MAINLAND CHINA, also known as the CHINESE MAINLAND, is the
geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct
jurisdiction of the People\'s Republic of
China (PRC). It generally
Hainan island and excludes the special administrative regions
Hong Kong and
Macau , even though both are partially on the
geographic mainland (continental landmass).
The term "mainland China" was coined by the
Kuomintang (KMT Party)
after receiving control of
World War II
World War II . By
1949, the KMT-led Republic of
China (ROC) government was defeated in
Chinese Civil War and fled to the island of
Taiwan where the KMT
pledged to "retake the Mainland". The KMT considers both sides of the
Taiwan Strait (including Taiwan), as one nation , whereas Taiwan's
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) considers only mainland
Taiwan as a separate entity and country.
There are two terms in Chinese for "MAINLAND":
* _DàLù_ (大陆; 大陸), which means "the continent", and
* _NèIDì_ (内地; 內地), literally "inland" or "inner land".
In the PRC, the usage of the two terms are generally interchangeable
and there is no prescribed method of reference in any jurisdiction. To
emphasize "equal footing" in
Cross-Strait relations , the term is used
in official contexts with reference to Taiwan, with the PRC referring
to itself as "the mainland side" (as opposed to "the
But in its relations with
Hong Kong and Macau, the PRC government
refers to itself as "the Central People's Government".
"Mainland" area is the opposing term to "free area of the Republic of
China " used in the ROC Constitution (as amended in April 2000). It
treats the "mainland" as part of ROC's territory despite the lack of
* 1 Background
* 2 Political use
* 2.1 In mainland
* 2.2 In
* 2.3 In
Hong Kong and
* 2.4 Others
* 3 Other terms
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Citations
* 5.2 Sources
* 6 External links
By 1949, the Communist Party of
China 's (CPC) People\'s Liberation
Army had largely defeated the
Kuomintang (KMT)'s National
Revolutionary Army in the
Chinese Civil War on the mainland . This
Kuomintang to relocate the Government and institutions of
the Republic of
China to the relative safety of
Taiwan , an island
which was placed under the control of the Republic of
China after the
Japan at the end of
World War II
World War II in 1945. With the
establishment of the People's Republic of
China on October 1, 1949,
the CPC-controlled government saw itself as the sole legitimate
government of China, competing with the claims of the Republic of
China , whose authority is now limited to
Taiwan and other islands .
This has resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments
compete for international legitimacy and recognition as the
"government of China".
The phrase "mainland China" emerged as a politically neutral term to
refer to the area under control of the Communist Party of China, and
later to the administration of the PRC itself. Until the late 1970s,
both the PRC and ROC envisioned a military takeover of the other.
During this time the ROC referred to the PRC government as "Communist
Bandits" (共匪) while the PRC referred to the ROC as "Chiang
Bandits" (蔣匪). Later, as a military solution became less feasible,
the ROC referred to the PRC as "Communist China"" (中共). With the
Taiwan in the 1990s, the phrase "mainland China"
soon grew to mean not only the area under the control of the Communist
Party of China, but also a more neutral means to refer to the People's
China government; this usage remains prevalent by the KMT
Due to their status as colonies of foreign states during the
establishment of the People's Republic of
China in 1949, the phrase
"mainland China" excludes
Hong Kong and
Macau . Since the return of
Hong Kong and
Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999 ,
respectively, the two territories have retained their legal,
political, and economic systems. The territories also have their
distinct identities. Therefore, "mainland China" generally continues
to exclude these territories, because of the "One country, two systems
" policy adopted by the PRC central government towards the regions .
The term is also used in economic indicators, such as the IMD
Competitiveness Report. International news media often use "China" to
refer only to mainland
China or the People's Republic of China.
IN MAINLAND CHINA
In the People's Republic of China, the term 内地 ("Inland") is
often contrasted with the term 境外 ("outside of the border") for
things outside of the mainland region. Examples include
"Administration of Foreign-funded Banks"
(中華人民共和國外資銀行管理條例) or the "Measures on
Administration of Representative Offices of Foreign Insurance
Hainan is an offshore island, therefore geographically not part of
the continental mainland. Nevertheless, politically it is common
practice to consider it part of the mainland because its government,
legal and political systems do not differ from the rest of the
People's Republic in the geographical mainland. Nonetheless, Hainanese
people still refer to the geographic mainland as "the mainland" and
call its residents "mainlanders". In some coastal provinces such as
Jiangsu , people often call the area of
non-coastal provinces in of Mainland
China as "Inland" (内地).
