A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal
tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and
maneuver role of many modern armies. Cold War-era development of more
powerful engines, better suspension systems and lightweight composite
armour allowed a tank to have the firepower of a super-heavy tank,
armor protection of a heavy tank, and mobility of a light tank all in
a package with the weight of a medium tank. Through the 1960s, the MBT
replaced almost all other tanks, leaving only some specialist roles to
be filled by lighter designs or other types of armoured fighting
Today, main battle tanks are considered a key component of modern
armies. Modern MBTs seldom operate alone, as they are organized
into armoured units which involve the support of infantry, who may
accompany the MBTs in infantry fighting vehicles. They are also often
supported by surveillance or ground-attack aircraft.
1.1 Initial limited-role tank classes
1.2 Evolution of the general-purpose medium tank
1.3 British Universal tank
1.4 Cold War
1.5 Persian Gulf War
1.6 Asymmetrical warfare
6 See also
Initial limited-role tank classes
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Mark I tank
Mark I tank at the Battle of Somme, 1916
During World War I, combining tracks, armor, and guns into a
functional vehicle pushed the limits of mechanical technology. This
limited the specific battlefield capabilities any one tank design
could be expected to fulfill beyond this. A design might have good
speed, armour, or firepower, but not all three at the same time.
Facing the deadlock of trench warfare, the first tank designs focused
on crossing wide trenches, requiring very long and large vehicles,
such as the British Mark I tank; these became known as heavy tanks.
Tanks that focused on other combat roles were smaller, like the French
Renault FT; these were light tanks or tankettes. Many late-war and
inter-war tank designs diverged from these according to new, though
mostly untried, concepts for future tank roles and tactics. Each
nation tended to create its own list of tank classes with different
intended roles, such as "cavalry tanks", "breakthrough tanks", "fast
tanks", and "assault tanks". The British maintained cruiser tanks that
focused on speed, and infantry tanks that traded speed for more
Evolution of the general-purpose medium tank
Main article: Medium tank
Hotchkiss H-35 light cavalry tank, Battle of France,
After years of isolated and divergent development, the various
interwar tank concepts were finally tested with the start of World War
II. In the chaos of blitzkrieg, tanks designed for a single role often
found themselves forced into battlefield situations they were
ill-suited for. During the war, limited-role tank designs tended to be
replaced by more general-purpose designs, enabled by improving tank
Tank classes became mostly based on weight (and the
corresponding transport and logistical needs). This led to new
definitions of heavy and light tank classes, with medium tanks
covering the balance of those between. The German
Panzer IV tank,
designed before the war as a "heavy" tank for assaulting fixed
positions, got redesigned during the war with armour and gun upgrades
to allow it to take on anti-tank roles as well, was reclassified as a
The second half of
World War II
World War II saw an increased reliance on
general-purpose medium tanks, which became the bulk of the tank combat
forces. Generally, these designs massed about 25-30 tonnes, were armed
with cannons around 75 mm, and powered by engines in the 400 to
500 hp range. Notable examples include the Soviet
most-produced tank to that time) and the US M4 Sherman.
Late war tank development placed increased emphasis on armour,
armament, and anti-tank capabilities for medium tanks:
New Panther tanks being loaded for transport to the Eastern Front
The German Panther tank, designed to counter the Soviet T-34, had both
armament and armour increased over previous medium tanks. Unlike
previous panzer designs, its frontal armor was sloped for increased
effectivness. It also was equipped with the high-velocity
long-barreled 75 mm KwK 42 L/70 gun that is able to defeat the armor
of all but the heaviest Allied tank at long range. The powerful
Maybach HL230 P30 engine and robust running gear meant that even
though the Panther tipped the scales at 50 tons – sizeable for
its day – it was actually quite maneuverable, offering better
off-road speed than the Panzer IV. However, its rushed development led
to reliability and maintenance issues.
T-44 incorporated many of the lessons learned with the
extensive use of the
T-34 model, and some of those modifications were
used in the first MBTs, like a modern torsion suspension, instead of
Christie suspension version of the T-34, and a transversally
mounted engine that simplified its gearbox. It is also seen as direct
predecessor of the T-54, as the
T-44 was the first Soviet tank with a
suspension sturdy enough to be able to mount a 100 mm cannon.
