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MAINZ
MAINZ
(/maɪnts/ ; German: ( listen ); Latin
Latin
: Mogontiacum, French : Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. It was the capital of the Electorate of Mainz
Mainz
at the time of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. In antiquity Mainz
Mainz
was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine
Rhine
and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire; it was founded as a military post by the Romans in the late 1st century BC and became the provincial capital of Germania Superior
Germania Superior
. The city is located on the river Rhine
Rhine
at its confluence with the Main opposite Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
, in the western part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main ; in the modern age, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
shares much of its regional importance.

The city is famous as the home of the invention of the movable-type printing press , as the first books printed using movable type were manufactured in Mainz
Mainz
by Gutenberg in the early 1450s. Until the twentieth century, Mainz
Mainz
was usually referred to in English by its French name: MAYENCE.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Topography * 1.2 Climate

* 2 History

* 2.1 Roman Mogontiacum * 2.2 Frankish Mainz
Mainz
* 2.3 Christian Mainz
Mainz
* 2.4 Early Jewish
Jewish
community * 2.5 Republic
Republic
of Mainz
Mainz
* 2.6 Rhenish Hesse * 2.7 Industrial expansion * 2.8 20th century * 2.9 Minority groups

* 3 Cityscape

* 3.1 Architecture

* 4 Main sights

* 5 Administration

* 5.1 Coat of arms

* 6 Culture * 7 Education

* 8 Sports

* 8.1 USC Mainz
Mainz
* 8.2 Mainz Athletics

* 9 Economy

* 9.1 Wine centre * 9.2 Other industries

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Rail

* 10.1.1 Operational usage

* 10.2 Public transportation * 10.3 Cycling * 10.4 Air transportation

* 11 Notable people * 12 International relations * 13 Alternative names * 14 See also * 15 Notes and references * 16 Sources * 17 External links

GEOGRAPHY

TOPOGRAPHY

Mainz
Mainz
is located on the 50th latitude, on the west bank of the river Rhine
Rhine
, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine. The population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million people. Mainz
Mainz
can easily be reached from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway (Line S8 ). View north along the Rhine
Rhine
with the old Winterhafen in the lower left, the other port facilities further north 50th latitude on the Gutenbergplatz

Mainz
Mainz
is a river port city as the Rhine
Rhine
which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar , the Main and, later, the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea
North Sea
. Mainz's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to the Rhine
Rhine
river historically handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town. The river also provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate; making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer.

After the last ice age , sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city. The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area.

When the Mainz
Mainz
legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC, the buildings near the Rhine
Rhine
River, stood for the civil settlement of the present city. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine.

CLIMATE

Mainz
Mainz
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb).

CLIMATE DATA FOR MAINZ

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 5.3 (41.5) 9.7 (49.5) 14.2 (57.6) 19 (66) 22 (71.6) 24 (75) 23.6 (74.5) 20.1 (68.2) 14.3 (57.7) 8 (46) 4.5 (40.1) 14 (57.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −1.2 (29.8) −0.6 (30.9) 1.9 (35.4) 4.8 (40.6) 8.7 (47.7) 11.9 (53.4) 13.4 (56.1) 13.2 (55.8) 10.3 (50.5) 6.6 (43.9) 2.5 (36.5) −0.1 (31.8) 5.9 (42.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 38 (1.5) 36 (1.4) 38 (1.5) 38 (1.5) 50 (2) 58 (2.3) 56 (2.2) 53 (2.1) 41 (1.6) 43 (1.7) 48 (1.9) 46 (1.8) 546 (21.5)

Source: Intellicast

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Mainz

ROMAN MOGONTIACUM

Remains of a Roman town gate from the late 4th century

The Roman stronghold or castrum MOGONTIACUM, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus perhaps as early as 13/12 BC. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years later (the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus ), though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main river, the name of Mainz
Mainz
is not from Main, the similarity being perhaps due to diachronic analogy. Main is from Latin
Latin
Menus, the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum. The name appears to be Celtic and ultimately it is. However, it had also become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance. The Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons (Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino), for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin
Latin
magnus, which was used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth. The Drusus monument or Drususstein (surrounded by the 17th century citadel) raised by Drusus' men to commemorate him Remains of the Roman aqueduct

Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine. The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIIII Gemina and XVI Gallica (AD 9–43), XXII Primigenia , IIII Macedonica (43–70), I Adiutrix (70–88), XXI Rapax (70–89), and XIIII Gemina (70–92), among others. Mainz
Mainz
was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica . Remains of Roman troop ships (navis lusoria ) and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt. A temple dedicated to Isis
Isis
Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in 2000 and is open to the public. The city was the provincial capital of Germania Superior
Germania Superior
, and had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as Lyon
Lyon
. Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre north of the Alps
Alps
and a bridge across the Rhine.

Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals , the Suebi , the Alans , and other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine
Rhine
, possibly at Mainz. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier
Trier
and the invasion of Gaul.

Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement. Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in 1660, but it replaced previous forts. It was used in World War II
World War II
. One of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus .

FRANKISH MAINZ

Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni . The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz
Mainz
became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier.

The last emperor to station troops serving the western empire at Mainz
Mainz
was Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), who relied heavily on his Magister militum per Gallias, Flavius Aëtius
Flavius Aëtius
. By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons
Saxons
and the Franks . The Franks
Franks
were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine
Rhine
during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream. In 358 the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior , which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange.

European factions in the time of master Aëtius included Celts, Goths, Franks, Saxons, Alamanni, Huns, Italians, and Alans
Alans
as well as numerous other minor peoples. Aëtius played them all off against one another in a masterly effort to keep the peace under Roman sovereignty. He used Hunnic troops a number of times. At last a day of reckoning arrived between Aëtius and Attila
Attila
, both commanding polyglot, multi-ethnic troops. Attila
Attila
went through Alsace
Alsace
in 451, devastating the country and destroying Mainz
Mainz
and Triers with their Roman garrisons. Shortly after he was thwarted by Flavius Aëtius
Flavius Aëtius
at the Battle of Châlons , the largest of the ancient world.

Aëtius was not to enjoy the victory long. He was assassinated in 454 by the hand of his employer, who in turn was stabbed to death by friends of Aëtius in 455. As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. After some sanguinary but relatively brief contention a former subordinate of Aëtius, Ricimer , became emperor, taking the name Patrician. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths . Patrician did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently. The capital was at Soissons . Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons .

Previously the first of the Merovingians , Clodio , had been defeated by Aëtius at about 430. His son, Merovaeus , fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric , served in the domain of Soissons. Meanwhile, the Franks
Franks
were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the Rhine
Rhine
and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior
Germania Superior
with capital at Cologne
Cologne
. They became known as the Ripuarian Franks
Franks
as opposed to the Salian Franks
Franks
. It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or displacement occurred. The former Belgae simply became Franks.

Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in 481, ruling from Tournai
Tournai
. In 486 he defeated Syagrius , last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai
Cambrai
and Tongeren
Tongeren
in 490–491, and repelled the Alamanni in 496. Also in that year he converted to non-Arian Christianity.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the Franks
Franks
under the rule of Clovis I
Clovis I
gained control over western Europe by the year 496. Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne
Cologne
in 508. Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom. Mainz
Mainz
had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert I
Dagobert I
reinforced the walls of Mainz
Mainz
and made it one of his seats. A solidus of Theodebert I (534–548) was minted at Mainz.

The Franks
Franks
united the Celtic and Germanic tribes of Europe. The greatest Frank of all was Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(768–814), who built a new empire in Europe, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Mainz
Mainz
from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks. Mainz
Mainz
spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian . On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France
France
and Germany
Germany
began to be made. Mainz
Mainz
was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.

CHRISTIAN MAINZ

Free City of Mainz

Freie Stadt Mainz

Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

1244–1462

CAPITAL Mainz

GOVERNMENT Republic
Republic

HISTORICAL ERA Middle Ages
Middle Ages

• City established c. 13 BC

• City charter granted by Abp Siegfried III 1244

• Rival archbishops 1461

• Charter revoked by Abp Adolph II 1462

• German Mediatisation 1803

PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY

Archbishopric of Mainz
Archbishopric of Mainz

Archbishopric of Mainz
Archbishopric of Mainz

TODAY PART OF Germany
Germany

See also: Archbishopric of Mainz
Archbishopric of Mainz
Mainz Cathedral , western main tower St. Stephan Mainz
St. Stephan Mainz
(St. Stephan Church in Mainz) is famous for its Marc Chagall windows

In the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Mainz
Mainz
was a centre for the Christianisation of the German and Slavic peoples . The first Archbishop in Mainz, Boniface
Boniface
, was killed in 754 while trying to convert the Frisians
Frisians
to Christianity and is buried in Fulda
Fulda
. Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz
Mainz
in 826, in the abbey of St. Alban\'s . Other early archbishops of Mainz
Mainz
include Rabanus Maurus , the scholar and author, and Willigis (975–1011), who began construction on the current building of the Mainz Cathedral and founded the monastery of St. Stephan. Monument to St. Boniface
Boniface
before Mainz Cathedral St. Martin's Cathedral in Mainz, by Wenzel Hollar ; pen-and-ink drawing 1632

From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1806, the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor. Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz
Mainz
today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See
Holy See
(sancta sedes). The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope
Pope
north of the Alps
Alps
.

In 1244, Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz
Mainz
a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council. The city saw a feud between two archbishops in 1461, namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named Archbishop for Mainz
Mainz
by the pope. In 1462, the Archbishop Adolf II raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing 400 inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf II. Those who would not promise to follow Adolf II (amongst them Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
) were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new Archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz
Mainz
and put the city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.

