Marathi: [məharaːʂʈrə] ( listen), abbr. MH) is a
state in the western region of
India and is India's second-most
populous state and third-largest state by area. Spread over
307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi), it is bordered by the
Arabian Sea to the west and the Indian states of Karnataka, Telangana,
Goa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh,
Madhya Pradesh and the
Union territory of
Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It is also the world's second-most populous
subnational entity. It has over 112 million inhabitants and its
capital, Mumbai, has a population of approximately 18 million.
Nagpur is Maharashtra's second capital as well as its winter
Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters
and also the most industrialized state in India. The state contributes
about 25% of the country's industrial output and 23.2% of its GDP
Maharashtra is the largest state-economy in
₹19.86 lakh crore (US$300 billion) in gross domestic product.
As of 2017, the GDP per capita reduced to ₹165,000 (US$2,500).
Mumbai, also known as Bombay (the official name until 1995), has been
the capital of
Maharashtra since the day it was formed. The major
rivers of the state are the
Godavari and the Krishna. The Narmada and
Tapti Rivers flow near the border between
Maharashtra and Madhya
Pradesh and Gujarat.
Maharashtra is the third most urbanised state
among major states in India. Ancient and medieval Maharashtra
was ruled by the
Satavahana dynasty, Kadambas, Rashtrakuta dynasty,
Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates, Mughals and Marathas
respectively. Ruins, monuments, tombs, forts and places of worship
left by these rulers are dotted around the state. They include the
World Heritage Sites of the
Ajanta caves and Ellora caves. There are
also numerous forts associated with the life of Shivaji Maharaj.
3 Geography and climate
5 Regions, divisions and districts
7 Government and politics
10 Education and social development
10.2 Primary and secondary level
10.3 Tertiary level
10.4 Vocational Training
12.3 Music and dance
12.8.1 Indigenous sports
14 See also
16 External links
Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri
Prakrit, and the word Marhatta (later used for the Marathas) is
found in the
Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra,
Maharashtri, Marathi and
Maratha may have derived from the same root.
However, their exact etymology is uncertain. The
states that in 246 BC Maharatta is mentioned as one of the places
to which Mauryan emperor
Ashoka sent an embassy, and Maharashtraka is
recorded in a Chalukyan inscription of 580 CE as including three
provinces and 99,000 villages. But the Marathas as a people do not
seem to be mentioned before the thirteenth or fourteenth
century.[better source needed]
The most widely accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that
Maharashtra ultimately derived from a
combination of Maha (Marathi: महा) and rashtrika (Marathi:
राष्ट्रिका). the name of a tribe or dynasty of
petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that
the term is derived from Maha ("great") and ratha / rathi (chariot /
charioteer), which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that
migrated southward into the area.
An alternative theory states that the term derives from the word Maha
("great") and Rashtra ("nation/dominion"). However, this theory is
somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the
Sanskritised interpretation of later writers.
History of Maharashtra
History of Maharashtra and
See also: Chronology of statehood of Maharashtra
Chalcolithic sites belonging to the
Jorwe culture (c. 1300–700 BCE)
have been discovered throughout the state.
Maharashtra was ruled by the
Maurya Empire in the 4th and 3rd
centuries BCE. Around 230 BCE
Maharashtra came under the
rule of the
Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler
Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE
Vedishri, son of the
Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of
Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made
Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom. The
state was also ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire,
Gurjara-Pratihara, Vakataka, Kadambas,
Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta
Dynasty, and Western
Chalukya before finally, the Yadava rule. The
Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences
Vakataka style. The caves were possibly
excavated during this period.