T-54 was the first Soviet MBT, with the first prototype produced
in 1945, and "was used more extensively that any other
Cold War or
modern MBT to date... being largely associated with colonial or
independence wars all around the globe and still one of the most
common pieces of equipment of any armored force today".
The American M26 Pershing, a medium tank to replace the M4 Sherman,
innovated many features common on post-war MBTs. These features
include an automatic transmission mounted in the rear, torsion bar
suspension and had an early form of powerpack. The M26, however,
suffered from a relatively weak engine and was somewhat under
powered. The design of the M26 had profound influence on American
postwar medium and Main Battle tanks: "The M26 formed the basis for
the postwar generation of U.S. battle tanks from the M46 through the
M47, M48, and M60 series."
British Universal tank
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Centurion Mk 3
In Britain, tank development had continued down the parallel
development of cruiser tanks and infantry tanks. Development of the
Rolls-Royce Meteor engine for the Cromwell tank, combined with
efficiency savings elsewhere in the design, almost doubled the
available horsepower for cruiser tanks. This increase led to
speculation of a "Universal Tank", able to take on the roles of both a
cruiser and an infantry tank by combining both armour and
Design of a universal tank commenced but was ultimately overtaken by
events. Continued development of the basic Cromwell design led
eventually to the Centurion. Centurion was designed as a Cruiser tank,
usually prioritising mobility and firepower at the expense of armour,
but the increase in engine power allowed sufficient armour to be
mounted to undertake the
Infantry tank role as well.
Development of the universal tank ceased, and Centurion entered
service just as
World War II
World War II finished, becoming a multi-role vehicle
forming the main battle tank force of the British army (and other
nations through export). The addition of the 20 pounder gun in 1948
gave the tank a significant advantage over other tanks of the era.
This paved the way for a new tank classification, the main battle
tank, and Centurion is considered by many to be the first MBT as
A surplus of effective WWII-era designs in other forces, notably the
US and the Soviet Union, led to slower introductions of similar
designs on their part. By the early 1950s, these designs were clearly
no longer competitive, especially in a world of shaped charge weapons,
and new designs rapidly emerged from most armed forces.
The concept of the medium tank gradually evolved into the MBT in the
1960s, as it was realized that medium tanks could carry guns (such
as the US 90 mm, Soviet 100 mm, and especially the British
L7 105 mm) that could penetrate any practical level of armour at long
range. Also, the heaviest tanks were unable to use most existing
World War II
World War II concept of heavy tanks, armed with the most
powerful guns and heaviest armour, became obsolete because the large
tanks were too expensive and just as vulnerable to damage by mines,
bombs, rockets, and artillery. Likewise,
World War II
World War II had shown that
lightly armed and armoured tanks were of limited value in most roles.
Even reconnaissance vehicles had shown a trend towards heavier weight
and greater firepower during World War II; speed was not a substitute
for armour and firepower.
T-64 undergoing decontamination.
An increasing variety of anti-tank weapons and the perceived threat of
a nuclear war prioritized the need for additional armour. The
additional armour prompted the design of even more powerful guns.
The main battle tank thus took on the role the British had once called
the "universal tank", exemplified by the Centurion, filling almost all
battlefield roles. Typical main battle tanks were as well armed as any
other vehicle on the battlefield, highly mobile, and well armoured.
Yet they were cheap enough to be built in large numbers. The first
Soviet main battle tank was the T-64 (the
considered "medium" tanks) and the first American
nomenclature-designated MBT was the M60 Patton.
A very early model M60 "Patton" with M48 turret and 105mm cannon.
Anti-tank weapons rapidly outpaced armour developments. By the 1960s
anti-tank rounds could penetrate a meter of steel so as to make the
application of traditional rolled homogeneous armour unpragmatic. The
first solution to this problem was the composite armor of Soviet T-64
tank, which included steel-glass-reinforced textolite-steel sandwich
in heavily sloped glacis, and steel turret with aluminum inserts,
which helped to resist both HEAT and APDS shells of the era. Later
came British Chobham armour. This composite armour utilized layers of
ceramics and other materials to help attenuate the effects of
high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) munitions. Another threat came by way
of the widespread use of helicopters in battle. Before the advent of
helicopters, armour was heavily concentrated to the front of the tank.
