raids on the
city; Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White.
^ Aerial view Archived 17 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. of
bomb-damaged theater, St. Quintins church, St. Johannis church and old
university after an Allied air attack.
^ Aerial view of Mainz-Neustadt and the port of
Mainz for Life
^ Eric Paul Mumford: CIAM Discourse on Urbanism 1928–1960 p. 159
^ Jeffry M. Diefendorf: In the Wake of War: The Reconstruction of
German Cities After World War 2 p. 357
^ Plan for the reconstruction of the German city of
Mainz by Marcel
Lods, 1947 in: Carl Fingerhuth: Learning from China: The Tao Of The
City p. 59
^ "Universitäts Sportclub Mainz: USC Mainz".
^ Peter H. Eisenhuth in der Mainzer Rhein-Zeitung vom 9. September
^ Basketball: Cup Winner' Cup 1971-72 - First Round USC Mainz. Website
Linguasport – Sport History and Statistics. Abgerufen am 4. Juni
^ Culture and History (from the
Mainz city council website. Accessed
^ "Great Wine Capitals".
Rhine Cycle Route". Euregio Rhine-Waal. Retrieved 25 November
^ a b "How to get to Mainz". Landeshauptstadt Mainz.
^ "Ciudades Hermanadas con València" [
Valencia Twin/Sister Cities].
Ajuntament de València [City of Valencia] (in Spanish). Archived from
the original on 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved
^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved
12 March 2014.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Mainz
Hope, Valerie. Constructing Identity: The Roman Funerary Monuments of
Mainz and Nîmes; British Archaeological Reports (16. Juli
2001) ISBN 978-1-84171-180-5
Imhof, Michael and Simone Kestin:
Mainz City and Cathedral Guide.
Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2004. ISBN 978-3-937251-93-6
Mainz ("Vierteljahreshefte für Kultur, Politik, Wirtschaft,
Geschichte"), since 1981
Saddington, Denis. The stationing of auxiliary regiments in Germania
Superior in the Julio-Claudian period
Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic
Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division,
1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mainz.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mainz.
The official web site of the city of Mainz
"Mainz". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.
"Mainz", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York:
Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
"Mainz". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
Places adjacent to Mainz
Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany
Capitals of area states
Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Hanover (Lower Saxony)
Bremen (State of Bremen)
Capitals of former states
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau (South Baden, 1949–1952)
Stuttgart (Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952)
Tübingen (Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)
1 Unlike the mono-city states
Berlin and Hamburg, the State of Bremen
consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.
Germany by population
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Mainz (Stadtteile) of Mainz
Urban and rural districts in the State of
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