Kailasanatha temple, remarkably carved out of one single rock was
built by Rashtrakuta king
Krishna I (r. 756-773 CE)
Ramayana panel at Ellora Caves, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Chalukya dynasty ruled from the 6th century to the 8th century CE
and the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the
north Indian Emperor Harsha, and Vikramaditya II, who defeated the
Arab invaders in the 8th century. The
Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled
Maharashtra from the 8th to the 10th century. The
Sulaiman described the ruler of the
Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghavarsha)
as "one of the 4 great kings of the world". Shilahara Dynasty
began as vassals of the
Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan
plateau between the 8th and 10th centuries. From the early 11th
century to the 12th century the Deccan Plateau, which includes a
significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya
Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between
Western Chalukya Empire
Western Chalukya Empire and the
Chola dynasty in the Deccan
Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I,
Someshvara I and Vikramaditya VI.
In the early 14th century, the Yadava dynasty, which ruled most of
present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the
Delhi Sultanate ruler
Ala-ud-din Khalji. Later,
Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the
Deccan, and temporarily shifted his capital from
Delhi to Daulatabad
in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local
Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the
next 150 years. After the break-up of the
Bahamani sultanate in
Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of
Adilshah of Bijapur,
Qutubshah of Golkonda,
Imadshah of Elichpur. These kingdoms often fought with each
other. United, they decisively defeated the
Vijayanagara Empire of the
south in 1565. The present area of
Mumbai was ruled by the
Gujarat before its capture by
Portugal in 1535 and the
Faruqi dynasty ruled the
Khandesh region between 1382 and 1601 before
finally getting annexed by the Mughal Empire. Malik Ambar, the regent
of the Nizamshahi dynasty of
Ahmednagar from 1607 to 1626.
increased the strength and power of Murtaza
Nizam Shah and raised a
Malik Ambar is said to have been a proponent of guerilla
warfare in the Deccan region.
Malik Ambar assisted Mughal emperor Shah
Delhi against his stepmother, Nur Jahan, who had ambitions of
seating her son-in-law on the throne.
By the early 17th century, Shahaji Bhosale, an ambitious local general
who had served Ahmadnagar Nizamshahi, the Mughals and Adil Shah of
Bijapur at different periods during his career, attempted to establish
his independent rule. His son
Shivaji Maharaj succeeded in
Maratha Empire which was further expanded during the
18th century by the Bhat family
Peshwas based in Pune,
Gaekwad of Baroda,
Holkar of Indore,
Scindia of Gwalior.
At its peak, the empire covered much of the subcontinent, encompassing
a territory of over 2.8 million km². The Marathas are credited
to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. The
Marathas defeated the Mughals, and conquered large territories in
northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent. After their
defeat at the hand of Ahmad Shah Abdali's Afghan forces in the Third
Battle of Panipat in 1761, the
Maratha suffered a setback. However,
the Marathas soon regained lost influence and ruled central and north
New Delhi until the end of the eighteenth century. The
Maratha War (1817–1818) led to the end of the Maratha
Empire and East
India Company ruled the country in 1819. The
Marathas also developed a potent Navy circa 1660s, which at its peak,
dominated the territorial waters of the western coast of
Mumbai to Savantwadi. It would engage in attacking the British,
Portuguese, Dutch, and
Siddi Naval ships and kept a check on their
naval ambitions. The
Maratha Navy dominated till around the 1730s, was
in a state of decline by 1770s, and ceased to exist by 1818.
India contains no more than two great powers, British and Mahratta,
and every other state acknowledges the influence of one or the other.
Every inch that we recede will be occupied by them.
— Charles Metcalfe, one of the ablest of the British Officials
India and later acting Governor-General, wrote in 1806
The British governed western
Maharashtra as part of the Bombay
Presidency, which spanned an area from
Karachi in Pakistan to northern
Deccan. A number of the
Maratha states persisted as princely states,
retaining autonomy in return for acknowledging British suzerainty. The
largest princely states in the territory were Nagpur, Satara and
Kolhapur; Satara was annexed to the
Bombay Presidency in 1848, and
Nagpur was annexed in 1853 to become
Nagpur Province, later part of
the Central Provinces. Berar, which had been part of the
Hyderabad's kingdom, was occupied by the British in 1853 and annexed
Central Provinces in 1903. However, a large part called
Marathwada remained part of the Nizam's
Hyderabad State throughout the
The period of British rule was marked by social reforms and an
improvement in infrastructure as well as revolts due to their
discriminatory policies. At the turn of the 20th century, the struggle
for independence took shape, led by radical nationalist Bal Gangadhar
Tilak and the moderates like Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal
Pherozeshah Mehta and Dadabhai Naoroji, Dr. B. R.