This new threat caused designs to distribute armour on all sides of
the tank (also having the effect of protecting the vehicle's occupants
from nuclear explosion radiation).
By the late 1970s, MBTs were manufactured by China, France, West
Germany, Britain, India, Italy, Japan, the Soviet Union, Sweden,
Switzerland, and the United States.
The Soviet Union's war doctrine depended heavily on the main battle
tank. Any weapon advancement making the MBT obsolete could have
devastated the Soviet Union's fighting capability. The Soviet
Union made novel advancements to the weapon systems including
mechanical autoloaders and anti-tank guided missiles. Autoloaders were
introduced to replace the human loader, permitting the turret to be
reduced in size, making the target smaller and less visible, while
missile systems were added to extend the range at which a vehicle
could engage a target and thereby enhance the first-round hit
The United States's experience in the
Vietnam War contributed to the
idea among army leadership that the role of the main battle tank could
be fulfilled by attack helicopters. During the Vietnam War,
helicopters and missiles competed with MBTs for research money.
Persian Gulf War
Though the Persian
Gulf War reaffirmed the role of main battle tanks,
MBTs were outperformed by the attack helicopter. Other strategists
considered that the MBT was entirely obsolete in the light of the
efficacy and speed with which coalition forces neutralized Iraqi
Leopard 2 in the PSO-version, prepared for asymmetrical
In asymmetric warfare, threats such as improvised explosive devices
and mines have proven effective against MBTs. In response, nations
that face asymmetric warfare, such as Israel, are reducing the size of
their tank fleet and procuring more advanced models.
United States Army
United States Army used 1,100
M1 Abrams in the course of the Iraq
War. They proved to have an unexpectedly high vulnerability to
improvised explosive devices. A relatively new type of remotely
detonated mine, the explosively formed penetrator, was used with some
success against American armoured vehicles. However, with upgrades to
their rear armour, M1s proved to be valuable in urban combat; at the
Second Battle of Fallujah
Second Battle of Fallujah the United States Marines brought in two
extra companies of M1s. Britain deployed its
Challenger 2 tanks to
support its operations in southern Iraq.
Advanced armour has not improved vehicle survivability, but has
reduced crew fatalities. Small unmanned turrets on top of the
cupolas called remote weapon stations armed with machine guns or
mortars provide improved defence and enhance crew survivability.
Experimental tanks with unmanned turrets locate crew members in the
heavily armoured hull, improving survivability and reducing the
vehicle's profile. A British military document from 2001 indicated
that the British Army would not procure a replacement for the
Challenger 2 because of a lack of conventional warfare threats in the
foreseeable future. The obsolescence of the tank has been asserted,
but the history of the late 20th and early 21st century suggested that
MBTs were still necessary.
Main battle tanks remain a useful tool for internal security. Nations
(such as Japan, Bangladesh and Indonesia) lacking expeditionary
ambitions, or even credible land-based threats from abroad, are
bolstering their ground forces with MBTs for the express purpose of
maintaining internal security.
A main battle tank has been officially described by the Organization
for Security and Co-operation in Europe as "a self-propelled armoured
fighting vehicle, capable of heavy firepower, primarily of a high
muzzle velocity direct fire main gun necessary to engage armoured and
other targets, with high cross-country mobility, with a high level of
self-protection, and which is not designed and equipped primarily to
transport combat troops."
2. Gun mantlet
3. Coaxial gun
4. Bore evacuator
5. Main gun
6. Driver's optics
7. Driver's hatch
9. Continuous track
10. Machine gun ammunition
11. Commander's machine gun
12. Hatch or cupola
13. Gun turret
14. Turret ring
16. Engine air intake
17. Engine compartment
18. Side skirt (only the front skirts are armoured on the Abrams.)
19. Drive sprocket
21. Road wheel
Challenger 2 is equipped with Dorchester armour, an advanced
Originally, most MBTs relied on steel armour to defend against various
threats. As newer threats emerged, however, the defensive systems used
by MBTs had to evolve to counter them. One of the first new
developments was the use of explosive reactive armour (ERA), developed
Israel in the early 1980s to defend against the shaped-charge
warheads of modern anti-tank guided missiles and other such
high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) projectiles. This technology was
subsequently adopted and expanded upon by the United States and the
MBT armour is concentrated at the front of the tank, where it is
layered up to 33 centimetres (13 in) thick.