EARLY JEWISH COMMUNITY

The Jewish
Jewish
community of Mainz
Mainz
dates to the 10th century AD. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah (960–1040) taught there, among others. He concentrated on the study of the Talmud
Talmud
, creating a German Jewish
Jewish
tradition. Mainz
Mainz
is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer. The Jews of Mainz, Speyer
Speyer
and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish
Jewish
law and education in the 12th century.

The city of Mainz
Mainz
responded to the Jewish
Jewish
population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them. Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in 1012, 1462 (after which they were invited to return), and in 1474. Jews were attacked in 1096 and by mobs in 1283. Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of about 6,000 Jews alive in 1349.

Nowadays the Jewish
Jewish
community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in 2010 on the site of the one destroyed under the Third Reich . The community itself has 1,034 members, according to the Central Council of Jews in Germany, and at least twice as many Jews altogether since many are unaffiliated with Judaism.

REPUBLIC OF MAINZ

Main article: Republic
Republic
of Mainz
Mainz

During the French Revolution
French Revolution
, the French Revolutionary army occupied Mainz
Mainz
in 1792; the Archbishop of Mainz , Friedrich Karl Josef von Erthal, had already fled to Aschaffenburg by the time the French marched in. On 18 March 1793, the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about 130 towns in the Rhenish Palatinate , proclaimed the ' Republic
Republic
of Mainz
Mainz
'. Led by Georg Forster
Georg Forster
, representatives of the Mainz
Mainz
Republic
Republic
in Paris requested political affiliation of the Mainz
Mainz
Republic
Republic
with France, but too late: Prussia
Prussia
was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil (actually the French dominated Mainz
Mainz
was neither free nor democratic). Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz
Mainz
by the end of March, 1793. After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz
Mainz
surrendered on 23 July 1793; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic
Republic
of Mainz. It came to the Battle of Mainz in 1795 between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz
Mainz
Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason. Tombstone of Jeanbon Baron de St. André , Prefect of Napoleonic Mainz
Mainz

In 1797, the French returned. The army of Napoléon Bonaparte occupied the German territory to the west of the Rhine
Rhine
river, and the Treaty of Campo Formio awarded France
France
this entire area. On 17 February 1800, the French Département du Mont-Tonnerre was founded here, with Mainz
Mainz
as its capital, the Rhine
Rhine
river being the new eastern frontier of la Grande Nation. Austria and Prussia
Prussia
could not but approve this new border with France
France
in 1801. However, after several defeats in Europe during the next years, the weakened Napoléon and his troops had to leave Mainz
Mainz
in May 1814.

RHENISH HESSE

In 1816, the part of the former French Département which is known today as Rhenish Hesse (German : Rheinhessen) was awarded to the Hesse- Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, Mainz
Mainz
being the capital of the new Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse. From 1816 to 1866, to the German Confederation
German Confederation
Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.

In the afternoon of 18 November 1857, a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city's powder magazine, the Pulverturm, exploded. Approximately 150 people were killed and at least 500 injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.

During the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Mainz
Mainz
was declared a neutral zone. After the founding of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, Mainz
Mainz
no longer was as important a stronghold, because in the war of 1870/71 France had lost the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany
Germany
(which France
France
had occupied piece by piece 1630/1795), and this defined the new border between the two countries.

INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION

Mainz
Mainz
towards the Rhine
Rhine
river (around 1890)

For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz
Mainz
had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences. In 1872 Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city. Beginning in 1874, the city of Mainz
Mainz
assimilated the Gartenfeld, an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the Rhine River to the north of the rampart. The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz
Mainz
to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.

Eduard Kreyßig was the man who made this happen. Having been the master builder of the city of Mainz
Mainz
since 1865, Kreyßig had the vision for the new part of town, the Neustadt. He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine
Rhine
side to the west end of the town. The main station was built from 1882 to 1884 according to the plans of Philipp Johann Berdellé. Mainz
Mainz
including expansion zone the Rhine
Rhine
river (1898)

The Mainz
Mainz
master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz
Mainz
town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany
Germany
at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine
Rhine
harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings. Kreyßig's last work was Christ Church (Christuskirche), the largest Protestant church in the city and the first building constructed solely for the use of a Protestant congregation. In 1905 the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II .

20TH CENTURY

After World War I
World War I
the French occupied Mainz
Mainz
between 1919 and 1930 according to the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
which went into effect 28 June 1919. The Rhineland
Rhineland
(in which Mainz
Mainz
is located) was to be a demilitarized zone until 1935 and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente
Triple Entente
, was to stay until reparations were paid.

In 1923 Mainz
Mainz
participated in the Rhineland
Rhineland
separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in 1924. The French withdrew on 30 June 1930. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
became chancellor of Germany
Germany
in January, 1933 and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered. Some were able to move away from Mainz
Mainz
in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a 900-page diary .