Jyotirao Phule - social reformers who were all born in this
region. Tilak was an inspiration to many Nationalists from the
following generation like Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. After the partial
autonomy given to the states by the Government of
India Act of 1935,
B. G. Kher became the first
Chief Minister of the Congress party led
Government of tri-lingual Bombay Presidency. The ultimatum to the
British during the Quit
India Movement was given in Mumbai, and
culminated in the transfer of power and independence in 1947.
After India's independence, the Deccan States, including
integrated into Bombay State, which was created from the former Bombay
Presidency in 1950. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act
reorganised the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay
Presidency State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly
Marathi-speaking regions of
Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) from
Hyderabad state and
Vidarbha region from the Central
Provinces and Berar. The southernmost part of
Bombay State was ceded
to Mysore. From 1954 to 1955 the people of
protested against bilingual
Bombay state and Samyukta Maharashtra
Samiti, was formed. The
Mahagujarat Movement was started,
seeking a separate
Gujarat state. Keshavrao Jedhe, S.M. Joshi, Shripad
Pralhad Keshav Atre and
Gopalrao Khedkar fought for a
separate state of
Mumbai as its capital under the
banner of Samyukta
Maharashtra Movement. On 1 May 1960, following mass
protests and 105 deaths, the separate Marathi-speaking state was
formed by dividing earlier
Bombay State into the new states of
Maharashtra and Gujarat. The state continues to have a dispute
Karnataka regarding the region of
Belgaum and Karwar.
Geography and climate
Main article: Geography of Maharashtra
Bramhagiri hills in Sahyadri mountain range (Western Ghats)
Godavari at Puntamba, Ahmadnagar district after a poor
Wardha River at Pulgaon
Maharashtra occupies the western and central part of the country and
has a long coastline stretching 720 kilometres along the Arabian
Sea. One of the more prominent physical features of
the Deccan plateau, which is separated from the
Konkan coastline by
'Ghats'. The Ghats are a succession of steep hills, periodically
bisected by narrow roads. Most of the famous hill stations of the
state are at the Ghats. The
Western Ghats (or the Sahyadri Mountain
range) provide a physical backbone to the state on the west, while the
Satpura Hills along the north and Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri ranges on
the east serve as its natural borders. The state is surrounded by
Gujarat to the north west,
Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh
to the east,
Telangana to the south east,
Karnataka to the south and
Goa to the south west.
Maharashtra is the third largest state by area in India. The
Western Ghats better known as Sahyadri, are a hilly range running
parallel to the coast, at an average elevation of 1,200 metres
(4,000 ft). Kalsubai, a peak in the Sahyadris, near Nashik
city is the highest elevated point in Maharashtra. To the west of
these hills lie the
Konkan coastal plains, 50–80 kilometres in
width. To the east of the Ghats lies the flat Deccan Plateau. Forests
comprise 17% of the total area of the state. A majority of the
forests are in the eastern and Sahyadri regions of the state. The main
rivers of the state are Krishna, Bhima, Godavari, Tapi-Purna and
Wardha-Wainganga. Since the central parts of the state
receives low rainfall, most of the rivers in the region have multiple
Maharashtra has around 1821 notable large dams.
Maharashtra is divided into five geographic regions.
Konkan is the
western coastal region, between the
Western Ghats and the sea.
Kandesh is the north-western region lying in the valley of the Tapti
Bhusawal are the major cities of this
region. Desh is in the centre of the state. Marathwada, which
was a part of the princely state of Hyderabad until 1956, is located
in the southeastern part of the state. Aurangabad and Nanded
are the main cities of the region.
Vidarbha is the easternmost
region of the state, formerly part of
Central Provinces and Berar.