T-90 Bhishma has a two-tier protection system.
T-14 Armata has a three-tier protection system, with the
Afghanit APS, the Malachit ERA, and composite armour.
Missiles are cheap and cost-effective anti-tank weapons. ERA can
be quickly added to vehicles to increase their survivability. However,
the detonation of ERA blocks creates a hazard to any supporting
infantry near the tank. Despite this drawback, it is still employed on
many Russian MBTs, the latest generation
Kontakt-5 being capable of
defeating both HEAT and kinetic energy penetrator threats. The Soviets
also developed Active Protection Systems (APS) designed to more
actively neutralize hostile projectiles before they could even strike
the tank, namely the
Shtora and Arena systems. The United States has
also adopted similar technologies in the form of the Missile
Countermeasure Device and as part of the
Tank Urban Survival Kit used
M1 Abrams tanks serving in Iraq. The latest Russian MBT, the T-14
Armata, incorporates an AESA radar as part of its Afghanit APS and in
conjunction with the rest of its armament, can also intercept aircraft
MBTs can also be protected from radar detection by incorporating
stealth technology. The
T-14 Armata has a turret designed to be harder
to detect with radars and thermal sights. Advanced camouflage,
like the Russian Nakidka, will also reduce the radar and thermal
signatures of a MBT. The use of electric engines, such as the ones
being considered for use on the Turkish Altay, can also reduce the
thermal signature of the tank.
Other defensive developments focused on improving the strength of the
armour itself; one of the notable advancement coming from the British
with the development of
Chobham armour in the 1970s. It was first
employed on the American
M1 Abrams and later the British Challenger 1.
Chobham armour uses a lattice of composite and ceramic materials along
with metal alloys to defeat incoming threats, and proved highly
effective in the conflicts in Iraq in the early 1990s and 2000s;
surviving numerous impacts from 1950–60s–era rocket-propelled
grenades with negligible damage. It is much less efficient against
later models of RPGs. For example, the
RPG-29 from the 1980s is able
to penetrate the frontal hull armour of the Challenger 2.
Merkava Mk 3d BAZ of the
Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces firing its main gun.
Main battle tanks are equipped with a main tank gun, and at least one
MBT main guns are generally between 90 and 130 mm caliber, and
can fire both anti-armour and, more recently, anti-personnel rounds.
The cannon serves a dual role, able to engage other armoured targets
such as tanks and fortifications, and soft targets such as light
vehicles and infantry. It is fixed to the turret, along with the
loading and fire mechanism. Modern tanks utilize a sophisticated
fire-control system, including rangefinders, computerized fire
control, and stabilizers, which are designed to keep the cannon stable
and aimed even if the hull is turning or shaking, making it easier for
the operators to fire on the move and/or against moving targets.
Gun-missile systems are complicated and have been particularly
unsatisfactory to the United States who abandoned gun-missile projects
such as the
M60A2 and MBT-70, but have been diligently developed
by the Soviet Union, who even retrofitted them to
T-55 tanks, in an
effort to double the effective range of the vehicle's fire. The MBT's
role could be compromised because of the increasing distances involved
and the increased reliance on indirect fire. The tank gun is still
useful in urban combat for precisely delivering powerful fire while
minimizing collateral damage.
High explosive anti-tank (HEAT), and some form of high velocity
kinetic energy penetrator, such as
APFSDS (armour-piercing fin
stabilized discarding sabot) rounds are carried for anti-armour
purposes. Anti-personnel rounds such as high explosive or high
explosive fragmentation have dual purpose. Less common rounds are
Beehive anti-personnel rounds, and high explosive squash head (HESH)
rounds used for both anti-armour and bunker busting. Usually, an MBT
carries 30-50 rounds of ammunition for its main gun, usually split
between HE, HEAT and kinetic energy penetrator rounds. Some MBTs may
also carry smoke or white phosphorus rounds. Some MBTs are equipped
with an autoloader, such as the French Leclerc, or the
Russian/Ukrainian T-64, T-72, T-80, T-84, T-90, and T-14 and, for this
reason, the crew can be reduced to 3 members. MBTs with an autoloader
require one less crew member and the autoloader requires less space
than its human counterpart, allowing for a reduction in turret size.