In March, 1933, a detachment from the National Socialist Party in Worms brought the party to Mainz. They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish
Jewish
population in the newspapers. In 1936 the forces of the Third Reich reentered the Rhineland
Rhineland
with a great fanfare, the first move of the Third Reich's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente
Triple Entente
took no action.

During World War II
World War II
the citadel at Mainz
Mainz
hosted the Oflag XII-B prisoner of war camp.

The Bishop of Mainz, Albert Stohr , formed an organization to help Jews escape from Germany.

During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. Mainz
Mainz
was captured on 22 March 1945 against uneven German resistance (staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city) by the 90th Infantry Division under William A. McNulty , a formation of the XII Corps under Third Army commanded by General George S. Patton , Jr. Patton used the ancient strategic gateway through Germania Superior
Germania Superior
to cross the Rhine
Rhine
south of Mainz, drive down the Danube
Danube
towards Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and end the possibility of a Bavarian redoubt crossing the Alps
Alps
in Austria when the war ended.

From 1945 to 1949, the city was part of the French zone of occupation. When the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded on 30 August 1946 by the commander of the French army on the French occupation zone Marie Pierre Kœnig , Mainz
Mainz
became capital of the new state. In 1962, the diarist, Friedrich Kellner , returned to spend his last years in Mainz. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his writings , is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner .

Following the withdrawal of French forces from Mainz, the United States Army Europe occupied the military bases in Mainz. Today USAREUR only occupies McCulley Barracks in Wackernheim and the Mainz
Mainz
Sand Dunes for training area. Mainz
Mainz
is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr's Wehrbereichskommando II and other units.

MINORITY GROUPS

The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz
Mainz
as of 2013 :

RANK NATIONALITY POPULATION (2013)

1 Turkey
Turkey
5,944

2 Italy
Italy
3,806

3 Serbia
Serbia
3,794

4 Russia
Russia
2,400

5 Poland
Poland
1,542

6 Portugal
Portugal
1,378

7 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1,348

8 Morocco
Morocco
904

9 Spain
Spain
768

10 France
France
741

CITYSCAPE

Mainz
Mainz
skyline May, 2007, from South Railway bridge over the Rhine
Rhine
looking north Mainz
Mainz
May 2011, Schillerplatz, looking southeast Market square and cathedral Schusterstraße

ARCHITECTURE

The destruction caused by the bombing of Mainz
Mainz
during World War II led to the largest building boom in the history of the town. During the last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. The destructive attack on the afternoon of 27 February 1945 remains the most destructive of all 33 bombings that Mainz
Mainz
has suffered in World War II
World War II
in the collective memory of most of the population living then. The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely leveled. Town Hall by Jacobsen

Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly. While cities such as Frankfurt
Frankfurt
had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz. The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and to become a model city. Mainz
Mainz
lay within the French-controlled sector of Germany
Germany
and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods , who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture. But the very first interest of the inhabitants was the restoration of housing areas. Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French (founding of the Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
University of Mainz , elevation of Mainz
Mainz
to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival ) driving the city in a positive development after the war. The City Plan of 1958 by Ernst May allowed a regulated reconstruction for the first time. In 1950, the seat of the government of Rhineland-Palatinate had been transferred to the new Mainz
Mainz
and in 1963 the seat of the new ZDF, notable architects were Adolf Bayer, Richard Jörg and Egon Hartmann. At the time of the two-thousand-years-anniversary in 1962 the city was largely reconstructed. During the 1950s and 1960s the Oberstadt had been extended, Münchfeld and Lerchenberg added as suburbs, the Altstadttangente (intersection of the old town ), new neighbourhoods as Westring and Südring contributed to the extension. By 1970 there remained only a few ruins. The new town hall of Mainz
Mainz
had been designed by Arne Jacobsen and finished by Dissing+Weitling . The town used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo erecting a new office and warehouse building to contact him. The urban renewal of the old town changed the inner city. In the framework of the preparation of the cathedrals millennium, pedestrian zones were developed around the cathedral, in northern direction to the Neubrunnenplatz and in southern direction across the Leichhof to the Augustinerstraße and Kirschgarten. The 1980s brought the renewal of the façades on the Markt and a new inner-city neighbourhood on the Kästrich. During the 1990s the Kisselberg between Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping center at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising building at the same place.