Nagpur, where the winter session of the state assembly is held, Akola
Amravati are the main cities in the region. Sahyadri range,
with an elevation of 1000 meters, is known for its crowning
plateaus. Lying between the
Arabian Sea and the Sahyadri Range,
Konkan is narrow coastal lowland, just 50 km wide and with an
elevation below 200 meters. The third important region is the
Satpura hills along the northern border, and the
Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri ranges on the eastern border, which form
physical barriers preventing easy movement. These ranges also
serve as natural limits to the state.
Maharashtra has typical monsoon climate, with hot, rainy and cold
weather seasons. However, dew, frost and hail also occur sometimes,
depending upon the seasonal weather. The winter in January and
February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon
season between June and September. Summers are extreme with March,
April and May as the hottest months. During April and May
thunderstorms are common all over the state. Temperature varies
between 22 °C and 39 °C during this season. Rainfall
starts normally in the first week of June. July is the wettest month
in Maharashtra, while August also gets substantial rain. Monsoon
starts its retreat with the coming of September to the state. Winter
season is a cool, dry spell, with clear skies gentle breeze; pleasant
weather prevails from November to February. But the eastern part of
Maharashtra sometimes receives some rainfall. Temperature varies
between 12 °C and 34 °C during this season. Rainfall in
Maharashtra differs from region to region. Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri
and Sindhudurg districts, receive heavy rains of an average of 200
centimetres annually. But the districts of Nasik, Pune, Ahmednagar,
Dhule, Jalgaon, Satara, Sangli,
Solapur and parts of
rainfall less than 50 centimetres. Rainfall particularly concentrates
Konkan and Sahyadrian Maharashtra. Central
less rainfall. However, under the influence of the Bay of Bengal,
Vidarbha receives good rainfall in July, August and
State symbols of Maharashtra
Indian giant squirrel
Yellow-footed green pigeon
Maharashtra is heterogeneous in composition. In 2012 the
recorded thick forest area in the state was 61,939 km2
(23,915 sq mi) which was about 20.13% of the state's
geographical area. There are three main Public Forestry
Institutions (PFIs) in the
Maharashtra state: the
Department (MFD), the Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra
(FDCM) and the Directorate of Social Forestry (SFD).
The flora of regions such as Nag region formed by Nagpur, Bhandara,
Chandrapur and Gadchiroli and the plateau of
Vidarbha composed by
Wardha, Amravati, Yavatmal,
Akola and Buldhana districts. Most of
the forests are found in the Sahyadri region and are very dense.
These forests are confined to areas which have low annual rainfall
(50–70 cm), a mean annual temperature of 25–27 °C and
low humidity. Some of the forest areas are converted into wildlife
reserves, thus preserving their biodiversity.
Maharashtra is known for its extensive avifauna. The state has three
game reserves, as well as several national parks and bird
sanctuaries. The six tiger reserves located in the state cover a
total area of 9133 sqkm. Wildlife sanctuaries in the state include
Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary, Bor
Wildlife Sanctuary, Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandoli National Park,
Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Sanjay Gandhi National Park and Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary. The
most common animals are found in the state are tigers, black panthers,
leopards, gaur, sloth bears, sambar, four-horned antelope, blue bull,
chital, barking deer, mouse deer, civet cats, jackals, jungle cats,
striped hyena, and hare. Other animals in the state include
reptiles such as lizards, cobras and kraits. The national parks of
Maharashtra possess a variety of plant species that include jamun,
palas, shisam, neem, teak, dhawada, kalam, ain, bija, shirish, mango,
acacia, awala, kadamba, moha, terminalia, hedu and ficus.