In Taiwan, the
Kuomintang (KMT, "Chinese Nationalist Party") and its
supporters use the term "mainland" is to refer to the territory of the
Hong Kong and
Macau excluded ). This accords with the KMT
position that _China_ encompasses both sides of the
Since the KMT was the long-time ruling and only party in
2000, and had set up the educational system and taught children the
term since its takeover in 1945, the term has been in mainstream use
and usually has no particular political connotations, since
generations born after the takeover were taught that
Taiwan is part of
Republic of China, and so is mainland China, and that they are
"Chinese ". Government organizations and official and legal documents
in Taiwan, including the Republic of
China Constitution also use "the
mainland" to refer to mainland China, since the ROC government has
never recognized the founding of the PRC and because its Constitution
does not allow the existence of another state within its territory,
constitutional amendments made in the 1990s had to refer to the area
occupied by PRC as "mainland", since it is officially considered still
part of the ROC territory but just enemy occupied. In contrast, the
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) prefer to
use the term "China" instead, referring to the PRC, to imply that
Taiwan (ROC) is separate from China. Related to this naming and
broader national identity issue, the DPP would also like to amend the
ROC constitution to limit its scope and territorial description to the
Free area of the Republic of
China only and rectify the ROC country
name to "Republic of Taiwan" instead, thereby eliminating the need to
refer to the "mainland area" and "Free Area" altogether.
In 1992, a high-level political meeting between the ROC and PRC was
Hong Kong where what became called the "
1992 Consensus "
developed. This "consensus" essentially reaffirmed that both the ROC
(then under KMT administration) and the PRC agree there is only "one
China " in a definition that covers both sides of
Taiwan Strait, but
they differ on their own interpretation of what that "China" means.
Each interprets and believes _it_ is THE CHINA and has a claim on the
territories held by the other. In this context, the term "Mainland
China" is agreeable to both sides since they both conceive "China" as
including mainland and Taiwan, and therefore need this term to
distinguish the two areas. However, since it was the KMT who came to
this consensus with China, the
Pan Green Coalition does not embrace
this term as the
Pan Blue Coalition does.
Taiwan , under the concept of "Mainlander " another comparative
term often used is _waishengren_ (外省人; _wàishěngrén_;
"external province person(s)"), which are the people who immigrated to
Taiwan from mainland
China with the
Kuomintang (KMT) around the end of
Chinese Civil War in 1949, as well as their descendants born in
Taiwan. The status of _waishengren_ in
Taiwan is a divisive political
issue. For many years certain groups of mainlanders were given special
treatment by the KMT government which had imposed martial law on
Taiwan. More recently, pro-
Taiwan independence politicians calling
into question their loyalty and devotion to
Taiwan and pro-Chinese
reunification politicians accusing the pro-independence politicians of
playing identity politics . The term "Mainlander" mostly refers to
_daluren_ (大陆人; 大陸人; _dàlùrén_; "mainland person(s)"),
meaning people who live in mainland China.
After the Republic of China's relocation to Taiwan, the Kuomintang
party-state embued the term _dalu_ with nostalgic overtones,
associating it with "the land of the utopian past childhood".
Schoolchildren were taught slogans like "Counterattack the mainland!"
(反攻大陸！) and "Save our mainland compatriots from the deepest
water and hottest fire!" (拯救大陸同胞于水深火熱之中！).
The Taiwanese were also told that they were the guardians of
Chinese culture until political reunification. However,
Taiwan has led to the rise of voices which
denounced traditional attitudes towards the mainland and the ancestral
home system , pressing for
Desinicization , and
Taiwan cultural independence" (文化台獨). Concurrently, the
Chinese economic reform changed the connotation of "mainland
China" to one of "primitiveness, nativeness, and raw cultural material
for economic gain", as well as condescention because of Taiwan's
comparatively advanced economy. Warlike phrases like "Counterattack
the mainland!" saw a revival, but in reference to the economic
expansion of Taiwanese businesses. Despite the re-branding of the
Kuomintang in the 1990s as a party "native" to Taiwan, Kuomintang
continues to produce a variety of mainland-related media such as the
television program "Searching for the Strange on the Mainland"
IN HONG KONG AND MACAU
Hong Kong and
Macau , the terms "mainland China" and "mainlander"
are frequently used for people from China's mainland. The Chinese term
_Neidi_ (內地), meaning the _inland_ but still translated _mainland_
in English, is commonly applied by SAR governments to represent
non-SAR areas of PRC, including
Hainan Island (the smallest and
southernmost province of the People's Republic of China) and coastal
regions of mainland China, such as "Constitutional and MAINLAND
Affairs" (政制及內地事務局) and Immigration Departments.