MAIN SIGHTS

The Deutschhaus , the House of Parliament of Rhineland-Palatinate Kaiserstraße ("Emperor Street") with boulevard and Christuskirche Theodor Heuss Bridge Interior of the Augustinian Church

* Romano-Germanic Central Museum (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum). It is home to Roman, Medieval, and earlier artifacts. * Museum of Ancient Seafaring (Museum für Antike Schifffahrt). It houses the remains of five Roman boats from the late 4th century, discovered in the 1980s. * Roman remains, including Jupiter's column, Drusus' mausoleum, the ruins of the theatre and the aqueduct. * Mainz Cathedral of St. Martin (Mainzer Dom), over 1,000 years old. * St. John\'s Church , 7th-century church building * Staatstheater Mainz * The Iron Tower (Eisenturm, tower at the former iron market), a 13th-century gate-tower. * The Wood Tower (Holzturm, tower at the former wood market), a 15th-century gate tower. * The Gutenberg Museum – exhibits an original Gutenberg Bible amongst many other printed books from the 15th century and later. * The Mainz
Mainz
Old Town – what's left of it, the quarter south of the cathedral survived World War II. * The Electoral Palace (Kurfürstliches Schloss), residence of the prince-elector . * The Marktbrunnen , one of the largest Renaissance fountains in Germany. * Domus Universitatis (1615), for centuries the tallest edifice in Mainz. * Christ Church (Christuskirche ), built 1898–1903, bombed in 1945 and rebuilt in 1948–1954. * The Church of St. Stephan , with post-war windows by Marc Chagall . * Citadel . * The ruins of the church St. Christoph , a World War II
World War II
memorial * Schönborner Hof (1668). * Rococo churches of St. Augustin (the Augustinerkirche, Mainz ) and St. Peter (the Peterskirche, Mainz). * Church of St. Ignatius (1763). * Erthaler Hof (1743) * The Baroque Bassenheimer Hof (1750) * The Botanischer Garten der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz , a botanical garden maintained by the university * Landesmuseum Mainz , state museum with archaeology and art. * Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ( ZDF ) – one of the largest public German TV-Broadcaster

Wikimedia Commons has media related to CULTURAL HERITAGE MONUMENTS IN MAINZ
MAINZ
.

* Kunsthalle Mainz
Mainz
– museum for contemporary art

ADMINISTRATION

The city of Mainz
Mainz
is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairman of the district administration. This local council decides on important issues affecting the local area, however, the final decision on new policies is made by the Mainz's municipal council.

In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of Rhineland-Palatinate , which refers to municipalities of more than 150,000 inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.

Districts of the town are:

* Altstadt * Bretzenheim * Drais * Ebersheim * Finthen

* Gonsenheim * Hartenberg-Münchfeld * Hechtsheim * Laubenheim * Lerchenberg

* Marienborn * Mombach * Neustadt * Oberstadt * Weisenau

Until 1945, the districts of Bischofsheim (now an independent town), Ginsheim-Gustavsburg (which together are an independent town) belonged to Mainz. The former suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel, and Kostheim — (in short, AKK) are now administrated by the city of Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(on the north bank of the river). The AKK was separated from Mainz
Mainz
when the Rhine
Rhine
was designated the boundary between the French occupation zone (the later state of Rhineland-Palatinate ) and the U.S. occupation zone ( Hesse
Hesse
) in 1945.

COAT OF ARMS

Main article: Wheel of Mainz

The coat of arms of Mainz
Mainz
is derived from the coat of arms of the Archbishops of Mainz and features two six-spoked silver wheels connected by a silver cross on a red background. Mainz
Mainz
Rad and FSV Mainz
Mainz
05 flags on the Domplatz

CULTURE

Mainz
Mainz
is home to a Carnival
Carnival
, the Mainzer Fassenacht or Fastnacht, which has developed since the early 19th century. Carnival
Carnival
in Mainz has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the shelter of cap and bells. Today, the uniforms of many traditional Carnival
Carnival
clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the French and Prussian troops of the past. The height of the carnival season is on Rosenmontag ("rose Monday"), when there is a large parade in Mainz, with more than 500,000 people celebrating in the streets.

The first ever Katholikentag , a festival-like gathering of German Catholics, was held in Mainz
Mainz
in 1848. Forum of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz

Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
, credited with the invention of the modern printing press with movable type, was born here and died here. The Mainz
Mainz
University , which was refounded in 1946, is named after Gutenberg ; the earlier University of Mainz that dated back to 1477 had been closed down by Napoleon's troops in 1798.

Mainz
Mainz
was one of three important centers of Jewish
Jewish
theology and learning in Central Europe during the Middle Ages. Known collectively as Shum, the cities of Speyer
Speyer
, Worms and Mainz
Mainz
played a key role in the preservation and propagation of Talmudic scholarship.

The city is the seat of Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (literally, "Second German Television", ZDF ), one of two federal nationwide TV broadcasters. There are also a couple of radio stations based in Mainz.

Other cultural aspects of the city include:

* As city in the Greater Region , Mainz
Mainz
participated in the program of the year of European Capital of Culture 2007. * The Walk of Fame of Cabaret may be found nearby the Schillerplatz. * The music publisher Schott Music is located in Mainz. * One of the oldest brass instrument manufacturers in the world, Gebr. Alexander is located in Mainz. * Fans of Gospel music enjoy the yearly performances of Colours of Gospel .

EDUCATION

* University of Mainz * University of Applied Sciences Mainz * Catholic University of Applied Sciences Mainz

SPORTS

The local football club 1. FSV Mainz 05 has a long history in the German football leagues. Since 2004 it has competed in the Fußball-Bundesliga (First German soccer league) except a break in second level in 2007–2008 season. Mainz
Mainz
is closely associated with renowned coach Jürgen Klopp , who spent the vast majority of his playing career at the club and was also the manager for seven years, leading the club to Bundesliga football for the first time. After leaving Mainz
Mainz
Klopp went on to win two Bundesliga titles and reaching a Champions League final with Borussia Dortmund . In the summer 2011 the club opened its new stadium called Coface Arena . Further relevant football clubs are TSV Schott Mainz , SV Gonsenheim , Fontana Finthen, FC Fortuna Mombach and FVgg Mombach 03.

The local wrestling club ASV Mainz
Mainz
1888 is currently in the top division of team wrestling in Germany, the Bundesliga . In 1973, 1977 and 2012 the ASV Mainz
Mainz
1888 won the German championship.

In 2007 the Mainz Athletics won the German Men\'s Championship in baseball .

As a result of the 2008 invasion of Georgia by Russian troops, Mainz acted as a neutral venue for the Georgian Vs Republic
Republic
of Ireland football game.

The biggest basketball club in the city is the ASC Theresianum Mainz. Its men's team is playing in the Regionalliga and its women's team is playing in the 2.DBBL.

USC MAINZ

UNIVERSITäTS-SPORTCLUB MAINZ
MAINZ
(University Sports Club Mainz) is a German sports club based in Mainz. It was founded on 9 September 1959 by Berno Wischmann primarily for students of the University of Mainz. It is considered one of the most powerful Athletics Sports clubs in Germany. 50 athletes of USC have distinguished themselves in a half-century in club history at Olympic Games, World and European Championships. In particular in the decathlon dominated USC athletes for decades: Already at the European Championships in Budapest in 1966 Mainz
Mainz
won three (Werner von Moltke, Jörg Mattheis and Horst Beyer) all decathlon medals. In the all-time list of the USC, there are nine athletes who have achieved more than 8,000 points - at the head of Siegfried Wentz (8762 points in 1983) and Guido Kratschmer (1980 world record with 8667 points). Most successful athlete of the association is more fighter, sprinter and long jumper Ingrid Becker (Olympic champion in 1968 in the pentathlon and Olympic champion in 1972 in the 4 × 100 Metres Relay and European champion in 1971 in the long jump). Most famous athletes of the present are the sprinter Marion Wagner (world champion in 2001 in the 4 × 100 Metres Relay) and the pole vaulters Carolin Hingst (Eighth of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing) and Anna Battke.

Three world titles adorn the balance of USC Mainz. For the discus thrower Lars Riedel attended (1991 and 1993) and the already mentioned sprinter Marion Wagner (2001). Added to 5 titles at the European Championships, a total of 65 international medals and 260 victories at the German Athletics Championships.

The players of USC's basketball section played from the season 1968/69 to the season 1974/75 in the National Basketball League (BBL) of the German Basketball Federation (DBB). As a finalist to winning the DBB Cup in 1971 USC Mainz
Mainz
played in the 1971–72 FIBA European Cup Winner\'s Cup against the Italian Cup winners of Fides Napoli .

MAINZ
MAINZ
ATHLETICS

Main article: Mainz Athletics

The BASEBALL AND SOFTBALL CLUB MAINZ
MAINZ
ATHLETICS is a German baseball and softball club located in the city of Mainz
Mainz
in Rhineland-Palatinate . The Athletics is one of the largest clubs in the Baseball-Bundesliga Süd in terms of membership, claiming to have hundreds of active players. The club has played in the Baseball-Bundesliga for more than two decades, and has won the German Championship in 2007 and 2016.

ECONOMY

Bonifatius center building

WINE CENTRE

Mainz
Mainz
is one of the centers of the German wine
German wine
economy as a center for wine trade and the seat of the state's wine minister. Due to the importance and history of the wine industry for the federal state, Rhineland-Palatinate is the only state to have such a department.

Since 2008, the city is also member of the Great Wine Capitals Global Network (GWC), an association of well-known wineculture-cities of the world. Many wine traders also work in the town. The sparkling wine producer Kupferberg produced in Mainz-Hechtsheim and even Henkell — now located on the other side of the river Rhine
Rhine
— had been founded once in Mainz. The famous Blue Nun , one of the first branded wines, had been marketed by the family Sichel.

Mainz
Mainz
had been a wine growing region since Roman times and the image of the wine town Mainz
Mainz
is fostered by the tourist center. The Haus des Deutschen Weines (English: House of German Wine), is located in beside the theater. The Mainzer Weinmarkt (wine market) is one of the great wine fairs in Germany.