Regions, divisions and districts
Divisions of Maharashtra
Main article: List of districts of Maharashtra
See also: Talukas of Maharashtra
Maharashtra consists of six administrative divisions:
The state's six divisions are further divided into 36 districts, 109
sub-divisions and 357 talukas. Maharashtra's top five districts by
population, as ranked by the 2011 Census, are listed in the following
Each district is governed by a district collector or district
magistrate, appointed either by the
Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service or
Maharashtra Civil Service. Districts are subdivided into
sub-divisions,(Taluka) governed by sub-divisional magistrates, and
again into blocks. A block consists of panchayats (village
councils) and town municipalities. Talukas are intermediate
level panchayat between the Zilla Parishad (district councils) at the
district level and gram panchayat (village councils) at the lower
Further information: Religion in Maharashtra, Languages of India, and
Siddhivinayak Temple in Mumbai,
Hinduism is the dominant religion in
Source:Census of India
Religion in Maharashtra
Religion in Maharashtra (2011)
According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census,
Maharashtra is the richest state in
India and second most populous
India with a population of 112,374,333 (9.28% of India's
population) of which male and female are 58,243,056 and 54,131,277
respectively. The total population growth in 2011 was 15.99
percent while in the previous decade it was 22.57 percent.
Since independence, the decadal growth rate of population has remained
higher (except in the year 1971) than the national average. For the
first time, in the year 2011, it was found to be lower than the
national average. The 2011 census for the state found 55% of the
population to be rural with 45% being urban based.
Marathis comprise the majority of the population. Maratha, Mahar,
Kunbi, Muslim, Dhangar, Brahmin, Mali, Mang, Lingayat, Gond, Teli,
Bhil, Koli, Dhimar, Rajput, Banjara, Lambadi, Gowari, Agri, Christian,
Chambar, Koshti, Vani, Komati, Warli, Mannerwarlu, Jain, Vanjari,
Sonar, Kumbhar, Dewang, Kalar,
Buddhist are the major castes and
Bihari, Gujarati, Sindhis, Punjabis, Parsis, Marwari, Kannada, Telugu
and Tamil minorities are scattered throughout the state. The 2011
census found scheduled castes and scheduled tribes to account for 11.8
and 8.9% of the population respectively. The scheduled tribes
include adivasis such as Thakar, Warli, Konkana and Halba.
According to the 2011 census,
Hinduism was the principal religion in
the state at 79.8% of the total population, while Muslims constituted
11.5% of the total population.
Buddhism accounted for 5.8% in
Maharashtra's total population, with 6,531,200 followers, which is
77.36% of all Buddhists in India. Sikhs, Christians and Jains
constituted 0.2%, 1.0%, 1.2% of the population respectively. The
state contributed 9.28% to India's population. The sex ratio in
Maharashtra was 925 females per 1000 males, which was below the
national average of 940. The density of
Maharashtra was 365
inhabitants per km2 which was lower than national average 382 per km2.
Since 1921, the populations of Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg shrank by
−4.96% and −2.30% respectively, while the population of
by 35.9%, followed by
Pune at 30.3%. The literacy rate rose to
83.2%. Of this, male literacy stood at 89.82% and female literacy
The official language is Marathi although different regions have
their own dialects. English is applicable in urban areas. Spoken
Marathi language varies by district, area or locality in its tone and
a few words.
Konkani and Gujarati are also spoken in some areas. Other
major dialects include Varhadii spoken in the
Vidarbha region and
Dangii spoken near the Maharashtra-
Gujarat border. The sound /l/ is
abundantly used in many verbs and nouns in Marathi. It is replaced by
the sound /j/ in the Varhadii dialect, which makes it quite
distinct. According to the economic survey of Maharashtra
(2008–09), the percentage of the state's population that names
Marathi as its mother tongue has declined to 68.8% from 76.5% over the
past three decades, while there has been a sharp rise in the
Hindi-speaking population (11% from 5%) in the same period.
The languages taught in schools in
Maharashtra under the
three-language formula are Marathi,
Hindi and English.
