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(i)

30 March or 6 April 1135 Possibly born 28 March or 4 April 1138 Córdoba , Almoravid Empire (present-day Spain
Spain
)

DIED 12 December 1204 (aged 69) Fostat , Ayyubid Sultanate (present-day Egypt
Egypt
)

ERA Medieval Philosophy

REGION Jewish philosophy

SCHOOL Jewish law , Jewish ethics

Influences

* Talmud
Talmud
, Aristotle
Aristotle
, al-Farabi , Avicenna , Avempace , Averroes
Averroes
, Algazel

Influenced

* Jeremiah Stamler , Spinoza , Aquinas , Joyce , Bodin , Leibniz , Newton , Strauss , Friedländer , Levinas

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Rabbi
Rabbi
MOSES BEN MAIMON (Hebrew : מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מַימוֹן‎ _Mōšeh bēn-Maymōn_; Arabic
Arabic
: موسى بن ميمون‎‎ _Mūsā bin Maymūn_), commonly known as MAIMONIDES /maɪˈmɒnᵻ.diːz/ (_my-MON-i-deez_ ; Greek : Μαϊμωνίδης _Maïmōnídēs_), and also referred to by the acronym RAMBAM /ˌrɑːmˈbɑːm/ (רמב״ם‎, for _Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimon_, "Our Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses
Moses
son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah
Torah
scholars of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. In his time, he was also a preeminent astronomer and physician. Born in Cordova , Almoravid Empire (present-day Spain
Spain
) on Passover Eve , 1135 or 1138, he worked as a rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Morocco
Morocco
and Egypt
Egypt
. He died in Egypt
Egypt
on December 12, 1204, whence his body was taken to the lower Galilee and buried in Tiberias
Tiberias
.

During his lifetime, most Jews
Jews
greeted Maimonides' writings on Jewish law and ethics with acclaim and gratitude, even as far away as Iraq and Yemen, and although Maimonides
Maimonides
rose to become the revered head of the Jewish community in Egypt
Egypt
, there were also vociferous critics of some of his writings, particularly in Spain. Nonetheless, he was posthumously acknowledged as among the foremost rabbinical arbiters and philosophers in Jewish history
Jewish history
, and his copious work comprises a cornerstone of Jewish scholarship. His fourteen-volume _Mishneh Torah _ still carries significant canonical authority as a codification of Talmudic law. He is sometimes known as "ha Nesher ha Gadol" (the great eagle) in recognition of his outstanding status as a _bona fide_ exponent of the Oral Torah
Torah
.

Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides
Maimonides
also figures very prominently in the history of Islamic and Arab sciences and is mentioned extensively in studies. Influenced by Mohammed Al-Farabi ( Arabic
Arabic
: ابو نصر محمد بن محمد الفارابي‎‎, ca. 872–950/951), Ibn Sina known as Avicenna ( Arabic
Arabic
: ابن سینا‎‎, c. 980 – 1037), and his contemporary Ibn Rushd known as Averroes
Averroes
( Arabic
Arabic
: ابن رشد‎‎, 1126–1198), he in his turn influenced other prominent Arab and Muslim philosophers and scientists. He became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Biography

* 2.1 Early years * 2.2 Exile
Exile
* 2.3 Death of his brother * 2.4 Nagid * 2.5 Death

* 3 Influence * 4 13 principles of faith

* 5 Legal works

* 5.1 Tzedakah (charity)

* 6 Philosophy
Philosophy

* 6.1 Negative theology * 6.2 Prophecy * 6.3 The problem of evil * 6.4 Astrology * 6.5 True beliefs versus necessary beliefs * 6.6 Resurrection, acquired immortality, and the afterlife * 6.7 Messianic era * 6.8 _The Oath of Maimonides_

* 7 Maimonides
Maimonides
and the Modernists * 8 Tributes and memorials

* 9 Works and bibliography

* 9.1 Judaic and philosophical works * 9.2 Medical works * 9.3 Treatise on logic

* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

NAME

His full Hebrew name is Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew : רבי משה בן מימון‎‎), whose acronym forms "Rambam" (רמב"ם). His full Arabic
Arabic
name is Abū ʿImrān Mūsā bin Maimūn bin ʿUbaidallāh al-Qurtabī (ابو عمران موسى بن ميمون بن عبيد الله القرطبي) or Mūsā bin Maymūn ( Arabic
Arabic
: موسى بن ميمون‎‎) for short. In Latin, the Hebrew "ben" (son of) becomes the Greek−style suffix "-ides" to form " Moses
Moses
Maimonides".

BIOGRAPHY

The dominion of the Almohad Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 1200 CE Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Egypt
Egypt
§ Arab rule (641 to 1250)

EARLY YEARS

Maimonides
Maimonides
was born in Córdoba during what some scholars consider to be the end of the golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula , after the first centuries of the Moorish rule. At an early age, he developed an interest in sciences and philosophy. He read those Greek philosophers accessible in Arabic
Arabic
translations, and was deeply immersed in the sciences and learning of Islamic culture. Though the Gaonic tradition, especially in its North African version, formed the basis of his legal thought, some scholars have argued in the 21st century that Muslim law , including Almohad legal thought, also had a substantial influence. Maimonides
Maimonides
was not known as a supporter of mysticism , although a strong intellectual type of mysticism has been discerned in his philosophy. He expressed disapproval of poetry, the best of which he declared to be false, since it was founded on pure invention. This sage , who was revered for his personality as well as for his writings, led a busy life, and wrote many of his works while travelling or in temporary accommodation. Maimonides
Maimonides
studied Torah
Torah
under his father Maimon , who had in turn studied under Rabbi
Rabbi
Joseph ibn Migash , a student of Isaac Alfasi . Maimonides' house in Fez, Morocco
Morocco

EXILE

A Berber dynasty, the Almohads , conquered Córdoba in 1148, and abolished _dhimmi _ status (i.e., state protection of life and wealth) in some of their territories. The loss of this protected status threatened the Jewish and Christian
Christian
communities with conversion to Islam , death , or exile . The historical records of abuses against Jews
Jews
in the immediate post-1148 period are subject to different interpretations. Many Jews
Jews
were forced to convert, but due to suspicion by the authorities of fake conversions, the new converts had to wear identifying clothing that set them apart and made them subject to public scrutiny.

Maimonides's family, along with most other Jews
Jews
, chose exile. Some say, though, that it is likely that Maimonides
Maimonides
feigned a conversion to Islam before escaping. This forced conversion was ruled legally invalid under Islamic law when brought up by a rival in Egypt. For the next ten years, Maimonides
Maimonides
moved about in southern Spain, eventually settling in Fez in Morocco
Morocco
. During this time, he composed his acclaimed commentary on the Mishnah
Mishnah
in the years 1166–1168.

Following this sojourn in Morocco, together with two sons, he sojourned in the Holy Land , before settling in Fustat , Egypt
Egypt
around 1168. While in Cairo, he studied in a yeshiva attached to a small synagogue (which now bears his name). In the Holy Land, he prayed at the Temple Mount . He wrote that this day of visiting the Temple Mount was a day of holiness for him and his descendants.

Maimonides
Maimonides
shortly thereafter was instrumental in helping rescue Jews taken captive during the Christian
Christian
King Amalric 's siege of the Egyptian town of Bilbays . He sent five letters to the Jewish communities of Lower Egypt
Egypt
asking them to pool money together to pay the ransom . The money was collected and then given to two judges sent to Palestine to negotiate with the Crusaders. The captives were eventually released.

DEATH OF HIS BROTHER

Following this triumph, the Maimonides
Maimonides
family, hoping to increase their wealth, gave their savings to his brother, the youngest son David ben Maimon, a merchant. Maimonides
Maimonides
directed his brother to procure goods only at the Sudanese port of ‘Aydhab . After a long arduous trip through the desert, however, David was unimpressed by the goods on offer there. Against his brother's wishes, David boarded a ship for India, since great wealth was to be found in the East. Before he could reach his destination, David drowned at sea sometime between 1169–1170. The death of his brother caused Maimonides
Maimonides
to become sick with grief. Monument in Córdoba

In a letter (discovered later in the Cairo Geniza ), he wrote:

The greatest misfortune that has befallen me during my entire life—worse than anything else—was the demise of the saint, may his memory be blessed, who drowned in the Indian sea, carrying much money belonging to me, him, and to others, and left with me a little daughter and a widow. On the day I received that terrible news I fell ill and remained in bed for about a year, suffering from a sore boil, fever, and depression , and was almost given up. About eight years have passed, but I am still mourning and unable to accept consolation. And how should I console myself? He grew up on my knees, he was my brother, he was my student.

NAGID

Sculpture of Maimonides
Maimonides
in the U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
.

Around 1171, Maimonides
Maimonides
was appointed the _ Nagid _ of the Egyptian Jewish community. Arabist S.D. Goitein believes the leadership he displayed during the ransoming of the Crusader captives led to this appointment. With the loss of the family funds tied up in David's business venture, Maimonides
Maimonides
assumed the vocation of physician, for which he was to become famous. He had trained in medicine in both Córdoba and in Fez. Gaining widespread recognition, he was appointed court physician to the Grand Vizier
Vizier
Al Qadi al Fadil, then to Sultan Saladin
Saladin
, after whose death he remained a physician to the royal family .

In his medical writings, Maimonides
Maimonides
described many conditions, including asthma , diabetes , hepatitis , and pneumonia , and he emphasized moderation and a healthy lifestyle. His treatises became influential for generations of physicians. He was knowledgeable about Greek and Arabic
Arabic
medicine, and followed the principles of humorism in the tradition of Galen
Galen
. He did not blindly accept authority but used his own observation and experience. Julia Bess Frank indicates that Maimonides
Maimonides
in his medical writings sought to interpret works of authorities so that they could become acceptable. Maimonides displayed in his interactions with patients attributes that today would be called intercultural awareness and respect for the patient's autonomy. Although he frequently wrote of his longing for solitude in order to come closer to God and to extend his reflections – elements considered essential in his philosophy to the prophetic experience -he gave over most of his time to caring for others. In a famous letter, Maimonides
Maimonides
describes his daily routine: After visiting the Sultan's palace, he would arrive home exhausted and hungry, where "I would find the antechambers filled with gentiles and Jews
Jews
... I would go to heal them, and write prescriptions for their illnesses ... until the evening ... and I would be extremely weak." As he goes on to say in this letter, even on the Sabbath he would receive members of the community. It is remarkable that he managed to write extended treatises, including not only medical and other scientific studies but some of the most systematically thought-through and influential treatises on halakha (rabbinic law) and Jewish philosophy of the Middle Ages. In 1173/4, Maimonides
Maimonides
wrote his famous Iggeret Teman (_Epistle to Yemen_). It has been suggested that his "incessant travail" undermined his own health and brought about his death at 69 (although this is a normal lifespan). His rabbinic writings are valued as fundamental and unparalleled resources for religious Jews today.

DEATH

The Tomb of Maimonides in Tiberias
Tiberias

Maimonides
Maimonides
died on December 12, 1204 (20th of Tevet 4965) in Fustat . It is widely believed that he was briefly buried in the study room (beit hamidrash ) of the synagogue courtyard, and that, soon after, in accordance with his wishes, his remains were exhumed and taken to Tiberias
Tiberias
, where he was re-interred. The Tomb of Maimonides on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
in Israel
Israel
marks his grave. This location for his final resting-place has been debated, for in the Jewish Cairene community , a tradition holds that he remained buried in Egypt.

Maimonides
Maimonides
and his wife, the daughter of Mishael ben Yeshayahu Halevi, had one child who survived into adulthood, Avraham , who became recognized as a great scholar. He succeeded Maimonides
Maimonides
as Nagid and as court physician at the age of eighteen. Throughout his career, he defended his father's writings against all critics. The office of Nagid was held by the Maimonides
Maimonides
family for four successive generations until the end of the 14th century.

The philosopher/doctor is widely respected in Spain
Spain
and a statue of him was erected in Córdoba near to the only synagogue in that city to escape destruction during years of persecution. Although it no longer functions as a Jewish house of worship, it is open to the public.

Maimonides
Maimonides
is sometimes said to be a descendant of King David
King David
, although he never made such a claim.

INFLUENCE

_ The title page of The Guide for the Perplexed _

Maimonides's Mishneh Torah
Torah
is considered by Jews
Jews
even today as one of the chief authoritative codifications of Jewish law and ethics. It is exceptional for its logical construction, concise and clear expression and extraordinary learning, so that it became a standard against which other later codifications were often measured. It is still closely studied in rabbinic yeshivot (academies). A popular medieval saying that also served as his epitaph states, _From Mosheh (of the Torah) to Mosheh (Maimonides) there was none like Mosheh._ It chiefly referred to his rabbinic writings.

But Maimonides
Maimonides
was also one of the most influential figures in medieval Jewish philosophy. His brilliant adaptation of Aristotelian thought to Biblical faith deeply impressed later Jewish thinkers, and had an unexpected immediate historical impact. Some more acculturated Jews
Jews
in the century that followed his death, particularly in Spain, sought to apply Maimonides's Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
in ways that undercut traditionalist belief and observance, giving rise to an intellectual controversy in Spanish and southern French Jewish circles. The intensity of debate spurred Catholic Church interventions against "heresy" and a general confiscation of rabbinic texts. In reaction, the more radical interpretations of Maimonides
Maimonides
were defeated. At least amongst Ashkenazi Jews, there was a tendency to ignore his specifically philosophical writings and to stress instead the rabbinic and halakhic writings. These writings often included considerable philosophical chapters or discussions in support of halakhic observance; David Hartman observes that Maimonides
Maimonides
clearly expressed "the traditional support for a philosophical understanding of God both in the Aggadah of Talmud
Talmud
and in the behavior of the hasid ." Maimonidean thought continues to influence traditionally observant Jews.

The most rigorous medieval critique of Maimonides
Maimonides
is Hasdai Crescas 's _ Or Adonai _. Crescas bucked the eclectic trend, by demolishing the certainty of the Aristotelian world-view, not only in religious matters but also in the most basic areas of medieval science (such as physics and geometry). Crescas's critique provoked a number of 15th-century scholars to write defenses of Maimonides. A partial translation of Crescas was produced by Harry Austryn Wolfson of Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1929.

Because of his path-finding synthesis of Aristotle
Aristotle
and Biblical faith, Maimonides
Maimonides
had a fundamental influence on the great Christian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas . Aquinas refers specifically to Maimonides
Maimonides
in several of his works, including the _Commentary on the Sentences _.

Maimonides's combined abilities in the fields of theology, philosophy and medicine make his work attractive today as a source during discussions of evolving norms in these fields, particularly medicine. An example is the modern citation of his method of determining death of the body in the controversy regarding declaration of death to permit organ donation for transplantation .

13 PRINCIPLES OF FAITH

Main article: Jewish principles of faith

In his commentary on the Mishnah
Mishnah
(tractate Sanhedrin , chapter 10), Maimonides
Maimonides
formulates his "13 principles of faith". They summarized what he viewed as the required beliefs of Judaism:

* The existence of God . * God's unity and indivisibility into elements. * God's spirituality and incorporeality . * God's eternity . * God alone should be the object of worship . * Revelation
Revelation
through God's prophets . * The preeminence of Moses
Moses
among the prophets. * The Torah
Torah
that we have today is the one dictated to Moses
Moses
by God . * The Torah
Torah
given by Moses
Moses
will not be replaced and that nothing may be added or removed from it. * God's awareness of all human actions and thoughts. * Reward of good and punishment of evil. * The coming of the Jewish Messiah
Jewish Messiah
. * The resurrection of the dead .

Maimonides
Maimonides
compiled the principles from various Talmudic sources. These principles were controversial when first proposed, evoking criticism by Rabbis Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo , and were effectively ignored by much of the Jewish community for the next few centuries. ("Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought," Menachem Kellner). However, these principles have become widely held and are considered to be the cardonial principals of faith for Orthodox Jews
Jews
. Two poetic restatements of these principles (_Ani Ma\'amin _ and _Yigdal _) eventually became canonized in many editions of the " Siddur " ( Jewish prayer book).

LEGAL WORKS

Main article: Mishneh Torah
Torah

With _Mishneh Torah_, Maimonides
Maimonides
composed a code of Jewish law with the widest-possible scope and depth. The work gathers all the binding laws from the Talmud
Talmud
, and incorporates the positions of the Geonim (post-Talmudic early Medieval scholars, mainly from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
).

While _Mishneh Torah_ is now considered the fore-runner of the _ Arbaah Turim _ and the _ Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
_ (two later codes), it met initially with much opposition. There were two main reasons for this opposition. First, Maimonides
Maimonides
had refrained from adding references to his work for the sake of brevity; second, in the introduction, he gave the impression of wanting to "cut out" study of the Talmud, to arrive at a conclusion in Jewish law, although Maimonides
Maimonides
later wrote that this was not his intent. His most forceful opponents were the rabbis of Provence
Provence
(Southern France), and a running critique by Rabbi
Rabbi
Abraham ben David (Raavad III) is printed in virtually all editions of Mishneh Torah. It was still recognized as a monumental contribution to the systemized writing of halakha . Throughout the centuries, it has been widely studied and its halakhic decisions have weighed heavily in later rulings.

In response to those who would attempt to force followers of Maimonides
Maimonides
and his _Mishneh Torah_ to abide by the rulings of his own Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
or other later works, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Karo wrote: "Who would dare force communities who follow the Rambam to follow any other decisor, early or late? ... The Rambam is the greatest of the decisors, and all the communities of the Land of Israel and the Arabistan and the Maghreb
Maghreb
practice according to his word, and accepted him as their rabbi."

An oft-cited legal maxim from his pen is: "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death ." He argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely according to the judge's caprice.

Scholars specializing in the study of the history and subculture of Judaism
Judaism
in premodern China (Sino-Judaica) have noted surprising similarities between this work and the liturgy of the Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Jews
Jews
, descendants of Persian merchants who settled in the Middle Kingdom during the early Song dynasty
Song dynasty
. Beyond scriptural similarities, Michael Pollak comments the Jews' Pentateuch was divided into 53 sections according to the Persian style. He also points out:

There is no proof, to be sure, that Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Jewry ever had direct access to the works of "the Great Eagle," but it would have had ample time and opportunity to acquire or become acquainted with them well before its reservoir of Jewish learning began to run out. Nor do the Maimonidean leanings of the _kehillah_ contradict the historical evidence that has the Jews
Jews
arriving in Kaifeng
Kaifeng
no later than 1126, the year in which the Sung fled the city —and nine years before Maimonides
Maimonides
was born. In 1163, when the _kehillah_ built the first of its synagogues, Maimonides
Maimonides
was only twenty-eight years old, so that it is highly unlikely that even his earliest authoritative teachings could by then have reached China.

TZEDAKAH (CHARITY)

One of the most widely referred to sections of the _Mishneh Torah_ is the section dealing with tzedakah . In Hilkhot Matanot Aniyim (Laws about Giving to Poor People), Chapter 10:7–14, Maimonides
Maimonides
lists his famous Eight Levels of Giving (where the first level is most preferable, and the eighth the least):

* Giving an interest-free loan to a person in need; forming a partnership with a person in need; giving a grant to a person in need; finding a job for a person in need; so long as that loan, grant, partnership, or job results in the person no longer living by relying upon others. * Giving tzedakah anonymously to an unknown recipient via a person (or public fund) which is trustworthy, wise, and can perform acts of tzedakah with your money in a most impeccable fashion. * Giving tzedakah anonymously to a known recipient. * Giving tzedakah publicly to an unknown recipient. * Giving tzedakah before being asked. * Giving adequately after being asked. * Giving willingly, but inadequately. * Giving "in sadness" (giving out of pity): It is thought that Maimonides
Maimonides
was referring to giving because of the sad feelings one might have in seeing people in need (as opposed to giving because it is a religious obligation). Other translations say "Giving unwillingly."

PHILOSOPHY

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Depiction of Maimonides
Maimonides
teaching students about the 'measure of man' in an illuminated manuscript .

Through the _ Guide for the Perplexed _ (which was initially written in Arabic
Arabic
as _Dalālat al-ḥāʾirīn_) and the philosophical introductions to sections of his commentaries on the Mishna, Maimonides
Maimonides
exerted an important influence on the Scholastic philosophers, especially on Albert the Great , Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus . He was a Jewish Scholastic. Educated more by reading the works of Arab Muslim philosophers than by personal contact with Arabian teachers, he acquired an intimate acquaintance not only with Arab Muslim philosophy, but with the doctrines of Aristotle. Maimonides
Maimonides
strove to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and science with the teachings of the Torah
Torah
. In his _Guide for the Perplexed_, he often explains the function and purpose of the statutory provisions contained in the Torah
Torah
against the backdrop of the historical conditions. Maimonides
Maimonides
is said to have been influenced by Asaph ha-Jehoudi , who was the first Hebrew medical writer.

NEGATIVE THEOLOGY

The principle that inspired his philosophical activity was identical to a fundamental tenet of Scholasticism: there can be no contradiction between the truths which God has revealed and the findings of the human mind in science and philosophy. Maimonides
Maimonides
primarily relied upon the science of Aristotle
Aristotle
and the teachings of the Talmud, commonly finding basis in the former for the latter. In some important points, he departed from the teaching of Aristotle; for instance, he rejected the Aristotelian doctrine that God's provident care extends only to humanity, and not to the individual.

Maimonides' admiration for the neo-Platonic commentators led him to doctrines which the later Scholastics did not accept. For instance, Maimonides
Maimonides
was an adherent of "negative theology " (also known as "Apophatic theology".) In this theology, one attempts to describe God through negative attributes. For instance, one should not say that God exists in the usual sense of the term; it can be said that God is not non-existent. We should not say that "God is wise"; but we can say that "God is not ignorant," i.e., in some way, God has some properties of knowledge. We should not say that "God is One," but we can state that "there is no multiplicity in God's being." In brief, the attempt is to gain and express knowledge of God by describing what God is not, rather than by describing what God "is".

The Scholastics agreed that no predicate is adequate to express the nature of God, but they did not say that no affirmative term could be applied to God. They acknowledged that while the terms "eternal," "omnipotent," etc., as we apply them to God are inadequate, at the same time we may say "God is eternal" etc. We need not stop, as Maimonides
Maimonides
did, with the negative "God is not not-eternal," etc. Maimonides
Maimonides
suggested that when people give God anthropomorphic qualities, they do not explain anything more of what God is, because people cannot know the essence.

Maimonides's use of apophatic theology is not unique to this time period or to Judaism. For example, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite and Maximus the Confessor , Eastern Christian
Christian
theologians, had developed apophatic theology for Christianity nearly 900 years earlier. See Negative theology for uses in other religions.

PROPHECY

He agrees with "the Philosopher" (Aristotle) in teaching that the use of logic is the "right" way of thinking. In order to build an inner understanding of how to know God, every human being must, by study, meditation and uncompromising strong will, attain the degree of complete logical, spiritual and physical perfection required in the prophetic state. Here he rejects previous ideas (especially portrayed by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda Halevi in "Hakuzari") that in order to become a prophet, God must intervene. Maimonides
Maimonides
claims that any man has the potential to become a prophet (not just Jews) and that in fact it is the purpose of the human race.

THE PROBLEM OF EVIL

Maimonides
Maimonides
wrote on theodicy (the philosophical attempt to reconcile the existence of a God with the existence of evil). He took the premise that an omnipotent and good God exists. In his _Guide for the Perplexed _, Maimonides
Maimonides
writes that all the evil that exists within human beings stems from their individual attributes, while all good comes from a universally shared humanity (Guide 3:8). He says that there are people who are guided by higher purpose, and there are those who are guided by physicality and must strive to find the higher purpose with which to guide their actions.

To justify the existence of evil, assuming God is both omnipotent and omnibenevolent, Maimonides
Maimonides
postulates that one who created something by causing its opposite not to exist is not the same as creating something that exists; so evil is merely the absence of good. God did not create evil, rather God created good, and evil exists where good is absent (Guide 3:10). Therefore, all good is divine invention, and evil both is not and comes secondarily.

Maimonides
Maimonides
contests the common view that evil outweighs good in the world. He says that if one were to examine existence only in terms of humanity, then that person may observe evil to dominate good, but if one looks at the whole of the universe, then he sees good is significantly more common than evil (Guide 3:12). Man, he reasons, is too insignificant a figure in God's myriad works to be their primary characterizing force, and so when people see mostly evil in their lives, they are not taking into account the extent of positive Creation outside of themselves.

Maimonides
Maimonides
believes that there are three types of evil in the world: evil caused by nature, evil that people bring upon others, and evil man brings upon himself (Guide 3:12). The first type of evil Maimonides
Maimonides
states is the rarest form, but arguably of the most necessary—the balance of life and death in both the human and animal worlds itself, he recognizes, is essential to God's plan. Maimonides writes that the second type of evil is relatively rare, and that humanity brings it upon itself. The third type of evil humans bring upon themselves and is the source of most of the ills of the world. These are the result of people falling victim to their physical desires. To prevent the majority of evil which stems from harm we do to ourselves, we must learn how to ignore our bodily urges.

ASTROLOGY

Further information: Jewish views on astrology

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Maimonides
Maimonides
answered an inquiry concerning astrology, addressed to him from Marseille
Marseille
. He responded that man should believe only what can be supported either by rational proof, by the evidence of the senses, or by trustworthy authority. He affirms that he had studied astrology, and that it does not deserve to be described as a science. He ridicules the concept that the fate of a man could be dependent upon the constellations; he argues that such a theory would rob life of purpose, and would make man a slave of destiny.

TRUE BELIEFS VERSUS NECESSARY BELIEFS

In _ Guide for the Perplexed _ Book III, Chapter 28, Maimonides
Maimonides
draws a distinction between "true beliefs," which were beliefs about God that produced intellectual perfection, and "necessary beliefs," which were conducive to improving social order. Maimonides
Maimonides
places anthropomorphic personification statements about God in the latter class. He uses as an example the notion that God becomes "angry" with people who do wrong. In the view of Maimonides
Maimonides
(taken from Avicenna ), God does not become angry with people, as God has no human passions; but it is important for them to believe God does, so that they desist from doing wrong.

RESURRECTION, ACQUIRED IMMORTALITY, AND THE AFTERLIFE

Maimonides
Maimonides
distinguishes two kinds of intelligence in man, the one material in the sense of being dependent on, and influenced by, the body, and the other immaterial, that is, independent of the bodily organism. The latter is a direct emanation from the universal active intellect ; this is his interpretation of the _noûs poietikós_ of Aristotelian philosophy. It is acquired as the result of the efforts of the soul to attain a correct knowledge of the absolute, pure intelligence of God.

The knowledge of God is a form of knowledge which develops in us the immaterial intelligence, and thus confers on man an immaterial, spiritual nature. This confers on the soul that perfection in which human happiness consists, and endows the soul with immortality . One who has attained a correct knowledge of God has reached a condition of existence, which renders him immune from all the accidents of fortune, from all the allurements of sin, and from death itself. Man is in a position to work out his own salvation and his immortality.

Spinoza 's doctrine of immortality was strikingly similar. But Spinoza teaches that the way to attain the knowledge which confers immortality is the progress from sense-knowledge through scientific knowledge to philosophical intuition of all things _sub specie æternitatis_, while Maimonides
Maimonides
holds that the road to perfection and immortality is the path of duty as described in the Torah
Torah
and the rabbinic understanding of the oral law .

Religious Jews
Jews
believed in immortality in a spiritual sense, and most believed that the future would include a messianic era and a resurrection of the dead. This is the subject of Jewish eschatology
Jewish eschatology
. Maimonides
Maimonides
wrote much on this topic, but in most cases he wrote about the immortality of the soul for people of perfected intellect; his writings were usually _not_ about the resurrection of dead bodies. Rabbis of his day were critical of this aspect of this thought, and there was controversy over his true views.

Rabbinic works usually refer to this afterlife as _Olam Haba _ (the World to Come). Some rabbinic works use this phrase to refer to a messianic era, an era of history here on Earth; in other rabbinic works this phrase refers to a purely spiritual realm. During Maimonides's lifetime the debate expanded into a full-blown controversy, with Maimonides
Maimonides
charged as a heretic by some Jewish leaders.

Some Jews
Jews
at this time taught that Judaism
Judaism
did not require a belief in the physical resurrection of the dead, as the afterlife would be a purely spiritual realm. They used Maimonides's works on this subject to back up their position. In return, their opponents claimed that this was outright heresy; for them the afterlife was here on Earth, where God would raise dead bodies from the grave so that the resurrected could live eternally. Maimonides
Maimonides
was brought into this dispute by both sides, as the first group stated that his writings agreed with them, and the second group portrayed him as a heretic for writing that the afterlife is for the immaterial spirit alone.

Eventually, Maimonides
Maimonides
felt pressured to write a treatise on the subject, the "_Ma'amar Tehiyyat Hametim_" "The Treatise on Resurrection." Chapter two of the treatise on resurrection refers to those who believe that the world to come involves physically resurrected bodies. Maimonides
Maimonides
refers to one with such beliefs, as being an "utter fool" whose belief is "folly". If one of the multitude refuses to believe and prefers to believe that angels have bodies and even that they eat, since it is written (Genesis 18:8) 'they ate', or that those who exist in the World to Come will also have bodies—we won't hold it against him or consider him a heretic, and we will not distance ourselves from him. May there not be many who profess this folly, and let us hope that he will go no farther than this in his folly and believe that the Creator is corporeal.

Maimonides
Maimonides
also writes, that those who claimed that he believed the verses of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
referring to the resurrection were only allegorical, were spreading falsehoods and "revolting" statements. Maimonides
Maimonides
asserts that belief in resurrection is a fundamental truth of Judaism
Judaism
about which there is no disagreement, and that it is not permissible for a Jew to support anyone who believes differently. He cites Daniel 12:2 and 12:13 as definitive proofs of physical resurrection of the dead when they state "many of them that sleep in the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence" and "But you, go your way till the end; for you shall rest, and will arise to your inheritance at the end of the days."

While these two positions may be seen as in contradiction (non-corporeal eternal life, versus a bodily resurrection), Maimonides resolves them with a then unique solution: Maimonides
Maimonides
believed that the resurrection was not permanent or general. In his view, God never violates the laws of nature. Rather, divine interaction is by way of angels , whom Maimonides
Maimonides
often regards to be metaphors for the laws of nature, the principles by which the physical universe operates, or Platonic eternal forms. Thus, if a unique event actually occurs, even if it is perceived as a miracle, it is not a violation of the world's order.

In this view, any dead who are resurrected must eventually die again. In his discussion of the 13 principles of faith , the first five deal with knowledge of God, the next four deal with prophecy and the Torah, while the last four deal with reward, punishment and the ultimate redemption. In this discussion Maimonides
Maimonides
says nothing of a universal resurrection. All he says it is that whatever resurrection does take place, it will occur at an indeterminate time before the world to come, which he repeatedly states will be purely spiritual.

He writes "It appears to us on the basis of these verses (Daniel 12:2,13) that those people who will return to those bodies will eat, drink, copulate, beget, and die after a very long life, like the lives of those who will live in the Days of the Messiah." Maimonides
Maimonides
thus disassociated the resurrection of the dead from both the World to Come and the Messianic era.

In his time, many Jews
Jews
believed that the physical resurrection was identical to the world to come; thus denial of a permanent and universal resurrection was considered tantamount to denying the words of the Talmudic sages. However, instead of denying the resurrection, or maintaining the current dogma, Maimonides
Maimonides
posited a third way: That resurrection had nothing to do with the messianic era (here in this world) or with Olam Haba (עולם הבא) (the purely spiritual afterlife). Rather, he considered resurrection to be a miracle that the book of Daniel predicted; thus at some point in time we could expect some instances of resurrection to occur temporarily, which would have no place in the final eternal life of the righteous.

MESSIANIC ERA

Perhaps one of Maimonides's most highly acclaimed and renowned writings is his treatise on the Messianic era, written originally in Judeo-Arabic and which he elaborates on in great detail in his Commentary on the Mishnah
Mishnah
(Introduction to the 10th chapter of tractate Sanhedrin , also known as _Pereḳ Ḥeleḳ_).

MAIMONIDES ON THE MESSIANIC ERA

Mishnah
Mishnah
Commentary Tractate Sanhedrin _Pereḳ Ḥeleḳ_ (Chapter 10)

"… 'The days of the Messiah' (i.e., the Messianic Era) is a timeframe in which the kingdom shall return to Israel, and they (i.e., the people of Israel) will return to the Land of Israel, and the king who shall stand-up will establish the place of his kingdom in Zion, whose name shall be extolled and it will reach unto the ends of the earth, being greater than Solomon's kingdom, and the nations will enter a covenant of peace with him, and all lands shall serve him on account of the abundance of his righteousness, and for the wondrous things that shall be revealed through him; whosoever shall rise-up against him, the Lord will cut him off and deliver him into his hands. All of the Scriptural verses bear witness of him, and of us with him, but there is nothing which exists now that will change, excepting that the kingdom will be given over to Israel; thus have we heard it in the language used by the Sages: 'There is no difference between this world and the days of the Messiah, excepting only the subjugation of kingdoms' (San. 91b). There shall remain in his days, both, the strong and the weak, in comparison to others, only that in those days the people's livelihood will be made much easier for them, insofar that if a man should work any work no matter how short-lived, he will gain much thereby. This is that which they have spoken about, saying: 'In the future, the Land of Israel shall produce sweet-rolls of bread and clothes made of white woollen fabric' (Shab. 30b), seeing that people will say whenever a man finds something ready in abundance that so-and-so has found baked bread and a cooked dish, the proof of which being what is written: 'And the sons of the stranger shall be your field workers and vine dressers' (Isa. 61:5). Meaning, a time of ploughing and a time of reaping will be there; Wherefore, it was for this reason that that erudite man who said these things was angered at his disciple when he failed to understand their import and had thought rather that these things should be understood in their plain sense, and he was compelled to answer him in a way that he'd understand, even though that wasn't the proper response . The evidence for this, _viz_., that he didn't give him a truthful answer in accordance with what he learned of the verse, is this: 'Don't answer a foolish man in accordance with his folly' (Proverbs 26:4).

Now the greatest advantage at that time will be that we'll have rest from the subjugation of the wicked kingdom, which prevents us from performing that which God has enjoined unto us to do, while knowledge will be vastly increased, as it says: 'For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lo-rd' (Isa. 11:9). Meanwhile, battles and wars will come to an end, as it says: 'Nation shall not lift up a sword against nation' (Micha 4:3), while all those who will be in those days will attain to great perfection, by which he will merit the world to come. The Messiah will then die , and his son, and his son's son will rule after him. Now God has already described his death; he says: 'He shall not tire nor be weary, till he establish judgment in the earth: and the isles shall hope for his law' (Isa. 42:4). His kingdom shall continue for a very long time, while the lives of men will also be prolonged; for by the absence of worries and troubles they shall prolong their lives. Neither should it seem strange that his kingdom will continue for thousands of years, inasmuch as the Sages have already said that no matter how noble the things that are collected together, when they are but few that are amassed together, they will fall apart. Nevertheless, we do not desire the days of the Messiah so that our grain and possessions might increase, or so that we can mount horses, or be engaged in revelry of drink and musical instruments, as those who are confused may think. Rather, the prophets fervently desired them and the pious men longed for them because of what shall be there of the ingathering of righteous men, and of proper conduct, and wisdom, and the uprightness of the king and his great wisdom and his drawing nigh unto the Creator, just as it was said of him: 'Thou art my son, ' (Psalm 2:7), as well as the observance of the entire Law of Moses, without worries and without fear, and without constraint, just as He has promised 'And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD. For they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them' (Jer. 31:33 ); 'and I shall put my Law in their heart,' 'and I shall remove the heart of stone from your flesh' (Ezek. 36:26), and there are many similar verses that speak of such matters. It is in this manner will acquire the next world with a firm acquisition, while the desired end is the world to come, and all that comes before it is human effort.

Wherefore, he that can perceive the truth has looked at the ultimate purpose of life and has forsaken all other things, whereby He says: 'All of Israel
Israel
has a portion in the world to come.' Moreover, seeing that this is the desired end and purpose of one's life, it is not fitting that he who wishes to serve out of love should serve Him for the sole intent of attaining the next world, as we have premised earlier, but rather that he may serve Him in the manner that I shall prescribe, _viz_., that if he has already come to believe that knowledge has been imparted unto the prophets from God, and that by it (i.e., that knowledge) He has revealed to them that the virtues are such and such, and the faults are such and such, it behooves him, therefore, by reason of his being a moderate man of reason, to draw near to the virtues and to shun that which is deficient. If he has done this, Lo! He would have completed the mortal chapter , and he is then distinguished from the beasts; and since he would have become a perfect man, one of the virtues of man is that no hindrance be found that will hinder him from attaining life for his soul in what is his remaining existence through her (i.e., the soul's) consciousness, and which is the world to come as we have explained. Moreover, it is that which is said: 'Be ye not like a horse, like a mule, which has no understanding; ' (Psalm 32:9), meaning, the thing that prevents them from idleness and uncontrollable conduct is an external thing like a bit and a bridle. May a man never be like this, but rather, let his soul be what stops him from acting in such a manner, that is to say, his human form – if it were perfected, it will prevent him from whatever thing that withholds from him perfection (i.e., the betterment of his condition), which things are called deficiencies, but it will spurn him on in whatever is considered wholesome, which things are the virtues. This then is what has become clear unto me from all of their words relating to this noble matter, but things that can be easily misconstrued." -------------------------

NOTES:

* ^ Rabban Gamliel; see: Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
, _Shabbat_ 30b * ^ The Judeo-Arabic word used by Maimonides
Maimonides
is מעלומהא, or "that which is known by her (i.e., by the soul)," meaning, the _ens intelligibile_. Some translate this word as "perceived intellect." * ^ See: Mishne Torah
Torah
(_Hil. Teshuvah_, chapter 8), for more on what is meant by "the world to come." * ^ See: Mishne Torah
Torah
(_Hil. Yesodei HaTorah_ 4:8) for a discussion on the soul. Elsewhere, in _Hil. Teshuvah_ 8:3, Maimonides
Maimonides
writes: "Every 'soul' that is mentioned here in this context isn't the spirit that stands in need of a body, but rather the 'form of the soul,' which is the knowledge with which one comprehends the Creator according to its ability." See also the _Guide for the Perplexed_, part iii, the last chapter, on the fourth kind of perfection. * ^ This last addition, "but things that can be easily misconstrued," is written in Maimonides's original Judeo-Arabic text, but was omitted in the translated printed texts. Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Qafih points out the omission, and inserts it in his new translation. See: _Mishnah, with Commentary of Maimonides_ (ed. Yosef Qafih), vol. 2, Rav Kook Institute, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1963 (Hebrew)

_THE OATH OF MAIMONIDES_

The _ Oath of Maimonides _ is a document about the medical calling and recited as a substitute for the _ Oath of Hippocrates _. The _Oath_ is not to be confused with a more lengthy _Prayer of Maimonides_. These documents may not have been written by Maimonides, but later. The _Prayer_ appeared first in print in 1793 and has been attributed to Marcus Herz , a German physician, pupil of Immanuel Kant .

MAIMONIDES AND THE MODERNISTS

Maimonides
Maimonides
remains one of the most widely debated Jewish thinkers among modern scholars. He has been adopted as a symbol and an intellectual hero by almost all major movements in modern Judaism, and has proven immensely important to philosophers such as Leo Strauss ; and his views on the importance of humility have been taken up by modern humanist philosophers, including Peter Singer .

In academia, particularly within the area of Jewish Studies, the teaching of Maimonides
Maimonides
has been dominated by traditional scholars, generally Orthodox, who place a very strong emphasis on Maimonides
Maimonides
as a rationalist; one result is that certain sides of Maimonides's thought, including his opposition to anthropocentrism, have been obviated. There are movements in some postmodern circles to claim Maimonides
Maimonides
for other purposes, as within the discourse of ecotheology. Maimonides's reconciliation of the philosophical and the traditional has given his legacy an extremely diverse and dynamic quality.

Chabad and The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute focus on Maimonides's teaching that each Jew should understand his unique importance in the world.

TRIBUTES AND MEMORIALS

Plaque of Maimonides
Maimonides
at Rambam Medical Center, Haifa
Haifa
Manuscript page by Maimonides. Judeo- Arabic language
Arabic language
in Hebrew letters.

Maimonides
Maimonides
has been memorialized in numerous ways. For example, one of the Learning Communities at the Tufts University School of Medicine bears his name. There is also Maimonides School in Brookline, Massachusetts , Maimonides
Maimonides
Academy School in Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
, the Brauser Maimonides
Maimonides
Academy in Hollywood, Florida , and Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York. In 2004, conferences were held at Yale
Yale
, Florida International University , Penn State
Penn State
, and the Rambam hospital in Haifa
Haifa
, Israel, which is named after him. To commemorate the 800th anniversary of his death, Harvard University issued a memorial volume. In 1953, the Israel
Israel
Postal Authority issued a postage stamp of Maimonides, pictured. In March 2008, during the Euromed Conference of Ministers of Tourism, The Tourism Ministries of Israel, Morocco
Morocco
and Spain
Spain
agreed to work together on a joint project that will trace the footsteps of the Rambam and thus boost religious tourism in the cities of Córdoba, Fes and Tiberias
Tiberias
.

WORKS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

JUDAIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS

Maimonides
Maimonides
composed works of Jewish scholarship, rabbinic law , philosophy, and medical texts. Most of Maimonides's works were written in Judeo-Arabic . However, the _Mishneh Torah
Torah
_ was written in Hebrew. His Jewish texts were:

* _Commentary on the Mishna _ (Hebrew _Pirush Hamishnayot_, Arabic _Kitab al-Siraj_), written in Judeo-Arabic. This was the first full commentary ever written on the entire Mishnah, and it enjoyed great popularity both in its Arabic
Arabic
original and its medieval Hebrew translation. The commentary includes three philosophical introductions which were also highly influential:

* The Introduction to the Mishnah
Mishnah
deals with the nature of the oral law, the distinction between the prophet and the sage, and the organizational structure of the Mishnah. * The Introduction to Mishnah
Mishnah
Sanhedrin, chapter ten (_Perek Helek_), is an eschatological essay that concludes with Maimonides's famous creed ("the thirteen principles of the Torah"). * The Introduction to Tractate _Avot_ (popularly called _The Eight Chapters_) is an ethical treatise.

* _ Sefer Hamitzvot _ (trans. _The Book of Commandments_). In this work, Maimonides
Maimonides
lists all the 613 mitzvot traditionally contained in the Torah
Torah
(Pentateuch). He describes fourteen shorashim (roots or principles) to guide his selection. * Sefer Ha'shamad (letter of Martydom) * _Mishneh Torah
Torah
_, also known as _Sefer Yad ha-Chazaka_, a comprehensive code of Jewish law; * _ Guide for the Perplexed _, a philosophical work harmonising and differentiating Aristotle's philosophy and Jewish theology. Written in Judeo-Arabic, and completed between 1186 and 1190. The first translation of this work into Hebrew was done by Samuel ibn Tibbon in 1204. * _Teshuvot_, collected correspondence and responsa , including a number of public letters (on resurrection and the afterlife , on conversion to other faiths, and _Iggereth Teiman _ – addressed to the oppressed Jewry of Yemen ). * _Hilkhot ha-Yerushalmi_, a fragment of a commentary on the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, identified and published by Saul Lieberman in 1947.

MEDICAL WORKS

Maimonides
Maimonides
wrote ten known medical works in Arabic
Arabic
that have been translated by the Jewish medical ethicist Fred Rosner into contemporary English.

* _The Art of Cure – Extracts from Galen_ (Barzel, 1992, Vol. 5) is essentially an extract of Galen
Galen
's extensive writings. * _Commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates_ (Rosner, 1987, Vol. 2; Hebrew: פירוש לפרקי אבוקראט) is interspersed with his own views. * _Medical Aphorisms of Moses_ (Rosner, 1989, Vol. 3) titled _Fusul Musa_ in Arabic
Arabic
("Chapters of Moses," Hebrew: פרקי משה) contains 1500 aphorisms and many medical conditions are described. * _Treatise on Hemorrhoids_ (in Rosner, 1984, Vol. 1; Hebrew: ברפואת הטחורים) discusses also digestion and food. * _Treatise on Cohabitation_ (in Rosner, 1984, Vol. 1) contains recipes as aphrodisiacs and anti-aphrodisiacs. * _Treatise on Asthma_ (Rosner, 1994, Vol. 6) discusses climates and diets and their effect on asthma and emphasizes the need for clean air. * _Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes_ (in Rosner, 1984, Vol. 1) is an early toxicology textbook that remained popular for centuries. * _Regimen of Health_ (in Rosner, 1990, Vol. 4; Hebrew: הנהגת הבריאות) is a discourse on healthy living and the mind-body connection. * _Discourse on the Explanation of Fits_ advocates healthy living and the avoidance of overabundance. * _Glossary of Drug Names_ (Rosner, 1992, Vol. 7) represents a pharmacopeia with 405 paragraphs with the names of drugs in Arabic, Greek, Syrian, Persian, Berber, and Spanish.

TREATISE ON LOGIC

The _Treatise on Logic_ (Arabic: _Maqala Fi-Sinat Al-Mantiq_) has been printed 17 times, including editions in Latin
Latin
(1527), German (1805, 1822, 1833, 1828), French (1935), and English (1938), and in an abridged Hebrew form. The work illustrates the essentials of Aristotelian logic to be found in the teachings of the great Arabic philosophers such as Avicenna and, above all, Al-Farabi , "the Second Master," the "First Master" being Aristotle
Aristotle
. In his work devoted to the Treatise, Rémi Brague stresses the fact that Al-Farabi is the only philosopher mentioned therein. This indicates a line of conduct for the reader, who must read the text keeping in mind Al-Farabi's works on logic. In the Hebrew versions, the Treatise is called _The words of Logic_ which describes the bulk of the work. The author explains the technical meaning of the words used by logicians. The Treatise duly inventories the terms used by the logician and indicates what they refer to. The work proceeds rationally through a lexicon of philosophical terms to a summary of higher philosophical topics, in 14 chapters corresponding to Maimonides's birthdate of 14 Nissan. The number 14 recurs in many of Maimonides's works. Each chapter offers a cluster of associated notions. The meaning of the words is explained and illustrated with examples. At the end of each chapter, the author carefully draws up the list of words studied.

Until very recently, it was accepted that Maimonides
Maimonides
wrote the _Treatise on logic_ in his twenties or even in his teen years. Herbert Davidson has raised questions about Maimonides's authorship of this short work (and of other short works traditionally attributed to Maimonides). He maintains that Maimonides
Maimonides
was not the author at all, based on a report of two Arabic-language manuscripts, unavailable to Western investigators in Asia Minor. Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Kafih maintained that it is by Maimonides
Maimonides
and newly translated it to Hebrew (as _Beiur M'lekhet HaHiggayon_) from the Judeo-Arabic.

SEE ALSO

* Iggeret Teman (_Epistle to Yemen_) * Al-Farabi * Thomas Aquinas * Averroes
Averroes
* Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain
Spain
* Maimonides Foundation * Mishne Torah
Torah

NOTES

* ^ " Moses
Moses
Maimonides
Maimonides
- Jewish philosopher, scholar, and physician". * ^ "Hebrew Date Converter - 14th of Nisan, 4895 - Hebcal Jewish Calendar". * ^ "Hebrew Calendar". * ^ "Hebrew Date Converter - 14th of Nisan, 4898 - Hebcal Jewish Calendar". * ^ Goldin, Hyman E. _Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
– Code of Jewish Law_, Forward to the New Edition. (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1961) * ^ "H-Net". * ^ " Maimonides
Maimonides
Islamic Influences". _Plato_. Stanford. * ^ "Isaac Newton: "Judaic monotheist of the school of Maimonides"". Achgut.com. 2007-06-19. Retrieved 2010-03-13. * ^ "Maimonides". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _. * ^ Maimonides: Abū ʿImrān Mūsā ibn ʿUbayd Allāh al‐Qurṭubī www.islamsci.mcgill.ca * ^ A Biographical and Historiographical Critique of Moses Maimonides
Maimonides
Archived May 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ S. R. Simon (1999). " Moses
Moses
Maimonides: medieval physician and scholar". _Arch Intern Med_. 159 (16): 1841–5. PMID 10493314 . doi :10.1001/archinte.159.16.1841 . * ^ Athar Yawar Email Address (2008). "Maimonides's medicine". _The Lancet_. 371 (9615): 804. doi :10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60365-7 . * ^ Davidson, pp. 6–9, 18. If the traditional birth date of 14 Nisan is not correct, then a date in 1136 or 1137 is also possible. * ^ Joel E. Kramer, " Moses
Moses
Maimonides: An Intellectual Portrait," p. 47 note 1. In Kenneth Seeskin, ed. (September 2005). _The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides_. ISBN 9780521525787 . * ^ 1138 in Stroumsa, _ Maimonides
Maimonides
in His World: Portrait of a Mediterranean Thinker_, Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 8 * ^ Sherwin B. Nuland (2008), _Maimonides_, Random House LLC, p. 38 * ^ " Moses
Moses
Maimonides
Maimonides
biography - Jewish philosopher, scholar, and physician". Retrieved 2015-06-04. * ^ Gedaliah ibn Yahya ben Joseph , _Shalshelet Ha-Kabbalah_ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1962, p. ק; but in PDF p. 109 (Hebrew) * ^ Abraham Zacuto
Abraham Zacuto
, _Sefer Yuchasin_, Cracow
Cracow
1580 (Hebrew), p. 261 in PDF, which reads: "... I saw in a booklet that the Ark of God, even Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses
Moses
b. Maimon, of blessed memory, had been taken up (i.e. euphemism for "had died"), in the year ,965 anno mundi (= 1204/5 CE) in Egypt, and the Jews
Jews
wept for him – as did the Egyptians – three days, and they coined a name for that time of year, , 'there was wailing,' and on the seventh day , the news reached Alexandria, and on the eighth day, Jerusalem, and in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
they made a great public mourning and called for a fast and public gathering, where it was that the prayer precentor read out the admonitions, 'If you shall walk in my statutes ' (Leviticus 26:3-ff.), as well as read the concluding verse , 'And it came to pass that Samuel spoke to all of Israel
Israel
,' and he then concluded by saying that the Ark of God had been taken away. Now after certain days they brought up his coffin to the Land of Israel, during which journey thieves encountered them, causing those who had gone up to flee, leaving there the coffin. Now the thieves, when they saw that they had all fled, they desired to have the coffin cast into the sea, but were unable with all their strength to uproot the coffin from the ground, even though they had been more than thirty men, and when they considered the matter, they then said to themselves that he was a godly and holy man, and so they went their way. However, they gave assurances to the Jews
Jews
that they would escort them to their destination, and so it was that they also accompanied him and HE WAS BURIED IN TIBERIAS." * ^ Stroumsa, _ Maimonides
Maimonides
in His World: Portrait of a Mediterranean Thinker_, Princeton University Press, 2009, p.65 * ^ Strousma, _ Maimonides
Maimonides
in His World_, pp.66–67 * ^ Abraham Heschel, _Maimonides_ (New York: Farrar Strauss, 1982), Chapter 15, "Meditation on God," pp. 157–162. * ^ _A_ _B_ 1954 _Encyclopedia Americana_, vol. 18, p. 140. * ^ _A_ _B_ A.K. Bennison; M.A. Gallego García (2008). "Jewish Trading in Fez on the Eve of the Almohad Conquest" (PDF). * ^ Y. K. Stillman, ed. (1984). "Libās". _Encyclopaedia of Islam _. 5 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 744. ISBN 90-04-09419-9 . * ^ "Jewish Virtual Library". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2012-09-19. * ^ Stroumsa (2009), _ Maimonides
Maimonides
in His World_, p.59 * ^ Seder HaDoros (year 4927) quotes Maimonides
Maimonides
as saying that he began writing his commentary on the Mishna when he was 23 years old, and published it when he was 30. Because of the dispute about the date of Maimonides's birth, it is not clear which year the work was published. * ^ Davidson, p. 29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Goitein, S.D. _Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders_, Princeton University Press, 1973 (ISBN 0-691-05212-3 ), p. 208 * ^ Cohen, Mark R. _Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt_. Princeton University Press, 2005 (ISBN 0-691-09272-9 ), pp. 115–116 * ^ The "India Trade" (a term devised by the Arabist S.D. Goitein) was a highly lucrative business venture in which Jewish merchants from Egypt, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East imported and exported goods ranging from pepper to brass from various ports along the Malabar Coast between the 11th–13th centuries. For more info, see the "India Traders" chapter in Goitein, _Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders,_ 1973 or Goitein, _India Traders of the Middle Ages,_ 2008. * ^ Goitein, _Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders_, p. 207 * ^ Cohen, _Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt_, p. 115 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Julia Bess Frank (1981). " Moses
Moses
Maimonides: rabbi or medicine" . _The Yale
Yale
Journal of Biology and Medicine_. 54 (1): 79–88. PMC 2595894  _. PMID 7018097 . * ^ A_ _B_ _C_ Fred Rosner (2002). "The Life of Moses
Moses
Maimonides, a Prominent Medieval Physician" (PDF). _Einstein Quart J Biol Med_. 19 (3): 125–128. * ^ Gesundheit B, Or R, Gamliel C, Rosner F, Steinberg A (April 2008). "Treatment of depression by Maimonides
Maimonides
(1138–1204): Rabbi, Physician, and Philosopher" (PDF). _Am J Psychiatry_. 165 (4): 425–428. PMID 18381913 . doi :10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07101575 . * ^ Abraham Heschel, _Maimonides_ (New York: Farrar Strauss, 1982), Chapter 15, "Meditation on God," pp. 157–162, and also pp. 178–180, 184–185, 204, etc. Isadore Twersky, editor, _A Maimonides Reader_ (New York: Behrman House, 1972), commences his "Introduction" with the following remarks, p. 1: "Maimonides's biography immediately suggests a profound paradox. A philosopher by temperament and ideology, a zealous devotee of the contemplative life who eloquently portrayed and yearned for the serenity of solitude and the spiritual exuberance of meditation, he nevertheless led a relentlessly active life that regularly brought him to the brink of exhaustion." * ^ _ Responsa Pe’er HaDor_, 143. * ^ Such views of his works are found in almost all scholarly studies of the man and his significance. See, for example, the "Introduction" sub-chapter by Howard Kreisel to his overview article " Moses
Moses
Maimonides," in _History of Jewish Philosophy_, edited by Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman, Second Edition (New York and London: Routledge, 2003), pp. 245–246. * ^ Click to see full English translation of Maimonides\'s "Epistle to Yemen" * ^ The comment on the effect of his "incessant travail" on his health is by Salo Baron, " Moses
Moses
Maimonides," in _Great Jewish Personalities in Ancient and Medieval Time_, edited by Simon Noveck (B'nai B'rith Department of Adult Jewish Education, 1959), p. 227, where Baron also quotes from Maimonides's letter to Ibn Tibbon regarding his daily regime. * ^ _The Life of Maimonides_ jnul.huji.ac.il, Jewish National and University Library * ^ hsje.org Amiram Barkat, "The End of the Exodus from Egypt" Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine ., _Haaretz_ (Israel), 21 April 2005 * ^ אגרות הרמב"ם מהדורת שילת * ^ Sarah E. Karesh; Mitchell M. Hurvitz (2005). _Encyclopedia of Judaism_. Facts on File. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-8160-5457-2 . * ^ H. J. Zimmels (1997). _Ashkenazim and Sephardim: Their Relations, Differences, and Problems as Reflected in the Rabbinical Responsa_ (Revised ed.). Ktav Publishing House. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-88125-491-4 . * ^ Isidore Twersky, _Introduction to the Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah)_, Yale
Yale
Judaica Series, vol. XII (New Haven and London: Yale
Yale
University Press, 1980). passim, and especially Chapter VII, "Epilogue," pp. 515–538. * ^ This is covered in all histories of the Jews. E.g., including such a brief overview as Cecil Roth, _A History of the Jews_, Revised Edition (New York: Schocken, 1970), pp. 175–179. * ^ D.J. Silver, _Maimonidean Criticism and the Maimonidean Controversy, 1180–1240_ (Leiden: Brill, 1965), is still the most detailed account. * ^ David Hartman, _Maimonides: Torah
Torah
and Philosophic Quest_ (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1976), p. 98. * ^ On the extensive philosophical aspects of Maimonides's halakhic works, see in particular Isidore Twersky's _Introduction to the Code of Maimonides
Maimonides
(Mishneh Torah)_, Yale
Yale
Judaica Series, vol. XII (New Haven and London: Yale
Yale
University Press, 1980). Twersky devotes a major portion of this authoritative study to the philosophical aspects of the Mishneh Torah
Torah
itself. * ^ The Maimunist or Maimonidean controversy is covered in all histories of Jewish philosophy and general histories of the Jews. For an overview, with bibliographic references, see Idit Dobbs-Weinstein, "The Maimonidean Controversy," in _History of Jewish Philosophy_, Second Edition, edited by Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman (London and New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 331–349. Also see Colette Sirat, _A History of Jewish Philosophy
Philosophy
in the Middle Ages_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 205–272. * ^ Mercedes Rubio (2006). _Aquinas and Maimonides
Maimonides
on the possibility of the knowledge of god_. Springer-Verlag . ISBN 978-1-4020-4720-6 . doi :10.1007/1-4020-4747-9_2 . * ^ Vivian McAlister, _Maimonides's cooling period and organ retrieval_ ( Canadian Journal of Surgery 2004; 47: 8 - 9) * ^ "The Thirteen Principles of Jewish Faith". _www.chabad.org_. * ^ See, for example: Marc B. Shapiro . _The Limits of Orthodox Theology: Maimonides' Thirteen Principles Reappraised_. Littman Library of Jewish Civilization (2011). pp. 1–14. * ^ Siegelbaum, Chana Bracha (2010) _Women at the crossroads : a woman\'s perspective on the weekly Torah
Torah
portion_ Gush Etzion: Midreshet B'erot Bat Ayin. ISBN 9781936068098 page 199 * ^ Last section of Maimonides's Introduction to Mishneh Torah * ^ "Avkat Rochel ch. 32". * ^ Moses
Moses
Maimonides, _The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290_, at 269–71 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967). * ^ Leslie, Donald. _The Survival of the Chinese Jews; The Jewish Community of Kaifeng_. Tʻoung pao, 10. Leiden: Brill, 1972, p. 157 * ^ Pollak, Michael. _Mandarins, Jews, and Missionaries: The Jewish Experience in the Chinese Empire_. The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1980, p. 413 * ^ Pollak, _Mandarins, Jews, and Missionaries_, pp. 297–298 * ^ "Hebrew Source of Maimonides\'s Levels of Giving with Danny Siegel\'s translation" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-19. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Guide to the Perplexed". World Digital Library. Retrieved 22 January 2013. * ^ Moses
Moses
Maimonides
Maimonides
(2007). _The Guide to the Perplexed_. BN Publishers. * ^ Joseph Jacobs. " Moses
Moses
Ben Maimon". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-03-13. * ^ Shlomo Pines (2006). " Maimonides
Maimonides
(1135–1204)". _Encyclopedia of Philosophy_. 5: 647–654. * ^ Isadore Twersky (2005). "Maimonides, Moses". _Encyclopedia of Religion_. 8: 5613–5618. * ^ Joel E. Kramer, " Moses
Moses
Maimonides: An Intellectual Portrait," p. 45. In Kenneth Seeskin, ed. (September 2005). _The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides_. ISBN 9780521525787 . * ^ Rudavsky, T. (March 2010). _Maimonidies_. Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4051-4898-6 . * ^ "Guide for the Perplexed, on". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2010-03-13. * ^ See: Maimonides's _Ma'amar Teḥayyath Hamethim_ (Treatise on the Resurrection of the Dead), published in _Book of Letters and Responsa_ (ספר אגרות ותשובות), Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1978, p. 9 (Hebrew). According to Maimonides, certain Jews
Jews
in Yemen had sent to him a letter in the year 1189, evidently irritated as to why he had not mentioned the physical resurrection of the dead in his _Hil. Teshuvah_, chapter 8, and how that some persons in Yemen had begun to instruct, based on Maimonides's teaching, that when the body dies it will disintegrate and the soul will never return to such bodies after death. Maimonides
Maimonides
denied that he ever insinuated such things, and reiterated that the body would indeed resurrect, but that the "world to come" was something different in nature. * ^ Commentary on the Mishna, Avot 5:6 * ^ "Oath and Prayer of Maimonides". Library.dal.ca. Retrieved 2010-03-13. * ^ " Maimonides
Maimonides
– His Thought Related to Ecology in The Encyclopedia of Religion
Religion
and Nature". * ^ Evans, Whitney (January 3, 2015). " Jews
Jews
look for ways to keep their heritage alive". Salt Lake City, Utah. Deseret News. Retrieved 5 January 2015. Part of Rabbi
Rabbi
Zippel's work is to help educate each Jew about his or her unique importance. "Every individual is obligated to look at oneself and say to him or herself, 'The entire universe was created for my sake,'" Zippel said, paraphrasing the Jewish philosopher Maimonides. "Not in terms of arrogance, God forbid, but on the contrary, in terms of both liability and responsibility. … The world was created for my sake. It is up to me to get the job done." * ^ Rubenstein, Mindy (December 9, 2014). "Worldwide Celebration: Completing Maimonides’s Mishneh Torah
Torah
Worldwide Celebration: Completing Maimonides’s Mishneh Torah". Retrieved 5 January 2015. Shared with them that they had the opportunity to learn the whole Torah,” said Bruk, co-director of Chabad Lubavitch of Montana. "They persevered and made it through." In fact, the four men—the rabbi and three community members—committed to studying a chapter a day for three years to get through the oral and written Torah, all the mitzvot in detail, along with hundreds of thousands of Jewish men, women and children around the world who also chose to take on this monumental task. * ^ David MOrris. "Major Grant Awarded to Maimonides". _Florida Jewish Journal_. Archived from the original on July 30, 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-13. * ^ " Harvard University
Harvard University
Press: Maimonides
Maimonides
after 800 Years : Essays on Maimonides
Maimonides
and his Influence by Jay M. Harris". Hup.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2010-03-13. * ^ Shelly Paz (8 May 2008) Tourism Ministry plans joint project with Morocco, Spain. _The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post_ * ^ Kehot Publication Society, Chabad.org. * ^ Volume 5 translated by Barzel (foreword by Rosner). * ^ Title page, TOC. * ^ "כתבים רפואיים - ג (פירוש לפרקי אבוקראט) / משה בן מימון (רמב"ם) / ת"ש-תש"ב - אוצר החכמה". * ^ Maimonides. _Medical Aphorisms (Treatises 1-5 6-9 10-15 16-21 22-25)_, Brigham Young University , Provo - Utah
Utah
* ^ "כתבים רפואיים - ב (פרקי משה ברפואה) / משה בן מימון (רמב"ם) / ת"ש-תש"ב - אוצר החכמה". * ^ "כתבים רפואיים - ד (ברפואת הטחורים) / משה בן מימון (רמב"ם) / ת"ש-תש"ב - אוצר החכמה". * ^ Title page, TOC. * ^ "כתבים רפואיים - א (הנהגת הבריאות) / משה בן מימון (רמב"ם) / ת"ש-תש"ב - אוצר החכמה". * ^ Title page, TOC. * ^ Abraham Heschel, _Maimonides_. New York: Farrar Strauss, 1982 p. 22 ("at sixteen") * ^ Davidson, pp. 313 ff. * ^ "באור מלאכת ההגיון / משה בן מימון (רמב"ם) / תשנ"ז - אוצר החכמה".

REFERENCES

* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Joseph Jacobs , Isaac Broydé , The Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, and Jacob Zallel Lauterbach (1901–1906). " Moses
Moses
Ben Maimon". In Singer, Isidore ; et al. Jewish Encyclopedia _. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Uriel Barzel (1992). _Maimonides\'s Medical Writings: The Art of Cure Extracts_. 5. Galen: Maimonides
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Research Institute. * Davidson, Herbert A. (2005). _ Moses
Moses
Maimonides: The Man and his Works_. Oxford University Press. * Feldman, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yaakov (2008). _Shemonah Perakim: The Eight Chapters of the Rambam_. Targum Press . * Fox, Marvin (1990). _Interpreting Maimonides_. Univ. of Chicago Press. * Julius Guttman (1964). David Silverman, ed. _Philosophies of Judaism_. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. * Moshe Halbertal (2013). _Maimonides: Life and Thought_. Princeton University Press. * David Hartman (1976). _Maimonides: Torah
Torah
and Philosophic Quest_. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. * Abraham Joshua Heschel
Abraham Joshua Heschel
(1982). _Maimonides: The Life and Times of a Medieval Jewish Thinker_. New York: Farrar Strauss. * Isaac Husik (2002) . _A History of Jewish Philosophy_. Dover Publications, Inc. Originally published by the Jewish Publication of America, Philadelphia. * Aryeh Kaplan (1994). " Maimonides
Maimonides
Principles: The Fundamentals of Jewish Faith". _The Aryeh Kaplan Anthology_. Mesorah Publications, Ltd. I. * Leaman, Daniel H.; Leaman, Frank; Leaman, Oliver (2003). _History of Jewish Philosophy_ (Second ed.). London and New York: Routledge. See especially chapters 10 through 15. * Kellner, Menachem (1986). _Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought_. London: Oxford University press. * Kohler, George Y. (2012). "Reading Maimonides's Philosophy
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in 19th Century Germany". _Amsterdam Studies in Jewish Philosophy_. Springer. 15. * Kraemer, Joel L. (2008). _Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization's Greatest Minds_. Doubleday . * Fred Rosner (1984–1994). _Maimonides's Medical Writings_. 7 Vols. Maimonides
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Research Institute. (Volume 5 translated by Uriel Barzel; foreword by Fred Rosner.) * Seidenberg, David (2005). " Maimonides
Maimonides
– His Thought Related to Ecology". _The Encyclopedia of Religion
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and Nature_. Continuum Press. * Shapiro, Marc B. (1993). " Maimonides
Maimonides
Thirteen Principles: The Last Word in Jewish Theology?". _The Torah
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Maimonides
and His Interpreters_. Scranton (PA): University of Scranton Press. * Sirat, Colette (1985). _A History of Jewish Philosophy
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in the Middle Ages_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See chapters 5 through 8. * Leo Strauss (1988). _Persecution and the Art of Writing_. University of Chicago Press. reprint * Strauss, Leo (1974). Shlomo Pines, ed. _How to Begin to Study the Guide: The Guide of the Perplexed - Maimonides_ (in Arabic). 1. University of Chicago Press. * Hart Green, Kenneth (2013). _ Leo Strauss on Maimonides: The Complete Writings_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. * Stroumsa, Sarah (2009). _ Maimonides
Maimonides
in His World: Portrait of a Mediterranean Thinker_. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13763-3 . * Isadore Twersky (1980). "Introduction to the Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah". _ Yale
Yale
Judaica Series_. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. XII. * Twersky, Isadore (1972). I Twersky, ed. _A Maimonides
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Reader_. New York: Behrman House. * Gerrit Bos (2007). _Maimonides. Medical Aphorisms Treatise 1-5 (6-9, 10-15, 16-21, 22-25)_. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press. * Gerrit Bos (2002). _Maimonides. On Asthma (vol.1, vol.2)_. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press.

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