In the Mainland and
Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement
(as well as the Mainland and
Macau Closer Economic Partnership
Arrangement ) the CPG also uses the Chinese characters 内地 "inner
land", with the note that they refer to the "customs territory of
In the United States'
Taiwan Relations Act , the ROC-controlled
Quemoy and Matsu were excluded from the definition of
"Taiwan", and are regarded as parts of mainland China. The House
Foreign Affairs Committee justified this exclusion on the grounds that
Quemoy and Matsu are considered by both Taipei and by Peking to be
part of mainland China."
Quemoy and Matsu are geologically part of
the continental mainland.
Other use of geography-related terms are also often used where
neutrality is required.
Hoi2 haap6 loeng5 ngon6
The physical shores on both sides of the straits, may be translated
as "two shores".
loeng5 ngon6 gwaan1 hai6
Reference to the
Taiwan Strait (cross-Strait relations , literally
"relations between the two sides/shores ").
loeng5 ngon6 saam1 dei6
An extension of this is the phrase "two shores, three places", with
"three places" meaning mainland
China (大陸/大陆), Taiwan
(臺灣/台湾) and either
Hong Kong (香港) or Macau
loeng5 ngon6 sei3 dei6
When referring to either
Hong Kong or Macau, or "two shores, four
places" when referring to both
Hong Kong (香港) and Macau
* Free Area of the Republic of
* ^ Additional Articles to the Republic of
China Constitution, 6th
* ^ Jeshurun, Chandran, ed. (1993). _China, India,
Japan and the
Security of Southeast Asia_. Singapore: ISEAS. p. 146. ISBN 9813016612
* ^ So, Alvin Y.; Lin, Nan; Poston, Dudley L., eds. (2001). _The
Chinese Triangle of mainland China, Taiwan, and
Hong Kong :
comparative institutional analyses_. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
ISBN 9780313308697 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ LegCo. "Legislative council HK." _Mainland Judgments
(Reciprocal Enforcement) Bill._ Retrieved on 2008-03-10.
* ^ http://wenwen.sogou.com/z/q192508057.htm
* ^ * http://www.mac.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=51261&ctNode=5915&mp=3
(arts. 10, 24(3), 57)
* http://www.mac.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=54922&ctNode=5940&mp=3 (para.
* http://www.mac.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=51271&ctNode=5915&mp=3 (art 29)
* ^ *"Statistics of Mainland-Macao Trade and Economic Cooperation in
January - December 2010". _english.mofcom.gov.cn_. Ministry of
Commerce of the People\'s Republic of
China . January 31, 2011.
Retrieved September 21, 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wachman, Alan (1994). _Taiwan: National Identity and
Democratization_. M.E. Sharpe. p. 81.
* ^ DPP is firm on
China name issue. Taipei Times (2013-07-14).
Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
Democratic Progressive Party Platform:
Taiwan Sovereignty page
* ^ Apdrc.org. "Apdrc.org." _Taiwan's Identity Politics._ Retrieved
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shih, Shu-mei (2007). "A Short History of The
"Mainland"". _Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations Across
the Pacific_. University of California press. pp. 124–129.
* ^ Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Government of the
Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of
China. "Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, Government of the
Special Administrative Region of the People\'s Republic of
China." _Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau._ Retrieved on
* ^ Chinese version, English version, Statistics on Admission
Scheme for Mainland Talents and Professionals
(輸入內地人才計劃數據資料), Immigration Department (Hong
* ^ English Text Chinese text
* ^ Kan, Shirley (2011-06-24). "China/Taiwan: Evolution of the "One
China" Policy -- Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei"
Congressional Research Service . p. 36. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
* ^ Copper, John (2012). _Taiwan_. ReadHowYouWant. p. 4.
* www.imd.org. "THE WORLD COMPETITIVENESS SCOREBOARD 2011" (PDF).
* Economic profile for mainland
China at HKTDC
People\'s Republic of
Taiwan Affairs Office
* Association for Relations Across the
* Communist Party of
Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee