HOME
The Info List - Mahavira



--- Advertisement ---


MAHAVIRA (Mahāvīra), also known as VARDHAMāNA, was the twenty-fourth _ Tirthankara _ (ford maker) of Jainism . In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira was born in early part of the 6th-century BC into a royal family in what is now Bihar , India . At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening , abandoned all worldly possessions, and became an ascetic . For the next twelve-and-a-half years, Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities, after which he is believed to have attained _ Kevala Jnana _ (omniscience). He preached for 30 years, and is believed by Jains to have died in the 6th-century BC. Outside the Jain tradition, scholars such as Karl Potter consider his biographical details as uncertain, with some suggesting he lived in the 5th-century BC contemporaneously with the Buddha . Mahavira died at the age of 72, and his remains were cremated.

After he gained _Kevala Jnana_, Mahavira taught that the observance of the vows _ahimsa _ (non-violence), _satya _ (truth), _asteya _ (non-stealing), _brahmacharya _ (chastity) and _aparigraha _ (non-attachment) is necessary to spiritual liberation. He gave the principle of _ Anekantavada _ (many sided reality), _Syadvada_ and _Nayavada_. The teachings of Mahavira were compiled by Gautama Swami (his chief disciple) and were called _ Jain Agamas _. These texts were transmitted by an oral tradition by Jain monks, but are believed to have been largely lost by about the 1st-century when they were first written down. The surviving versions of the _Agamas_ taught by Mahavira are some of the foundational texts of Jainism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Titles and names * 2 Historical Mahavira

* 3 Biography per Jain traditions

* 3.1 Birth * 3.2 Early life * 3.3 Renunciation * 3.4 Omniscience * 3.5 Disciples * 3.6 Nirvāṇa, death * 3.7 Previous births * 3.8 Ascetic lineage * 3.9 Sources

* 4 Teachings

* 4.1 Jain _Agamas_ * 4.2 Five vows * 4.3 Soul * 4.4 _Anekantavada_ * 4.5 Gender * 4.6 Rebirth and realms of existence

* 5 Legacy

* 5.1 Festivals * 5.2 Adoration * 5.3 Influence * 5.4 Iconography * 5.5 Temples * 5.6 In popular culture

* 6 See also * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Citations * 8.2 Sources

* 9 External links

TITLES AND NAMES

According to Paul Dundas , a professor of Sanskrit known for his publications on Jainism, the earliest layer of Jain literature such as the _Acaranga Sutra_ makes no mention of the names Vardhamana or Mahavira, nor the equivalent of "fordmaker". The term _Jina_ for him is rare in early Jain texts.

The first book of _Sutrakritanga_ uses the name Mahavira. The early Jain and Buddhist literature that has survived into the modern era uses other names or epithets for Mahavira. These include _Nayaputta_, _Muni_, _Samana_, _Niggantha_, _Brahman_ and _Bhagavan_. In early Buddhist _Suttas_, he is also referred to by the names _Araha_ (meaning "worthy"), and _Veyavi_ (derived from the word "Vedas", but contextually it means "wise" because the Mahavira did not recognize the Vedas as a scripture). Buddhist texts refer to Mahavira as _Nigaṇṭha Jñātaputta_. _Nigaṇṭha_ means "without knot, tie, or string" and _Jñātaputta_ (son or scion of _Natas_), refers to his clan of origin as _Jñāta_ or _Naya_ ( Prakrit ). He is also known as _ Sramana _, states the Jain text _Kalpasutras_, because he is "devoid of love and hate".

According to later Jain texts, Mahavira's childhood name was _Vardhamāna_ ("the one who grows"), because of the increased prosperity in the kingdom at the time of his birth. According to the _Kalpasutras_, he was called Mahavira ("the great hero") by the gods because he stood steadfast in the midst of dangers and fears, hardships and calamities. Mahavira is also called a _ Tirthankara _.

HISTORICAL MAHAVIRA

According to the _Kalpasutra_, Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in present-day Bihar, India. This is assumed to be the modern town of Basu Kund, which is about 60 kilometres (37 miles) north of Patna , the capital of Bihar. However, it is unclear if the ancient Kundagrama is same as the current assumed location, and the birthplace remains a subject of dispute. Mahavira renounced all his material wealth and left his home when he was 28 by some accounts, or 30 by others, then lived ascetic life and performed severe austerities for 12 years, and thereafter preached Jainism for a period of 30 years. The location he preached has been a subject of historic disagreement between the two major sub-traditions of Jainism – the Svetambaras and the Digambaras .

Though it is universally accepted by scholars of Jainism that Mahavira was an actual person who lived in ancient India, the details of Mahavira's biography and the year of his birth are uncertain, and a subject of considerable debate among scholars. The Jain _Śvētāmbara_ tradition believes he was born in 599 BC and he died in 527 BC, while the Digambara tradition believes 510 BC as the year he died. The scholarly controversy arises from efforts to date him and the Buddha, because both are believed to be contemporaries according to Buddhist and Jain texts, and because unlike Jain literature there is extensive ancient Buddhist literature that has survived. Almost all Indologists and historians, state Dundas and others, accordingly date Mahavira's birth to about 497 BC, and death to about 425 BC. However, the _Vira era _ tradition that starts in 527 BC and places Mahavira in the 6th-century BC is a firmly established part of the Jain community tradition.

The 12th-century Jain scholar Hemachandra placed Mahavira in the 5th-century BC. According to Kailash Jain, Hemachandra made an incorrect analysis that, along with attempts to establish Buddha's nirvana date, has been a source of confusion and controversy about Mahavira's year of nirvana. Kailash Jain states the traditional date of 527 BC is accurate, adding that the Buddha was a junior contemporary of the Mahavira and that the Buddha "might have attained nirvana a few years later". The place of his death, Pavapuri (now in Bihar), is a pilgrimage site for Jains.

BIOGRAPHY PER JAIN TRADITIONS

See also: Panch Kalyanaka

According to the Jain texts, twenty-four _Tirthankaras_ have appeared on earth in the current time cycle of Jain cosmology . Mahavira was the last _Tirthankara_ of _ Avasarpiṇī _ (present descending phase or half of the time cycle). A _ Tirthankara _ (Maker of the River-Crossing, saviour, spiritual teacher) signifies the founder of a _tirtha _ which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable cycles of births and deaths (called _saṃsāra _). In Jain cosmology, twenty-four Tirthankaras appear in every time cycle, Mahavira was the 24th for the current cycle.

BIRTH

See also: Mahavir Jayanti The Birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sutra, c.1375–1400

Belonging to _Kashyapa gotra _, Mahavira was born into the royal _ Kshatriya _ family of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala of the Ikshvaku dynasty . This is the same solar dynasty in which Hindu Epics place Rama and the _ Ramayana _, the Buddhist texts place the Buddha in, and the Jains attribute another twenty-one of their twenty-four Tirthankaras over millions of years.

According to Digambara Jains, Mahavira was born in 582 BC. According to the Svetambara Jain texts, he was born in 599 BC. Mahavira's birthday, in the traditional calendar, falls on the thirteenth day of the rising moon in the month of _ Chaitra _ in the _Vira Nirvana Samvat _ calendar. In the Gregorian calendar , this date falls in March or April and is celebrated as _ Mahavir Jayanti _ by Jains.

The _Kalpasutra_, a popular text in Jainism, cites Kundagrama as the place he was born. This site is believed by the tradition to be near Vaishali, a great ancient town in the Gangetic plains. The identity of this place in modern geography of Bihar is unclear, in part because people migrated out of ancient Bihar for economic and political reasons. According to the "Universal History" in the Jain mythology, states Dundas, Mahavira underwent many rebirths before his birth in the 6th century. These rebirths included being a hell-being, a lion, and a god (_deva _) in a heavenly realm in Jain cosmology just before his last birth as the 24th fordmaker. His embryo was first formed in a Brahman woman, but his embryo was then transferred by the divine commander of Indra's army Hari-Naigamesin to the womb of _Trishala_, the wife of Siddhartha. The embryo transfer legend is accepted by the _Svetambara_ tradition, but the _Digambaras_ don't accept this theory of embryo transfer.

After Mahavira was born, Jain texts state that god Indra came from the heavens, anointed him and performed his _abhisheka _ (consecration) on Mount Meru . These events associated with Mahavira's birth are illustrated in the artwork of numerous Jain temples and is a part of modern Jain temple rituals. The _Kalpa sutras_ describing Mahavira's birth legends are recited by the Svetambara Jains during annual festivals such as Paryushana , but the same festival is observed by Digambaras without the recitation.

EARLY LIFE

Mahavira grew up as a prince. According to the second chapter of the _Śvētāmbara_ text _ Acharanga Sutra _, both his parents were followers of Parshvanatha and lay devotees. Jain traditions do not agree whether Mahavira ever married. According to the _Digambara_ tradition, Mahavira's parents wanted him to marry Yashoda but Mahavira refused to marry. According to the _Śvētāmbara_ tradition, he was married to Yashoda at a young age and had one daughter, Priyadarshana, also called Anojja.

Jain texts portray Mahavira as a very tall man, with his height stated to be seven cubits (10.5 feet ) in _Aupapatika Sutra_. In Jain mythology, he was the shortest of the 24 Tirthankaras, with earlier teachers believed to be much taller, with the 22nd Tirthankara Aristanemi stated to be forty cubits tall (60 feet) who lived for 1,000 years.

RENUNCIATION

See also: Jain monasticism

At the age of thirty, Mahavira abandoned the comforts of royal life and left his home and family to live an ascetic life in the pursuit of spiritual awakening. He undertook severe austerities of fasting and bodily mortifications, meditated under the Ashoka tree and discarded his clothes. There is a graphic description of his hardships and humiliation in the _Acharanga Sutra_. According to _ Kalpa Sūtra _, Mahavira spent the first 42 monsoons of his life at Astikagrama, Champapuri , Prstichampa, Vaishali, Vanijagrama, Nalanda , Mithila , Bhadrika, Alabhika, Panitabhumi, Shravasti and Pawapuri . He is said to have lived in Rajagriha during the rainy-season of 41st year of his ascetic life. This is traditionally dated in 491 BC.

OMNISCIENCE

See also: Kevala Jnana and Samavasarana _ Attainment of omniscience (kevalajñāna_) by Mahavira

After twelve years of rigorous penance, at the age of 43, Mahavira achieved the state of _ Kevala Jnana _ (omniscience or infinite knowledge) under a Sāla tree according to traditional accounts. The details of this event are mentioned in Jain texts like _Uttar-purāņa_ and _Harivamśa-purāņa_. The _Acharanga Sutra_ describes Mahavira as all-seeing. The _ Sutrakritanga _ elaborates the concept as all-knowing and provides details of other qualities of Mahavira. Jains believe that Mahavira had the most auspicious body (_paramaudārika śarīra_) and was free from eighteen imperfections when he attained omniscience. _Śvētāmbara_ believe that Mahavira traveled throughout in India to teach his philosophy for 30 years after gaining omniscience. _Digambara_ however claim that after attaining omniscience, he sat fixed in his _ Samavasarana _ giving sermons to his followers.

DISCIPLES

The Jain texts state that Mahavira's first disciples were 11 Brahmins , who traditionally are called the 11 _Ganadharas_. Gautama was their chief. Others were Agnibhuti, Vayubhuti, Akampita, Arya Vyakta, Sudharman , Manditaputra, Mauryaputra, Acalabhraataa, Metraya and Prabhasa. Mahavira's disciples are said to be led by Gautama after him, who later is said to have made Sudharman his successor. These 11 Brahmin-Ganadharas as the early followers were responsible for remembering and verbally transmitting the teachings of the Mahavira after his death, which came to be known as _Gani-Pidaga_ or Jain Agamas.

According to the Jain tradition, Mahavira had 14,000 _muni _ (male ascetics), 36,000 _aryika _ (nuns), 159,000 _sravakas _ (laymen) and 318,000 _sravikas_ (laywomen) as his followers. Some of the royal followers included King Srenika (popularly known as Bimbisara ) of Magadha , Kunika of Anga and Chetaka of Videha . Mahavira initiated the mendicants with the _Mahavratas_ (Five vows). He delivered 55 _pravachana _ and answered 36 unasked questions (_ Uttaraadhyayana-sutra _).

The Mahavira's teachings were gradually lost after around 300 BC, according to the Jain tradition, when a severe famine in the Magadha region of ancient India caused a scattering of the Jain monks. Thereafter, attempts were made by Jain monks to gather again, co-recite the canon and re-establish it in its entirety. These efforts identified differences between recitations of the Mahavira's teachings, and an attempt was made in the 5th century AD to reconcile the differences. However, the reconciliation efforts failed, with Svetambara and Digambara Jain traditions continuing on with their own incomplete, somewhat different versions of the Mahavira's teachings. In the early centuries of the common era, Jain texts containing Mahavira's teachings were written down on palm leaf manuscripts .

NIRVāṇA, DEATH

Jal Mandir marking Mahavira's nirvana at Pawapuri

Jains believe Mahavira attained omniscience at the age of 42, under a Sala tree on the banks of River Rijupalika near Jrimbhikagrama. He preached, then died at the age of 72. The Jain _Śvētāmbara_ tradition believes his death occurred in 527 BC, while the _Digambara_ Jain tradition believes this happened in 510 BC. His _jiva_ (soul) is believed in all Jain traditions to be in _ Siddhashila _ (abode of the liberated souls).

According to Jain texts, Mahavira's _nirvana_ (death) occurred in the town of Pawapuri ( Bihar ). His life as a spiritual light and the night of his nirvana is remembered by Jains as _ Diwali _ on the same night Hindu's celebrate their festival of lights. On the same night that Mahavira's died, his chief disciple Gautama is said to have attained omniscience.

The accounts of his death vary by the Jain text. Some texts describe a simple death, but others describe grandiose celebrations attended by gods and kings. According to the Jinasena 's Mahapurana , the heavenly beings arrived to perform his funeral rites. Yet in others, he is described at age 72 to be giving his final preaching over six days to a large crowd of people. Everyone falls asleep, he disappears, only his nails and hair remain and his followers cremate these.

Today, a Jain temple called Jal Mandir stands at the place of Mahavira's _nirvana_, also known as _moksha_. Jaina artwork in temples and texts depicts the final liberation and cremation of Mahavira, sometimes symbolically shown as a miniature pyre of sandalwood and a piece of burning camphor.

PREVIOUS BIRTHS

Mahavira's previous births are discussed in Jain texts such as the _Mahapurana_ and _Tri-shashti-shalaka-purusha-charitra_. While a soul undergoes countless reincarnations in the transmigratory cycle of _saṃsāra _ (world), the births of a _Tirthankara_ are reckoned from the time he determined the _causes of karma _ and developed the _ Ratnatraya _. Jain texts discuss twenty-six births of Mahavira before his incarnation as a _Tirthankara_. As per the texts, Mahavira was born as Marichi , the son of Bharata Chakravartin , in one of his previous births.

ASCETIC LINEAGE

Mahavira has been mistakenly called the founder of Jainism. For the Jains, there were 23 teachers before the Mahavira, and they believe that Jainism was founded in far more ancient times than that of the Mahavira, who they revere as the 24th Tirthankara. The first 22 Tirthankara are placed in mythical times. For example, the 22nd Tirthankara Arishtanemi is believed in the Jain tradition to have been born 84,000 years before the 23rd Tirthankara named Parshvanatha . Mahavira is sometimes placed within Parshvanatha lineage, but this is contradicted by all Jain texts which state that Mahavira renounced the world alone.

Jain texts suggest that Mahavira's parents were lay devotees and followers of Parshvanatha. However, the lack of details and mythical nature of the legends about Parshvanatha, combined with medieval era Svetambara texts portraying Parsvites as "pseudo-ascetics" with "dubious practices of magic and astrology" have led scholars to debate the evidence for Parshvanatha's historicity. Regardless of scholarly speculations, according to Dundas, Jains believe that Parshvanatha lineage influenced Mahavira. Parshvanatha, as the one who "removes obstacles and has the capacity to save", has been a highly popular icon and his image the greatest focus of Jain devotional activity in temples. Of the 24 Tirthankaras, the Jain iconography has celebrated Mahavira and Parshvanatha the most since the earliest times, with sculptures discovered at the Mathura archeological site that have been dated to 1st-century BCE by modern dating methods.

According to Moriz Winternitz , Mahavira may be considered as a reformer of a pre-existing sect of Jainas called _Niganthas_ (fetter-less) that is mentioned in early Buddhist texts.

SOURCES

_ Folio from Kalpa Sūtra , 15th century

* Tiloya-paṇṇatti _ of Yativṛṣabha discusses almost all of the events connected with the life of Mahavira in a form convenient to memorise. * _Acharya_ Jinasena's _Mahapurāṇa _ include _ Ādi purāṇa _ and _Uttara-purāṇa _. It was completed by his disciple _Acharya_ Gunabhadra in the 8th century. In _Uttara-purāṇa_ the life of Mahavira is described in three _parvans_ (74–76) in 1818 verses. * _Vardhamacharitra_ is a Sanskrit _kāvya_ (poem) that describe the life of Mahavira written by Asaga in 853. * _ Kalpa Sūtra _ is biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira. * _ Samavayanga Sutra _ is a collection of texts containing Lord Mahavira’s teachings * _ Acharanga Sutra _ describes the penance of Mahavira.

TEACHINGS

Main article: Jain philosophy

The colonial era Indologists, for a long time, considered Jainism and Mahavira's followers as a sect of Buddhism because of the superficial similarities in their iconography, meditative and ascetic practices. However, as studies and understanding progressed, the differences between the teachings of the Mahavira and the Buddha were found to be so markedly divergent that the two gained recognition as separate religions. Mahavira, states Moriz Winternitz, taught a "very elaborate belief in the soul" unlike the Buddhists who denied it, the ascetic practices in his teachings have been of a higher order of magnitude than those found in Buddhism or Hinduism, and his emphasis on Ahimsa (non-violence) against all life forms is far greater than the teachers in all other Indian religions.

JAIN _AGAMAS_

Main article: Jain Agamas

Mahavira's teachings were compiled by his _ Ganadhara _ (chief disciple), Gautama Swami . The sacred canonical scriptures had twelve parts. According to the _Digambaras_, _Āchārya _ Bhutabali was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. Later, some learned _Āchāryas_ started to restore, compile and write down the teachings of Mahavira that were the subject matter of _Agamas_. _Āchārya_ Dharasena, in 1st century CE, guided _Āchārya_ Pushpadant and _Āchārya_ Bhutabali, to write down these teachings. The two _Āchāryas_ wrote on palm leaves, _Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama _—among the oldest known _Digambara_ Jaina texts.

FIVE VOWS

Main article: Ethics of Jainism Jain emblem and the "Five Vows"

Jain _Agamas_ prescribe five major _vratas_ (vows) that both ascetics and householders have to follow. These ethical principles were preached by Mahavira:

* _ Ahimsa _ (Non-violence or Non-injury). Mahavira taught that every living being has sanctity and dignity of its own and it should be respected just as one expects one's own sanctity and dignity to be respected. _Ahimsa_ is formalised into Jain doctrine as the first and foremost vow. The concept applies to action, speech and thought. * _ Satya _ (Truthfulness)—neither lie, nor speak what is not true, do not encourage others or approve anyone who speaks the untruth. * _ Asteya _ — Non-stealing. Theft is explained as "taking anything that has not been given". * _ Brahmacharya _ (Chastity), abstinence from sex and sensual pleasures for Jain monks, faithfulness to one's partner for Jain householders. * _ Aparigraha _ (Non-attachment) — the attitude of non-attachment to property or worldly possessions for layperson, not owning anything for mendicants.

The goal of these principles is to achieve spiritual peace, better rebirth or ultimately liberation. According to Chakravarthi, these teachings help elevate the quality of life. In contrast, states Dundas, the emphasis of Mahavira on non-violence and restraint has been interpreted by some Jain scholars to "not be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which ultimately effects spiritual release.

Of these precepts, Mahavira is most remembered in the Indian traditions for his teachings of _ahimsa_ (non-injury) as the supreme ethical and moral virtue. Mahavira taught that the doctrine of non-injury must cover all living beings, and causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. According to Mahatma Gandhi , Mahāvīra was the greatest authority on _Ahimsa_.

SOUL

Main article: Jīva (Jainism)

Mahavira taught that soul exists, a premise that Jainism shares with Hinduism, but disagrees on with Buddhism. According to Buddhism, there is no soul or self, and it premises its teachings on the concept of anatta . In contrast, Mahavira taught that the soul is permanent and eternal with respect to _dravya_ (substance). Mahavira additionally taught that the soul is also impermanent with respect to _paryaya_ (modes that originate and vanish).

To Mahavira, the metaphysical nature of the universe consists of _dravya_, _jiva_ and _ajiva_. The _jiva_ gets attached and bound to _samsara_ (wordly realms of suffering and existence), because of _karma _ (activity). The _karma_, in Jainism, includes both actions and intent, and it colors (_lesya_) the soul, its particles stick to the soul affecting how, where and what the soul is instantaneously reborn into after a being dies.

There is no creator God, according to Mahavira's teachings, and the existence has neither beginning nor end. However, there are gods and demons in Jain beliefs, whose _jivas_ are a part of the same cycles of births and deaths depending on the accumulated karmic particles. The goal of spiritual practice is to liberate the _jiva_ from all karmic accumulation, and thus enter the realm of the _siddhas_ who are never reborn again. Enlightenment, to Mahavira, is the consequence of a process of self-cultivation and self-restraint.

_ANEKANTAVADA_

Main article: Anekantavada

Mahavira taught the doctrine of "many sided reality". This doctrine is now known as _Anekantavada_ or _Anekantatva_. This term does not appear in the earliest layer of Jain literature or the Jain Agamas, but the doctrine is illustrated in the answers of Mahavira to questions his followers asked. According to Mahavira, truth and reality are complex and always have multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to totally express it with language. Human attempts to communicate are _Naya_, or "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth, but a means and attempt to express Truth. From Truth, according to Mahavira, language returns and not the other way around. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot fully express that taste through language. Any attempt to express the experience is _syāt_, or valid "in some respect" but still remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced.

The _Anekantavada_ premises of the Mahavira are also summarized in Buddhist texts such as in _ Samaññaphala Sutta _, where in he is called Nigantha Nataputta. The _Anekantavada_ doctrine is another key difference between the teachings of the Mahavira and those of the Buddha. The Buddha taught the Middle Way, rejecting extremes of the answer "it is" or "it is not" to questions. The Mahavira, in contrast, accepted both "it is" and "it is not", with "perhaps" qualification and with reconciliation.

The Jain Agamas suggest that Mahavira's approach to answering all metaphysical philosophical questions was a "qualified yes" (_syāt_). A version of this doctrine is also found in the Ajivika tradition of ancient Indian philosophies.

In contemporary times, according to Paul Dundas, the _Anekantavada_ doctrine has been interpreted by many Jains as intending to "promote a universal religious tolerance", and a teaching of "plurality" and "benign attitude to other positions", but this is problematic and a misreading of Jain historical texts and Mahavira's teachings. The "many pointedness, multiple perspective" teachings of the Mahavira is a doctrine about the nature of Reality and human existence, and it was not a doctrine about tolerating religious positions such as on sacrificing or killing animals for food, violence against disbelievers or any other living being as "perhaps right". The Five vows for Jain monks and nuns, for example, are strict requirements and there is no "perhaps". Beyond the renunciant Jain communities, while Mahavira's Jainism co-existed with Buddhism and Hinduism over the history, according to Dundas, each were also "highly critical of the knowledge systems and ideologies of their rivals".

GENDER

One of the historically contentious views within Jainism is in part attributed to Mahavira and his ascetic life where he never wore any clothes as a mark of disowning everything (interpreted as a consequence of the Fifth vow of _Aparigraha_). The disputes triggered by this teaching of Mahavira are those related to gender and whether a female mendicant (_sadhvi_) can achieve spiritual liberation just like a male mendicant (_sadhu_) through Jain ascetic practices.

The main sub-traditions of Jainism have historically disagreed, with Digambaras (sky clad, naked mendicant order) stating that a woman is by her nature and her body unable to practice asceticism, such as by living naked, and therefore she cannot achieve spiritual liberation, because of her gender. She can at best, state the Digambara texts, live an ethical life so that she is reborn as a man in a future life. In this view, she is also viewed a threat to a monk's chastity. In contrast, Svetambaras (white clad, wear clothes) have disagreed and have interpreted Mahavira's teaching as encouraging both males and females to pursue a mendicant ascetic life with the possibility of _moksha_ (_kaivalya_, spiritual liberation) regardless of gender.

REBIRTH AND REALMS OF EXISTENCE

Main article: Saṃsāra (Jainism)

Rebirth and realms of existence are foundational teachings of Mahavira. According to the _Acaranga Sutra_, Mahavira comprehended life to exist in myriad forms, such as animals, plants, insects, water bodies, fire bodies, wind bodies, elemental forms and others. He taught that a monk should avoid touching or disturbing any one of them including plants, never swim in water, nor light up fire or extinguish it, nor thrash arms in the air as such actions can torment or hurt other beings that live in those states of matter.

Mahavira preached that the nature of existence is cyclic, where the _jiva_ (soul) of beings is reborn after death in one of the _triloka_ – heavenly, hellish or earthly realms of existence and suffering. Human beings are reborn, according to Mahavira, depending on one's karma (actions) as a human, animal, element, microbe and other forms on earth, or in a heavenly or hellish state of existence. Nothing is permanent, everyone including gods, demons and beings on the earthly realms die and are reborn again based on their karma merits and demerits. It is the Jina who have reached Kevala Jnana who are not reborn again, and attain the _Siddhaloka_ or the "Realm of the Perfected Ones".

LEGACY

FESTIVALS

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2017)_

The two major annual festivals in Jainism associated with Mahavira are _Mahavir-Jayanti_ and _Diwali_.

* Mahavir Jayanti : It celebrates the birth of Mahavira, twenty-fourth and last _ Tirthankara _ (Teaching God) of _Avasarpiṇī _. In Mahavir Jayanti, the five auspicious events (_Kalyaans_) of Mahavira's life are re-enacted by Jain. * Diwali : Diwali marks the anniversary of _ Nirvana _ or liberation of Mahavira's soul, the twenty fourth and last Jain Tirthankara of present cosmic age . It is celebrated at the same time as the Hindu festival of Diwali . Diwali marks the New Year for the Jain group and it likewise remembers the passing commemoration of their 24th Tirthankara Mahavira and his achievement of moksha.

ADORATION

_ Mahavira adoration in a Manuscript, ca. 1825 CE

* Svayambhustotra_ by _Acharya_ Samantabhadra is the adoration of twenty-four _Tirthankaras_. Its eight _shlokas _ (aphorisms) adore the qualities of Mahavira. One such _shloka_ is:

O Lord Jina! Your doctrine that expounds essential attributes required of a potential aspirant to cross over the ocean of worldly existence (_Saṃsāra _) reigns supreme even in this strife-ridden spoke of time (_Pancham Kaal_). Accomplished sages who have invalidated the so-called deities that are famous in the world, and have made ineffective the whip of all blemishes, adore your doctrine.

* _Yuktyanusasana_ by _Acharya_ Samantabhadra is a poetic work consisting of sixty-four verses in praise of Mahavira.

INFLUENCE

Mahavira's teachings influenced many personalities. Rabindranath Tagore wrote:

Mahavira proclaimed in India, the message of salvation, that religion is a reality and not a mere social convention, that salvation comes from taking refuge in the true religion and not from observing the external ceremonies of the community, that religion cannot regard any barriers between man and man as an eternal variety. Wonderous to say, this teaching rapidly over topped the barriers of the race abiding instinct and conquered the whole county. —  Rabindranath Tagore The Mahavira iconography is recognized by the lion stamped or carved below his feet. On his chest is a Shrivatsa mark, found on other Jinas as well.

A major event is associated with the 2,500th anniversary of the _Nirvana_ of Mahavira in 1974. According to Padmanabh Jaini :

Probably few people in the West are aware that during this Anniversary year for the first time in their long history, the mendicants of the _Śvētāmbara_, _Digambara_ and _ Sthānakavāsī _ sects assembled on the same platform, agreed upon a common flag (Jaina _dhvaja_ ) and emblem (_pratīka_); and resolved to bring about the unity of the community. For the duration of the year four _dharma cakras_, a wheel mounted on a chariot as an ancient symbol of the _samavasaraṇa_ (Holy Assembly) of _Tīrthaṅkara_ Mahavira traversed to all the major cities of India, winning legal sanctions from various state governments against the slaughter of animals for sacrifice or other religious purposes, a campaign which has been a major preoccupation of the Jainas throughout their history. —  Padmanabh Jaini

ICONOGRAPHY

Mahavira is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture with the symbol of a lion beneath him. Every _Tīrthankara_ has a distinguishing emblem that allows worshippers to distinguish similar-looking idols of the _Tirthankaras_. The lion emblem of Mahavira is usually carved below the legs of the _Tirthankara_. Like all _Tirthankaras_, Mahavira is depicted with _ Shrivatsa _ and downcast eyes.

The earliest iconography for Mahavira are from archeological sites in the north Indian city of Mathura . These are variously dated from the 1st-century BC to 2nd-century AD. The use of the _srivatsa_ mark on Mahavira's chest, along with him in _dhyana-mudra_ posture, appears in Kushana Empire era art works. The differences in the Mahavira artworks between the Digambara and Svetambara traditions appear in the late 5th-century AD and thereafter. According to John Cort, the earliest archeological evidence of Jina iconography with inscriptions precedes its datable texts by more than 250 years.

An image of Mahavira at the State Museum Lucknow is dated to 1007 AD, while the one at Parshvanatha temple, Kumbharia , is dated to 1179 AD. Another image dated v.s. 1212 is installed at Vimala Vasahi , Mount Abu . An ancient sculpture of Mahavira was found in a cave at Sundarajapuram, Theni district , Tamil Nadu . K Ajithadoss, a Jain scholar based in Chennai, dated the sculpture to the 9th century AD.

*

Rock cut sculpture depicting Mahavira at Samanar Hills , Madurai , Tamil Nadu *

The highest known image of Lord Mahavira (in seated position) *

Four sided sculpture depicting Mahavira (found during excavation at Kankali Tila , Mathura ) *

_Tirthankara_ Rishabhanatha (left) and Mahavira (right), British Museum , 11th century *

Temple relief of Mahavira, Seattle Asian Art Museum , 14th century

*

Relief depicting Mahavira ( Thirakoil , Tamil Nadu ) *

16 ft. 2 inch single stone statue of Mahavira at Ahinsa Sthal , Mehrauli , New Delhi *

Mahavira Statue in Cave 32 of Ellora Caves

TEMPLES

According to John Cort , the Mahavira temple at Osian, Jodhpur , Rajasthan is the oldest Jain temple surviving in western India. It was constructed in the late eighth century CE. Other temples of Mahavira include:

* Jal Mandir , Pawapuri * Shri Mahavirji , Karauli , Rajasthan * Muchhal Mahavir Temple , Rajasthan * Sankighatta , Karnataka * Lakkundi Jain Temple in Lakkundi * Rata Mahaveerji , Bijapur, Rajasthan * Bhandavapur Jain Tirth

*

Shri Dharmachakra Prabhav Tirth, Gajpanth *

Meguti Jain Temple *

Lakkundi Jain Temple *

Shri Mahavirji *

Osian Jain temple *

Sankighatta, Karnataka *

Gaon mandir, Pawapuri *

Daman Jain Temple

IN POPULAR CULTURE

_Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence _ is an illustrated children’s story based upon the life of Mahavira.

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAHAVIRA _.

* Jainism portal

* Arihant (Jainism) * God in Jainism * History of Jainism * Timeline of Jainism

NOTES

* ^ Heinrich Zimmer: "The cycle of time continually revolves, according to the Jainas. The present "descending" (avasarpini) period was preceded and will be followed by an "ascending" (utsarpini). Sarpini suggests the creeping movement of a "serpent" ('sarpin'); ava- means "down" and ut- means up." * ^ Trishala was the sister of King Chetaka of Vaishali in ancient India. * ^ This mythology has similarities with those found in the mythical texts of the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism. * ^ On this Champat Rai Jain wrote- "Of the two versions of Mahavira's life — the Swetambara and the Digambara— it is obvious that only one can be true: either Mahavira married, or he did not marry." * ^ Not to be confused with _Kevalajnana_ (omniscience), which he achieved at age 42. * ^ _Samaññaphala Sutta_, D i.47: "Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold restraint. Just as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold restraint. The thought occurred to me: 'How can anyone like me think of disparaging a brahman or contemplative living in his realm?' Yet I neither delighted in Nigantha Nataputta's words nor did I protest against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left." * ^ According to Melton and Baumann, the Digambaras state that "women's physical and emotional character makes it impossible for them to genuinely engage in the intense path necessary for spiritual purification. (...) Only by being reborn as a man can a woman engage in the ascetic path. Later Digambara secondary arguments appealed to human physiology in order to exclude women from the path: by their very biological basis, women constantly generate and destroy (and therefore harm) life forms within their sexual organs. Svetambara oppose this view by appealing to scriptures." * ^ A special symbol that marks the chest of a _Tirthankara_. The yoga pose is very common in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. Each tradition has had a distinctive auspicious chest mark that allows devotees to identify a meditating statue to symbolic icon for their theology. There are several _srivasta_ found in ancient and medieval Jain art works, and these are not found on Buddhist or Hindu art works.

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Potter 2007 , pp. 35–36. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 22, Quote: " Mahavira died aged seventy-two at the town of Pava in what is now the state of Bihar. His body was cremated, with the gods taking his bones to heavens and his ashes being distributed throughout the Ganges region".. * ^ Suresh K. Sharma; Usha Sharma (2004). _Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Jainism_. Mittal Publications. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-7099-957-7 . , Quote: "The body of Mahavira was cremated in Pava, and to this day the town of Pava, in the province of Bihar is the holy ground for his followers." * ^ Sharma & Khanna 2013 , p. 18. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Dundas 2002 , p. 25. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , pp. 24–25. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 25–26. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Winternitz 1993 , p. 408. * ^ _A_ _B_ Zimmer 1953 , p. 223. * ^ von Dehsen 2013 , p. 29. * ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , p. 31. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Heehs 2002 , p. 93. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , p. 32. * ^ Doniger 1999 , p. 682. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Taliaferro & Marty 2010 , p. 126. * ^ Chaudhary, Pranava K (14 October 2003), "Row over Mahavira’s birthplace", _The Times of India _, Patna * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Doniger 1999 , p. 549. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 3. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Dundas 2002 , p. 24. * ^ Rapson 1955 , pp. 155–156. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 69–70, 587–588. * ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , pp. 74–85. * ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , pp. 84–88. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Zimmer 1953 , p. 224. * ^ Jain & Upadhye 2000 , p. 54. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 181. * ^ Upinder Singh 2016 , pp. 312–313. * ^ _Britannica Tirthankar Definition_, Encyclopaedia Britannica * ^ Sunavala 1934 , p. 52. * ^ George M. Williams 2008 , pp. 52, 71. * ^ Evola 1996 , p. 15. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , pp. 220–226. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , pp. 15–17. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Wiley 2009 , p. 6. * ^ Dowling & Scarlett 2006 , p. 225. * ^ Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 313. * ^ Gupta & Gupta 2006 , p. 1001. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Dundas 2002 , p. 21. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 21, 26. * ^ Mills, Claus & Diamond 2003 , p. 320, note: Indra is referred to as Sakra in some Indian texts.. * ^ Olivelle 2006 , pp. 397 footnote 4. * ^ Mills, Claus & Diamond 2003 , p. 320. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , p. 22. * ^ Jain & Fischer 1978 , pp. 5–9. * ^ Dalal 2010 , p. 284. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 30. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 99, Quote: "According to the Digambara sect, Mahavira did not marry, while the Svetambaras hold a contrary belief.". * ^ Shanti Lal Jain 1998 , p. 51. * ^ Champat Rai Jain 1939 , p. 97. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 188. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 95. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ George 2008 , p. 319. * ^ Jacobi 1964 , p. 269. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wiley 2009 , pp. 5–7. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 30. * ^ Sen 1999 , p. 74. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 27. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 327. * ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , p. 79. * ^ Jain & Upadhye 2000 , p. 30. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 30, 327. * ^ Jain & Upadhye 2000 , p. 31. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2016b , p. 5. * ^ _A_ _B_ Upinder Singh 2016 , p. 314. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wiley 2009 , pp. 6–8, 26. * ^ George 2008 , p. 326. * ^ Heehs 2002 , p. 90. * ^ _A_ _B_ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 39. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Caillat & Balbir 2008 , p. 88. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wiley 2009 , pp. 6–8. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , pp. 30–31. * ^ _A_ _B_ Doniger 1999 , p. 549-550. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , pp. 29–31, 205–206, QUOTE: "At the end of almost thirty years of preaching, he died in the chancellory of King Hastipala of Pavapuri and attained Nirvana.". * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 222. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 22-24. * ^ _A_ _B_ Melton & Baumann 2010 , p. 897. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , p. 328. * ^ Pramansagar 2008 , p. 38–39. * ^ "Destinations : Pawapuri". Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation . * ^ Jain & Fischer 1978 , pp. 14, 29–30. * ^ Wiley 2009 , p. 5. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 226. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Dundas 2002 , pp. 30–33. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 220. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , pp. 16–17. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , pp. 9–11. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 25–32, 120–122, 166–171, 189–192. * ^ Jain & Upadhye 2000 , p. 45. * ^ Jain & Upadhye 2000 , p. 46. * ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1991 , p. 59. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 19. * ^ Jain & Upadhye 2000 , p. 47. * ^ _A_ _B_ Winternitz 1993 , pp. 408–409. * ^ Cort 2010 , p. 225. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. xi. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. xii. * ^ Sangave 2006 , p. 67. * ^ Shah, Umakant Premanand , _ Mahavira Jaina teacher_, Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shah, Pravin K (2011), _Five Great Vows (Maha-vratas) of Jainism_, Harvard University Literature Center * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012 , p. 68. * ^ Long 2009 , p. 101-102. * ^ Long 2009 , p. 109. * ^ Cort 2001 , pp. 26–27. * ^ Appleton 2014 , pp. 20–45. * ^ Adams 2011 , p. 22. * ^ Chakravarthi 2003 , p. 3–22. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , pp. 88–89, 257–258. * ^ Jain & Jain 2002 , p. 13. * ^ Titze 1998 , p. 4. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Taylor 2008 , pp. 892–894. * ^ Phyllis Granoff (1992). "The violence of non-violence: a study of some Jain responses to non-Jain religious practices". _The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies_. 15 (1). * ^ Pandey 1998 , p. 50. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nanda 1997 , p. 44. * ^ _Great Men\'s view on Jainism_, Jainism Literature Center

* ^ Anatta, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013), QUOTE: " Anatta in Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying soul. The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (“the self”)."; Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5 , page 64; QUOTE: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; Bruno Nagel (2000), Roy Perrett (editor), Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112 , page 33, QUOTE: "The dispute with Buddhists, who do not accept an imperishable Self, gives the Atman schools a chance to articulate the intellectual aspects of their way to meditative liberation". * ^ _A_ _B_ Charitrapragya 2004 , pp. 75–76. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 99–103. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 90–99. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 91–92, 104–105. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Charitrapragya 2004 , pp. 75–79. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 229–231. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jain philosophy, IEP, Mark Owen Webb, Texas Tech University * ^ Samaññaphala Sutta, Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1997) * ^ Matilal 1998 , pp. 128–135. * ^ Matilal 1990 , pp. 301–305. * ^ Balcerowicz 2015 , pp. 205–218. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dundas 2002 , pp. 232–234. * ^ Long 2009 , pp. 98–106. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 233. * ^ Long 2009 , pp. 36–37. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harvey 2014 , pp. 182–183. * ^ Melton & Baumann 2010 , p. 1396. * ^ _A_ _B_ Arvind Sharma 1994 , pp. 135–138. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 55–59. * ^ Chapelle 2011 , pp. 263–270. * ^ Dundas 2002 , pp. 41–42, 90–93. * ^ _A_ _B_ Long 2009 , pp. 179–181. * ^ Gorski 2008 , pp. 125–128. * ^ Gupta, K.R. (2006). _Concise Encyclopaedia of India_. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 1001. ISBN 9788126906390 . Retrieved 6 May 2017.

* ^ George 2008 , p. 394. * ^ Bhalla, Kartar Sing (2005). _Let\'s Know Festivals of India_. Star Publications. p. 13. ISBN 9788176501651 . Retrieved 6 May 2017. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015 , p. 164–169. * ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015 , p. 165. * ^ Gokulchandra Jain 2015 , p. 84. * ^ Jaini 2000 , p. 31. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 192. * ^ Zimmer 1953 , p. 225. * ^ von Glasenapp 1925 , pp. 426-428. * ^ Jainism: Jinas and Other Deities, VVictoria and Albert Museum, London * ^ Melton & Baumann 2010 , p. 1553. * ^ _A_ _B_ Umakant P. Shah 1995 , pp. 15–17. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 273-275. * ^ Cort 2010 , pp. 48-49. * ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987 , p. 193. * ^ Saju, M T (3 October 2015), "Ancient Mahavira sculpture found in cave near Theni", _The Times of India _, Chennai * ^ Titze 1998 , p. 266. * ^ Cort 1998 , p. 112. * ^ "New Children\'s Book Mahavira: The Hero of Nonviolence by Wisdom Tales Press", _PRLog_, 30 June 2014

SOURCES

* Adams, Simon (2011), _The Story of World Religions_, The Rosen Publishing Group , ISBN 978-1-4488-4791-4 * Appleton, Naomi (2014), _Narrating Karma and Rebirth: Buddhist and Jain Multi-Life Stories_, Cambridge University Press , ISBN 978-1-107-03393-1 * Balcerowicz, Piotr (2015), _Early Asceticism in India: Ājīvikism and Jainism_, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-317-53853-0 * Caillat, Colette ; Balbir, Nalini (1 January 2008), _Jaina Studies_ (in Prakrit), Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-3247-3 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * Charitrapragya, Samani (2004), Sethia, Tara, ed., _Ahimsā, Anekānta, and Jaininsm_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-2036-4

* Chakravarthi, Ram-Prasad (2003), "Non-violence and the other A composite theory of multiplism, heterology and heteronomy drawn from Jainism and Gandhi", _Angelaki_, 8 (3): 3–22, doi :10.1080/0969725032000154359 * Chapelle, Christopher (2011), Murphy, Andrew R., ed., _The Blackwell Companion to Religion and Violence_, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-4443-9573-0 * Cort, John E. , ed. (1998), _Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History_, SUNY Press , ISBN 0-7914-3785-X * Cort, John E. (2001), _Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India_, Oxford University Press , ISBN 0-19-513234-3 * Cort, John E. (2010), _Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History_, Oxford University Press , ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1 * Dalal, Roshen (2010), _The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths_, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6 * Doniger, Wendy , ed. (1999), _Encyclopedia of World Religions_, Merriam-Webster , ISBN 0-87779-044-2 * Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Scarlett, W. George, eds. (2006), _Encyclopedia of Religious and Spiritual Development_, Sage Publications , ISBN 0-7619-2883-9 * Dundas, Paul (2002) , _The Jains_ (Second ed.), Routledge , ISBN 0-415-26605-X * Evola, Julius (1996), _The Doctrine of Awakening: The Attainment of Self-Mastery According to the Earliest Buddhist Texts_, Inner Traditions, ISBN 978-0-89281-553-1 * George, Vensus A. (2008), _Paths to the Divine: Ancient and Indian_, XII, The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy , ISBN 978-1-56518-248-6 * Gorski, Eugene F. (2008), _Theology of Religions: A Sourcebook for Interreligious Study_, Paulist Press, ISBN 978-0-8091-4533-1 * Gupta, K.R.; Gupta, Amita (2006), _Concise Encyclopaedia of India_, 3, Atlantic Publishers & Dis, ISBN 978-81-269-0639-0 * Harvey, Graham (2014) , _Religions in Focus: New Approaches to Tradition and Contemporary Practices_, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-93690-8 * Heehs, Peter (2002), _Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience_, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85065-497-1 * Jacobi, Hermann (1964), Max Muller (The Sacred Books of the East Series, Volume XXII), ed., _Jaina Sutras (Translation)_, Motilal Banarsidass (Original: Oxford University Press) * Jain, Champat Rai (1939), _The Change of Heart_, _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jain, Gokulchandra (2015), _Samantabhadrabhāratī_ (1st ed.), Budhānā , Muzaffarnagar : Achārya Shāntisāgar Chani Smriti Granthmala , ISBN 978-81-90468879 * Jain, Hiralal; Jain, Dharmachandra (1 January 2002), _Jaina Tradition in Indian Thought_, ISBN 9788185616841 * Jain, Hiralal; Upadhye, Adinath Neminath (2000) , _Mahavira, his times and his philosophy of life_, Bharatiya Jnanpith * Jain, Jyotindra; Fischer, Eberhard (1978), _Jaina Iconography_, BRILL Academic, ISBN 90-04-05259-3 * Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), _Lord Mahāvīra and His Times_, Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 * Jain, Shanti Lal (1998), _ABC of Jainism_, Bhopal (M.P.): Jnanodaya Vidyapeeth, ISBN 81-7628-000-3 * Jain, Vijay K. (2012), _Acharya Amritchandra\'s Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation_, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5 , _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jain, Vijay K. (2015), _Acarya Samantabhadra\'s Svayambhustotra: Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara_, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-7-6 , archived from the original on 16 September 2015, _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jain, Vijay K. (2016). _Ācārya Samantabhadra’s Ratnakarandaka-śrāvakācāra: The Jewel-casket of Householder\'s Conduct_. Vikalp Printers . ISBN 81-903639-9-9 . _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * Jaini, Padmanabh S. (2000), _Collected Papers on Jaina Studies_, Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-1691-9 * Long, Jeffery D. (2009), _Jainism: An Introduction_, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 978-0-8577-3656-7 * Matilal, Bimal Krishna (1990), _Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0717-4 * Matilal, Bimal Krishna (1998), Ganeri, Jonardon; Tiwari, Heeraman, eds., _The Character of Logic in India_, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3739-1 * Melton, J. Gordon ; Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010), _Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices_, One: A-B (Second ed.), ABC-CLIO , ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3 * Mills, Margaret A.; Claus, Peter J. ; Diamond, Sarah , eds. (2003), _Kalpa Sutra (by Jerome Bauer) in South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia_, Routledge , ISBN 0-415-93919-4 * Nanda, R. T. (1997), _Contemporary Approaches to Value Education in India_, Regency Publications, ISBN 978-81-86030-46-2 * Olivelle, Patrick (2006), _Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE_, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-977507-1 * Pandey, Janardan (1998), _Gandhi and 21st Century_, ISBN 9788170226727 * Potter, Karl H. (2007), Dalsukh Malvania and Jayendra Soni, ed., _Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies_, X: Jain Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 81-208-3169-1 * Pramansagar, Muni (2008), _Jain Tattvavidya_, India : Bhartiya Gyanpeeth , ISBN 978-81-263-1480-5 * Rapson, E.J. (1955), _The Cambridge History of India_, Cambridge University Press * Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2001). _Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture_. Mumbai : Popular Prakashan . ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2 . * Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2006) , _Aspects of Jaina religion_ (5 ed.), Bharatiya Jnanpith , ISBN 81-263-1273-4 * Sen, Shailendra Nath (1999) , _Ancient Indian History and Civilization_ (2nd ed.), New Age International, ISBN 81-224-1198-3 * Shah, Umakant Premanand (1987), _Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana: Jaina iconography_, Abhinav Publications , ISBN 81-7017-208-X * Shah, Umakant Premanand (1995), _Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah_, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8 * Sharma, Arvind (1994), _Religion and Women_, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1689-1 * Sharma, Arvind; Khanna, Madhu (2013), _Asian Perspectives on the World\'s Religions_, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0-313-37897-3 * Singh, Upinder (2016), _A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century_, Pearson Education , ISBN 978-93-325-6996-6 * Sunavala, A.J. (1934), _Adarsha Sadhu: An Ideal Monk_ (First paperback edition, 2014 ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-62386-6 * Taliaferro; Marty (2010), _A dictionary of philosophy of Religion_, ISBN 978-1-4411-1197-5 * Taylor, Bron (2008), _Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature_, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1-4411-2278-0 * Titze, Kurt (1998), _Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence_ (2 ed.), Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 978-81-208-1534-6 * von Dehsen, Christian (13 September 2013), _Philosophers and Religious Leaders_, Routledge , ISBN 978-81-208-1376-2 * von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1925), _Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation_, Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass (Reprinted 1999), ISBN 81-208-1376-6 * Wiley, Kristi L. (2009), _The A to Z of Jainism_, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 978-0-8108-6821-2 * Williams, George M. (2008), _Handbook of Hindu Mythology_, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2 * Winternitz, Moriz (1993), _History of Indian Literature: Buddhist & Jain Literature_, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0265-0 * Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) , Campbell, Joseph , ed., _Philosophies Of India_, London , E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia _ article _MAHāVīRA _.

* _ Quotations related to Mahavira at Wikiquote * Harvard Pluralism Project: Jainism

* v * t * e

God in Jainism

Arihant ; Siddha ; Pañca-Parameṣṭhi

TIRTHANKARA _

*