Government and politics
Main article: Government of Maharashtra
Politics of Maharashtra
Politics of Maharashtra and List of Chief Ministers of
The Bombay High Court, one of the most distinguished high courts in
Maharashtra has a parliamentary system of government with two
democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly (Vidhan
Sabha) consists of 288 members who are elected for five-year
Maharashtra Legislative Council
Maharashtra Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) is a
permanent body of 78 members with a third of members replaced every
two years.The government of
Maharashtra is headed by the Chief
Minister, who is chosen by the party or coalition holding the majority
in the Legislative Assembly.The Chief Minister, along with the council
of ministers, drives the legislative agenda and exercises most of the
executive powers. However, the constitutional and formal head of
the state is the Governor, who is appointed for a five-year term by
the President of
India on the advice of the Union government.
Devendra Fadnavis is the
Chief Minister and C. Vidyasagar
Rao is the Governor.
The politics of the state since its formation in 1960 has been
dominated by the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress party.
Maharashtra became a
bastion of the Congress party producing stalwarts such as Yashwantrao
Chavan, Vasantdada Patil,
Vasantrao Naik and Shankarrao Chavan. Sharad
Pawar has been a towering personality in the state and National
politics for over thirty years. During his career, he has split the
Congress twice with significant consequences for the state
politics. The Congress party enjoyed a near unchallenged
dominance of the political landscape until 1995 when the
Shiv Sena and
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) secured an overwhelming majority in
the state to form a coalition government. After his second
parting from the Congress party in 1999,
Sharad Pawar formed the NCP
but formed a coalition with the Congress to keep out the BJP-Shivsena
combine out of the government for the last fifteen years. Prithviraj
Chavan of the Congress party was the last
Chief Minister of
Maharashtra under the Congress / NCP alliance until September
2014. For the 2014 assembly polls, the two alliances
between NCP and Congress and that between BJP and Shivsena
respectively broke down over seat allocations. In the election, the
largest number of seats went to the Bharatiya Janata Party, with 122
seats. The BJP initially formed a minority government under Devendra
Fadnavis but the Shivsena has, as of December 2014, entered the
Government and therefore the Government now enjoys a comfortable
majority in the
The people of
Maharashtra also elect 48 members to the Lok Sabha, the
lower house of the Indian Parliament. In the 2014 general elections,
the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), consisting of the Bharatiya
Janata Party, the Shiv Sena, and Swabhimani Paksha, won 23, 18, and 1
seats, respectively. The members of the state Legislative
Assembly elect 19 members to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the
First session of the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress in Bombay (28–31
The state has a long tradition of highly powerful planning bodies at
district and local levels. Local self governance institutions in rural
areas include 34 zilla parishads, 355
Taluka Panchayat samitis and
27,993 Gram panchayats. Urban areas in the state are governed by 27
Municipal Corporations, 222 Municipal Councils, four Nagar Panchayats
and seven Cantonment Boards. The administration in each
district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner, who belongs to the Indian
Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers
Maharashtra state services. The Deputy Commissioner
of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and
assisted by the officers of the
Maharashtra Police Service, maintains
law and order in addition to other related issues in each district.
The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian
Forest Service, manages the forests, environment and wildlife of the
district, assisted by the officers of
Maharashtra Forest Service and
Maharashtra Forest Subordinate Service. Sectoral development in
the districts is looked after by the district head of each development
department, such as Public Works, Health, Education, Agriculture and
The judiciary in the state consists of the
Maharashtra High Court (The
High Court of Bombay), district and session courts in each district
and lower courts and judges at the taluka level. The High Court
has regional branches at
Nagpur and Aurangabad in
Panaji which is the capital of Goa. The state cabinet on 13 May
2015 passed a resolution favouring the setting up of one more bench of
the Bombay high court in Kolhapur, covering the region. The
India appoints the chief justice of the High Court of the
Maharashtra judiciary on the advice of the chief justice of the
Supreme Court of
India as well as the Governor of Maharashtra.
Other judges are appointed by the chief justice of the high court of
the judiciary on the advice of the Chief Justice. Subordinate
Judicial Service is another vital part of the judiciary of
Maharashtra. The subordinate judiciary or the district courts are
categorised into two divisions: the
Maharashtra civil judicial
services and higher judicial service. While the
judicial services comprises the Civil Judges (Junior
Division)/Judicial Magistrates and civil judges (Senior
Division)/Chief Judicial Magistrate, the higher judicial service
comprises civil and sessions judges. The Subordinate judicial
service of the judiciary is controlled by the District
Main article: Economy of Maharashtra
Further information: List of conglomerates in Maharashtra
Net State Domestic Product at Factor Cost at Current Prices (2004–05
figures in crores of Indian rupees
Net State Domestic Product
₹3.683 trillion (US$56 billion)
₹4.335 trillion (US$66 billion)
₹5.241 trillion (US$80 billion)
₹6.140 trillion (US$94 billion)
₹6.996 trillion (US$110 billion)
₹8.178 trillion (US$130 billion)
₹15.101 trillion (US$230 billion)
₹16.866 trillion (US$260 billion)
The economy of
Maharashtra is driven by manufacturing, international
Mass Media (television, motion pictures, video games, recorded
music), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and
Maharashtra is the most industrialised state and has
maintained the leading position in the industrial sector in
India. The State is pioneer in small scale industries.
Mumbai, the capital of state and the financial capital of India,
houses the headquarters of most of the major corporate and financial
institutions. India's main stock exchanges and capital market and
commodity exchanges are located in Mumbai. The State continues to
attract industrial investments from domestic as well as foreign
Maharashtra has the largest proportion of taxpayers in
India and its share markets transact almost 70 per cent of the
Mumbai is major contributor to the economy of Maharashtra
Service sector dominates the economy of Maharashtra, accounting
for 61.4% of the value addition and 69.3% of the value of output in
the country. The state's per-capita income is 40% higher than the
India average. The gross state domestic product (GSDP) at
current prices for 2011–12 is estimated at 11,995.48 billion
and contributes about 14.4% of the GDP. The agriculture and
allied activities sector contributes 12.9% to the state's
income. Net State Domestic Product (State Income), as per
the first revised estimates was 10,827.51 billion and Per Capita
State Income was 95,339 during 2011–12. The percentage of fiscal
deficit to GSDP was 1.7 per cent and debt stock to GSDP was 18.4 per
cent during 2012–13, well within Consolidated Fiscal Reform Path
stipulated by the Thirteenth Finance Commission. In 2012, Maharashtra
reported a revenue surplus of ₹1524.9 million
(US$24 million), with a total revenue of
₹1,367,117 million (US$22 billion) and a spending of
₹1,365,592.1 million (US$22 billion). Maharashtra
ranks first in FDI equity and percentage share of total FDI inflows is
32.28%. Total FDI inflows into
US$53.48 billion. Top countries that invested FDI equity in
Maharashtra (from January 2000 to December 2011) were
United Kingdom (10%),
United States (7%) and
Freshly grown sugarcane, agriculture is the second leading occupation
Maharashtra contributes 25% of the country's industrial output
and is the most indebted state in the country. Industrial
activity in state is concentrated in four districts:
Mumbai suburban district,
the largest share in GSDP (21.5 per cent), both
Thane and Pune
districts contribute about same in the Industry sector,
contributes more in the agriculture and allied activities sector,
Thane district contributes more in the Services sector.
Nashik district shares highest in the agricultural and allied
activities sector, but is far behind in the Industry and Services
sectors as compared to
Pune districts. Industries in
Maharashtra include chemical and chemical products (17.6%), food and
food products (16.1%), refined petroleum products (12.9%), machinery
and equipment (8%), textiles (6.9%), basic metals (5.8%), motor
vehicles (4.7%) and furniture (4.3%).
Maharashtra is the
manufacturing hub for some of the largest public sector industries in
India, including Hindustan Petroleum Corporation, Tata Petrodyne and
Maharashtra has an above average knowledge industry in
India with the
Pune Metropolitan area being the leading IT hub in the state..
Approximately 25% of the top 500 companies in the IT sector are
situated in Maharashtra. The state accounts for 28% of the
software exports of India. The state houses important financial
institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock
Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the
corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational
corporations. It is also home to some of India's premier scientific
and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and
the Department of Atomic Energy.