OTHER INDUSTRIES

The Schott AG , one of the world's largest glass manufactures, as well as the Werner "> View to the Rheinreede, container cranes 2007, laid down in 2010.

Mainz
Mainz
is a major transport hub in southern Germany. It is an important component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest inter-modal port in Germany. The Port of Mainz , now handling mainly containers, is a sizable industrial area to the north of the city, along the banks of the Rhine. In order to open up space along the city's riverfront for residential development, it was shifted further northwards in 2010.

RAIL

Aerial photograph of Mainz
Mainz

Mainz Central Station or Mainz
Mainz
Hauptbahnhof, is frequented by 80,000 travelers and visitors each day and is therefore one of the busiest 21 stations in Germany. It is a stop for the S-Bahn line S8 of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund . Additionally, the Mainbahn line to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Hbf starts at the station. It is served by 440 daily local and regional trains ( StadtExpress , RE and RB ) and 78 long-distance trains (IC , EC and ICE ). Intercity-Express lines connect Mainz
Mainz
with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(Main), Karlsruhe Hbf , Worms Hauptbahnhof and Koblenz Hauptbahnhof . It is a terminus of the West Rhine
Rhine
Railway and the Mainz–Ludwigshafen railway , as well as the Alzey– Mainz
Mainz
Railway erected by the Hessische Ludwigsbahn in 1871. Access to the East Rhine Railway is provided by the Kaiserbrücke , a railway bridge across the Rhine
Rhine
at the north end of Mainz.

Operational Usage

IN BRIEF

Number of passenger tracks above ground: 7 main line , 1 branch, 1 tramway station, 2 tracks each

Trains (daily): 78 long-distance 440 regional

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

The station is an interchange point for the Mainz
Mainz
tramway network , and an important bus junction for the city and region (RNN , ORN and MVG ).

CYCLING

Mainz
Mainz
offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities and events, including several miles of on-street bike lanes. The Rheinradweg ( Rhine
Rhine
Cycle Route) is an international cycle route, running from the source to the mouth of the river Rhine, traversing four countries at a distance of 1,300 km (810 mi). Another cycling tour runs towards Bingen and further to the Middle Rhine
Rhine
, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2002) .

AIR TRANSPORTATION

Mainz
Mainz
is served by Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport , the busiest airport by passenger traffic in Germany
Germany
by far, the third busiest in Europe and the ninth busiest worldwide in 2009. Located about 10 miles (16 kilometres) east of Mainz, it is connected to the city by an S-Bahn line .

The small Mainz Finthen Airport , located just 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Mainz, is used by general aviation only. Another airport, Frankfurt-Hahn Airport located about 50 miles (80 km) west of Mainz, is served by a few low-cost carriers .

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* List of people related to Mainz * Archbishops of Mainz * List of mayors of Mainz

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

Mainz
Mainz
is twinned with:

* Watford
Watford
, United Kingdom, since 1956 * Dijon
Dijon
, France, since 1957 * Longchamp , France, with Mainz-Laubenheim , since 1966 * Zagreb , Croatia
Croatia
, since 1967 * Rodeneck , Italy, with Mainz-Finthen, since 1977

* Valencia
Valencia
, Spain, since 1978 * Haifa
Haifa
, Israel, since 1981 * Erfurt
Erfurt
, former East Germany
Germany
, since 1988 * Baku
Baku
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, since 1984 * Louisville, Kentucky
Louisville, Kentucky
, USA, since 1994

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Mainz
Mainz
has a number of different names in other languages and dialects. In Latin
Latin
it is known as Mogontiacum or Moguntiacum and, in the local West Middle German dialect, it is Määnz or Meenz. It is known as Mayence in French, Magonza in Italian, Maguncia in Spanish, Mogúncia in Portuguese, Moguncja in Polish, Magentza (מגנצא) in Yiddish, and Mohuč in Czech and Slovakian. Its former English name Mentz is shared by two American cities named in its honor.

SEE ALSO

* Johann Fust * Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
* Peter Schöffer , apprentice of Gutenberg and early printer