Further, an autoloader can be designed to handle rounds which would be
too difficult for a human to load. This reduces the silhouette
which improves the MBT's target profile. However, with a manual
loader, the rounds can be isolated within a blowout chamber, rather
than a magazine within the turret, which could improve crew
survivability. However, the force of a modern depleted uranium armour
piercing fin discarding sabot round at the muzzle can exceed
6000 kN (a rough estimate, considering a uranium
60 cm/2 cm rod, 19g/cm3, @ 1,750 m/s).
Composite+reactive armour could withstand this kind of force through
its deflection and deformation, but with a second hit in the same
area, an armour breach is inevitable. As such, the speed of follow up
shots is crucial within tank to tank combat.
As secondary weapons, an MBT usually uses between two and four machine
guns to engage infantry and light vehicles. Many MBTs mount one heavy
caliber anti-aircraft machine gun (AAMG), usually of .50 caliber (like
M2 Browning or DShK), which can be used against helicopters and
low flying aircraft. However, their effectiveness is limited in
comparison to dedicated anti-aircraft artillery. The tank's machine
guns are usually equipped with between 500 and 3000 rounds each.
Ukrainian BM Oplot, produced by the KMDB guided onto a tank
A former British Army Challenger 1
MBTs, like previous models of tanks, move on continuous tracks, which
allow a decent level of mobility over most terrain including sand and
mud. They also allow tanks to climb over most obstacles. MBTs can be
made water-tight, so they can even dive into shallow water (5 m
(16 ft) with snorkel). However, tracks are not as fast as wheels;
the maximum speed of a tank is about 65 km/h (40 mph)
(72 km/h (45 mph) for the Leopard 2). The extreme weight of
vehicles of this type (45-70 tons) also limits their speed. They are
usually equipped with a 1,200–1,500 hp (890–1,120 kW)
engine (more than 25,000 cc (1,526 cu in)), with an
operational range near 500 km (310 mi).
German Army has prioritized mobility in its
Leopard 2 which is
considered the fastest MBT in existence.
The Italian Ariete. Its relatively low weight (54 tonnes) facilitates
mobility, especially while crossing bridges.
The MBT is often cumbersome in traffic and frequently obstructs the
normal flow of traffic. The tracks can damage some roads after
repeated use. Many structures like bridges do not have the load
capacity to support an MBT. In the fast pace of combat, it is often
impossible to test the sturdiness of these structures. In the 2003
invasion of Iraq, an
M1 Abrams attempting to cross a bridge to evade
enemy fire plummeted into the Euphrates river when the bridge
collapsed. Though appreciated for its excellent off-road
characteristics, the MBT can become immobilized in muddy conditions.
The high cost of MBTs can be attributed in part to the
high-performance engine-transmission system and to the fire control
system. Also, propulsion systems are not produced in high enough
quantities to take advantage of economies of scale.
Crew fatigue limits the operational range of MBTs in combat. Reducing
the crew to three and relocating all crewmembers from the turret to
the hull could provide time to sleep for one off-shift crewmember
located in the rear of the hull. In this scenario, crewmembers would
rotate shifts regularly and all would require cross-training on all
vehicle job functions. Cargo aircraft are instrumental to the
timely deployment of MBTs. The absence of sufficient numbers of
strategic airlift assets can limit the rate of MBT deployments to the
number of aircraft available.
Military planners anticipate that the airlift capability for MBTs will
not improve in the future. To date, no helicopter has the
capability to lift MBTs. Rail and road are heavily used to move
MBTs nearer to the battle, ready to fight in prime condition.
Where well maintained roads allow it, wheeled tank transporters can be
The difficult task of resupply is usually accomplished with large
Main battle tanks have internal and external storage space. Internal
space is reserved for ammunition. External space enhances independence
of logistics and can accommodate extra fuel and some personal
equipment of the crew.
Merkava can even accommodate crew members displaced from a
destroyed vehicle in its ammunition compartment.
Emphasis is placed on selecting and training main battle tank crew
members. The crew must perform their tasks faultlessly and
harmoniously so commanders select teams taking into consideration
personalities and talents.
U.S. Marines during the
Iraq War ride on an
M1A1 Abrams tank in April
The main battle tank fulfills the role the British had once called the
"universal tank", filling almost all battlefield roles. They were
originally designed in the
Cold War to combat other MBTs. The
modern light tank supplements the MBT in expeditionary roles and
situations where all major threats have been neutralized and excess
weight in armour and armament would only hinder mobility and cost more
money to operate.
Reconnaissance by MBTs is performed in high-intensity conflicts where
reconnaissance by light vehicles would be insufficient due to the
necessity to "fight" for information.
In asymmetric warfare, main battle tanks are deployed in small, highly
concentrated units. MBTs fire only at targets at close range and
instead rely on external support such as unmanned aircraft for long
Main battle tanks have significantly varied characteristics. Procuring
too many varieties can place a burden on tactics, training, support
The MBT has a positive morale effect on the infantry it
accompanies. It also instills fear in the opposing force who can
often hear and even feel their arrival.
Anniston Army Depot
Anniston Army Depot line up an
M1 Abrams turret with its
MBT production is increasingly being outsourced to wealthy nations.
Countries that are just beginning to produce tanks are having
difficulties remaining profitable in an industry that is increasingly
becoming more expensive through the sophistication of technology. Even
some large-scale producers are seeing declines in production. Even
China is divesting many of its MBTs.
The production of main battle tanks is limited to manufacturers that
specialize in combat vehicles. Commercial manufacturers of civilian
vehicles cannot easily be repurposed as MBT production facilities.
Prices for MBTs have more than tripled from 1943 to 2011, although
this pales in comparison with the price increase in fighter aircraft
from 1943 to 1975.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April
Several MBT models, such as the
AMX-40 and OF-40, were marketed almost
solely as export vehicles.
Several tank producers, such as Japan and Israel, choose not to market
their creations for export. Others have export control laws in
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Main battle tanks.
List of U.S. military vehicles by model number
List of main battle tanks by country
List of main battle tanks by generation
Cold War Tanks
Cold War Tanks
^ House (1984), Toward Combined Arms Warfare: A Survey of 20th-Century
Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization
^ Tranquiler, Roger, Modern Warfare. A French View of
Counterinsurgency, trans. Daniel Lee, Pitting a traditional combined
armed force trained and equipped to defeat similar military
organisations against insurgents reminds one of a pile driver
attempting to crush a fly, indefatigably persisting in repeating its
^ Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War 2; Peter Chamberlain and
^ a b Green, Michael (2012). Panther: Germany's Quest for Combat
Dominance. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781849088411.
Tank Encyclopedia. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
Tank Encyclopedia. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
^ Conners, Chris (27 August 2015). "M26 Pershing". American Fighting
Vehicle Database. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
^ Hunnicutt, R.P (1996). Pershing : A History of the Medium Tank
T20 Series. Berkeley, California: Feist Publications. p. 112.
^ Zaloga, Steven (2015). Armored Champion : The Top Tanks of
World War II. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 263.
ISBN 9780811714372. OCLC 895501029.
^ Zaloga, Steven (2015). Armored Champion: The Top Tanks of World War
II. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 289.
^ The Rolls Royce Meteor: Cromwell and other Applications. Rolls-Royce
^ Fletcher, David (1989). Universal Tank: British Armour in the Second
World War - Part 2. HMSO. ISBN 0-11-290534-X.
^ The Design and Development of Fighting Vehicles; R.M. Ogorkiewicz,
^ Советская Военная Энциклопедия. Под
ред. Гречко А.А. - М.: Воениздат, 1976–80
гг., в 8-и томах, статья «Танк» (Soviet Military
^ a b c Thomas W. Zarzecki (2002). Arms Diffusion: The Spread of
Military Innovations in the International System. Psychology Press.
p. 212. ISBN 0-415-93514-8. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
T-64 manual ("Танк Т-64А. Техническое
описание и инструкция по
эксплуатации. 1984") state
T-64 as "main battle" tank,
T-55 (in corresponding military manuals, like
"Танк Т-62. Руководство по материальной
части и эксплуатации. 1968") stated as "medium"
^ Танк Т-62. Руководство по материальной
части и эксплуатации. 1968
^ MIL-T-45308 state "Tank, Main Battle, 105MM Gun, M60", while
MIL-T-45148 state "TANK, COMBAT, FULL-TRACKED, 90MM GUN, M48A2"
^ AcademicJohn Harris & Andre Gsponer (1986). Armour defuses the
neutron bomb. Reed Business Information. p. 47. Retrieved 29 July
^ Academic American encyclopedia, Volume 2. Aretê Pub. Co., 1980.
1980. p. 177. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
^ David C. Isby (1988). Weapons and tactics of the Soviet Army.
Jane's. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
^ Daniel H. Else (III.) (2008). "Chapter 3". Bias in weapon
development. ProQuest. p. 62. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
^ Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies (1993). The Canadian
strategic forecast. Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies.
p. 73. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
^ a b c d e f Chris McNab; Hunter Keeter (2008). Tools of violence:
guns, tanks and dirty bombs. Osprey Publishing. Archived from the
original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
^ a b Panda, Ankit (13 January 2015). "Main Battle Tanks in Asia:
Useful Junk". Retrieved 21 July 2015. Beyond Asia’s large
militaries, the broader proliferation of tanks makes sense given the
security needs of states with relatively weaker militaries. Naval and
amphibious warfare focused states such as Japan and Indonesia are
acquiring new tanks to build capacity in land warfare (urban warfare
in Japan's case). Bangladesh, as a developing nation, is acquiring
cheaper Chinese MBTs for similar reasons. None of these states expect
to use these tanks for an expeditionary purpose, or even against a
foreign invader. MBTs can play an important role in maintaining
^ Anthony H. Cordesman (2006). Arab-Israeli Military Forces in an Era
of Asymmetric Wars. Greenwood Publishing Group.
ISBN 0-275-99186-5. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
^ Komarow, Steven (29 March 2005). "Tanks take a beating in Iraq". USA
Today. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
^ Komarow, Steven (29 March 2005). "Tanks adapted for urban fights
they once avoided". USA Today. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
^ Anthony H. Cordesman; Aram Nerguizian; Ionut C. Popescu (2008).
Israel and Syria: The Military Balance and Prospects of War. ABC-CLIO.
p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-35520-2. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
^ Stan Krasnoff (2008). A Claytons Defense. Strategic Book Publishing.
p. 35. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
^ Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Volume 30. Asia-Pacific Defence
Publications. 2004. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
^ Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Organization for
Security and Co-operation in Europe. 1989. p. 3. Retrieved 4
^ Stan Windass; Paul Walker (1985). Avoiding Nuclear War: Common
Security as a Strategy for the Defence of the West. Brassey's Defence
Publishers. p. 38. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
^ a b Richard Holmes; Hew Strachan; Chris Bellamy (2001). The Oxford
Companion to Military History. Oxford University Press. pp. 493,
902. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
^ ""Армата" расстреляет снаряды
противника из пулемета". Retrieved 22 May
^ "Танк Т-14 "Армата" или Т-99 "Приоритет" -
Продукция - Библиотека - ВПК.name". vpk.name.
Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ "БМП "Армата" сможет уничтожить
вертолеты и беспилотники". Retrieved 22 May
^ ""RPM "Cloak" to protect from exploration and precision weapons"".
Nii Stali. niistali.ru. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011.
Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ "BUSINESS - Otokar mulls making of domestic 'electric tank'".
Hurriet Daily News. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ "Defence chiefs knew 'invincible' tank armour could be breached".
Daily Mail. 24 April 2007.
^ Sean Rayment (12 May 2007). "MoD kept failure of best tank quiet".
^ African armed forces journal. Military Publications Ltd. 1994.
^ a b c Neville Brown (2009). The Geography of Human Conflict:
Approaches to Survival. Sussex Academic Press. p. 254.
ISBN 978-1-84519-169-6. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
^ Jeff Groman (1985). Weapons of War. Gallery Books. p. 126.
Retrieved 18 February 2011.
^ Thomas W. Zarzecki (2002). Arms Diffusion: The Spread of Military
Innovations in the International System. Psychology Press. Retrieved
18 February 2011.
^ National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Adiabatic Diesel
Technology (1987). A Review of the State of the Art and Projected
Technology of Low Heat Rejection Engines: A Report. National
Academies. p. 108. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
^ a b Robin Fletcher (May 1995). "The Crewing and Configuration of the
Future Main Battle Tank" (PDF). Armor: 6–8, 42, & 43. Retrieved
4 May 2011. (HTML version)
^ Michael Chichester; John Wilkinson (1987). British Defence: A
Blueprint for Reform. Brasseys Defence. p. 126. Retrieved 4 April
^ a b c d e f Mary Kaldor, Basker Vashee, World Institute for
Development Economics Research (1998). Restructuring the Global
Military Sector: The End of Military Fordism. Continuum International
Publishing Group. p. 108. ISBN 1-85567-428-9. CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Brian MacDonald (1997). Military Spending in Developing Countries:
How Much Is Too Much?. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 136.
ISBN 0-88629-314-6. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
^ Michael Green (2008). War Stories of the Tankers: American armoured
Combat, 1918 to Today. Zenith Imprint. p. 281.
ISBN 978-0-7603-3297-9. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
^ David Miller (2000). The Illustrated Directory of Tanks of the
World. Zenith Imprint. p. 384. ISBN 0-7603-0892-6. Retrieved
4 April 2011.
^ David Eshel; Bill Sweetman (25 April 2011). "New Designs Suit Tanks
For Asymmetric War". The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Retrieved 3 May
^ Saudi Arabia Enters the Twenty-first Century: The Military and
International Security Dimensions. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2003.
p. 140. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
^ Stanley Sandler (2002). Ground Warfare: An International
Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 59. ISBN 1-57607-344-0.
Retrieved 5 April 2011.
^ United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations (1990).
Department of Defense Appropriations for 1991, Part 6. U. S. Govt.
Print. Off. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
World War I
World War I armoured fighting vehicles
Mks I, II, III
Medium Mk A "Whippet"
Medium Mk B
Medium Mk C
Killen-Strait Armoured Tractor
Lancelot de Mole's proposal* (1912)
Günther Burstyn's Motorgeschütz* (1911)
Austro Daimler armoured car (1905)
M1917 light tank
Ford 3-Ton M1918
Steam Wheel Tank
Minerva Armoured Car
Italics—experimental prototypes; * concept only
Type 92 tankette
Type 94 tankette
Type 97 Te-Ke
Tančík vz. 33
Light Tanks Mk I–V
Tank Mk VI
Tank Mk VII
M1 Combat Car
M2 Light Tank
LT vz. 34
LT vz. 35
LT vz. 38
T1 Light Tank
T7 Combat Car
Type 95 Ha-Go
Vickers-Carden-Loyd Light Amphibious Tank
Medium Mk I
Medium Mk II
Medium Mk III
Type 89 I-Go
Type 97 Chi-Ni
Type 97 Chi-Ha
Type 98 Chi-Ho
Cruiser Mk I
Cruiser Mk II
Cruiser Mk III
Infantry Mk I, Matilda
Type 89 I-Go
Type 95 Heavy Tank
Vickers A1E1 Independent
Bren Gun Carrier
World War II
World War II tanks
Type 98 Ke-Ni
Type 2 Ke-To
Type 2 Ka-Mi
Type 4 Ke-Nu
Type 5 Ke-Ho
Carro Armato P 40
40 M Turan I
Panzer V Panther
Type 97 ShinHoTo Chi-Ha
Type 1 Chi-He
Type 3 Ka-Chi
Type 3 Chi-Nu
Type 4 Chi-To
Type 5 Chi-Ri
Type 5 To-Ku
Cruiser Mk III
Cruiser Mk IV
Mk VIII Challenger
Type 2 Ho-I
Panzer VII Löwe
Panzer VIII Maus
Landkreuzer P. 1000 Ratte
Landkreuzer P. 1500 Monster
Cold War tanks
Type 74 Nana-yon
M8 Armored Gun System
M41 Walker Bulldog
Spähpanzer SP I.C.
T71 Light Tank
T92 Light Tank
Cold War tanks
Under 120 mm gun
Under 50 tonnes
Over 50 tonnes
K2 Black Panther
Type 99 tank
VT-4 Main Battle Tank
Not in service