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016. * ^ Mainz#Further reading * ^ Olaf Höckmann: Mainz
Mainz
als römische Hafenstadt. p. 87–106. in: Michael J. Klein (editor): Die Römer und ihr Erbe. Fortschritt durch Innovation und Integration. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz
Mainz
2003, ISBN 3-8053-2948-2 . * ^ " Mainz
Mainz
historic weather averages". Intellicast. June 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2009. * ^ The earliest certain evidence of the existence of Mogontiacum is the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus , brother of the future emperor, Tiberius
Tiberius
, given in Suetonius ' life of Drusus. Few leaders have been as loved and as popular as Drusus. He fell from his horse in 9 BC, contracted gangrene and lingered several days. His brother Tiberius
Tiberius
reached him in just a few days riding post-horses over the Roman roads and served as the chief mourner, walking with the deceased in a funeral procession from the summer camp where he had fallen to Mogontiacum, where the soldiers insisted on a funeral. The body was transported to Rome, cremated in the Campus Martis and the ashes placed in the tomb of Augustus
Augustus
, who was still alive, and wrote poetry and delivered a state funeral oration for him. If Drusus founded Mogontiacum the earliest date is the start of his campaign, 13 BC. Some hypothesize that Mogontiacum was constructed at one of two earlier opportunities, one when Marcus Agrippa campaigned in the region in 42 BC or by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
himself after 58 BC. Lack of evidence plays a part in favoring 13 BC. No sources cite Mogontiacum before 13 BC, no legions are known to have been stationed there, and no coins survive. * ^ von Elbe, Joachim (1975). Roman Germany: a guide to sites and museums. Mainz: P. von Zabern. p. 253. * ^ A second hypothesis suggests that Moguns was a wealthy Celt whose estate was taken for the fort and that a tax district was formed on the area parallel to other tax districts with a -iacum suffix (Arenacum, Mannaricium). There is no evidence for this supposedly wealthy man or his estate, but there is plenty for the god. According to Carl Darling Buck in Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, -yo- and -k- are general Indo-European formative suffices and are not related to taxes. As the loyalty of the Vangiones was unquestioned and Drusus was campaigning over the Rhine, it is unlikely Mogontiacum would have been built to collect taxes from the Vangiones, who were not a Roman municipium. * ^ "Mainz, temple of Isis
Isis
- Livius". * ^ "Isis-Tempel in Mainz". * ^ Michael Kulikowski, "Barbarians in Gaul, Usurpers in Britain" Britannia 31 (2000:325–345). * ^ Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, (Longman Group, 1999), 229. * ^ Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A distant mirror. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-307-29160-8 . Retrieved 27 August 2011. * ^ de:Neue Synagoge Mainz * ^ Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage: French Fortifications, 1715–1815: An Illustrated History McFarland, 30 November 2009 online * ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II
World War II
Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 164 * ^ original text of Kœnig\'s order No. 57; as can be found on Landeshauptarchiv Rheinland-Pfalz (main-archive of Rhineland-Palatinate) * ^ History of Mainz
Mainz
Cathedral * ^ Aerial view of the total destruction from the repeated US Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White . * ^ Aerial view of bomb-damaged theater, St. Quintins church, St. Johannis church and old university after an Allied air attack. * ^ Aerial view of Mainz-Neustadt and the port of Mainz
Mainz
for Life magazine * ^ Eric Paul Mumford: CIAM Discourse on Urbanism 1928–1960 p. 159 * ^ Jeffry M. Diefendorf: In the Wake of War: The Reconstruction of German Cities After World War 2 p. 357 * ^ Plan for the reconstruction of the German city of Mainz
Mainz
by Marcel Lods, 1947 in: Carl Fingerhuth: Learning from China: The Tao Of The City p. 59 * ^ http://www.asc-theresianum-mainz.de/ * ^ "Universitäts Sportclub Mainz: USC Mainz". * ^ Peter H. Eisenhuth in der Mainzer Rhein-Zeitung vom 9. September 2009 * ^ Basketball: Cup Winner\' Cup 1971-72 - First Round USC Mainz. Website Linguasport - Sport History and Statistics. Abgerufen am 4. Juni 2012. * ^ Culture and History (from the Mainz
Mainz
city council website. Accessed 2008-02-10.) * ^ "Great Wine Capitals". * ^ " Rhine
Rhine
Cycle Route". Euregio Rhine-Waal. Retrieved 25 November 2011. * ^ A B "How to get to Mainz". Landeshauptstadt Mainz. * ^ "Ciudades Hermanadas con València" . Ajuntament de València (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2013-08-08. * ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. * ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International . Retrieved 12 March 2014.

SOURCES

See also: Bibliography of the history of Mainz
Mainz

* Hope, Valerie. Constructing Identity: The Roman Funerary Monuments of Aquelia, Mainz
Mainz
and Nîmes; British Archaeological Reports (16. Juli 2001) ISBN 978-1-84171-180-5 * Imhof, Michael and Simone Kestin: Mainz
Mainz
City and Cathedral Guide. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag , 2004. ISBN 978-3-937251-93-6 * Mainz
Mainz
("Vierteljahreshefte für Kultur, Politik, Wirtschaft, Geschichte") , since 1981 * Saddington, Denis. The stationing of auxiliary regiments in Germania Superior
Germania Superior
in the Julio-Claudian period * Stanton, Shelby, World War II
World War II
Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books ISBN 978-0-8117-0157-0

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAINZ
MAINZ
.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for MAINZ
MAINZ
.

* The official web site of the city

.