The banking sector comprises scheduled and non-scheduled banks.
Scheduled banks are of two types, commercial and co-operative.
Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs) in
India are classified into five
types: State Bank of
India and its associates, nationalised banks,
private sector banks, Regional Rural Banks and others (foreign banks).
In 2012, there were 9,053 banking offices in the state, of which about
26 per cent were in rural and 54 per cent were in urban areas.
Maharashtra has a microfinance system, which refers to small scale
financial services extended to the poor in both rural and urban areas.
It covers a variety of financial instruments, such as lending,
savings, life insurance, and crop insurance.
With more than half the population being rural, agriculture and allied
industries play an important role in the states's economy. The
agriculture and allied activities sector contributes 12.9% to the
state's income. Staples such as rice and millet are the main monsoon
crops. Important cash crops include sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds,
tobacco, fruit, vegetables and spices such as turmeric. Animal
husbandry is an important agriculture related activity. The State's
share in the livestock and poultry population in
India is about 7% and
Maharashtra was a pioneer in the development of
Agricultural Cooperative Societies after independence. In fact, it was
an integral part of the then Governing Congress party's vision of
‘rural development with local initiative’. A ‘special’ status
was accorded to the sugar cooperatives and the government assumed the
role of a mentor by acting as a stakeholder, guarantor and
regulator, Apart from sugar, Cooperatives play a
crucial role in dairy, cotton, and fertiliser industries.
Main article: Transport in Maharashtra
See also: List of airports in Maharashtra
Mumbai international airport
Railway near pune city
A container ship at
Jawaharlal Nehru Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port (or Nhava Seva)
The state has a large, multi-modal transportation system with the
largest road network in India. In 2011, the total length of
surface road in
Maharashtra was 267,452 km; national
highways comprised 4,176 km and state highways
3,700 km. The
Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation
(MSRTC) provides economical and reliable passenger road transport
service in the public sector. These buses, popularly called ST
(State Transport), are the preferred mode of transport for much of the
populace. Hired forms of transport include metered taxis and auto
rickshaws, which often ply specific routes in cities. Other district
roads and village roads provide villages accessibility to meet their
social needs as well as the means to transport agricultural produce
from villages to nearby markets. Major district roads provide a
secondary function of linking between main roads and rural roads.
Almost 98% of villages are connected via the highways and modern roads
in Maharashtra. Average speed on state highways varies between
50–60 km/h (31–37 mi/h) due to heavy presence of
vehicles; in villages and towns, speeds are as low as
25–30 km/h (15–18 mi/h).
The first passenger train in
India ran from
Thane on 16
April 1853. Rail transportation consists of the Central Railway
and the Western Railway zones of the
Indian Railways that are
headquartered in Mumbai, at
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and
Churchgate respectively. The
Mumbai Rajdhani Express, the
fastest rajdhani train, connects the Indian capital of
New Delhi to
Thane and CST are the busiest railway stations in
India, the latter serving as a terminal for both long-distance
trains and commuter trains of the
Mumbai Suburban Railway. Nanded
division of South central railway comprises
The two principal sea ports,
Mumbai Port and Jawaharlal Nehru Port,
which is also in the
Mumbai region, are under the control and
supervision of the government of India. There are around 48 minor
ports in Maharashtra. Most of these handle passenger traffic and
have a limited capacity. None of the major rivers in
navigable and so river transport does not exist in the state.
Almost all the major cities of
Maharashtra have airports. CSIA
(formerly Bombay International Airport) and
Juhu Airport are the two
airports in Mumbai. The two other international airports are Pune
International Airport and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport
(Nagpur). Flights are operated by both private and government airline
Nashik Airport is also major airport. Most of the State's
airfields are operated by the Airports Authority of
India (AAI) while
Reliance Airport Developers (RADPL), currently operate five non-metro
airports at Latur, Nanded, Baramati, Osmanabad and Yavatmal on a
95-year lease. The
Maharashtra Airport Development Company (MADC)
was set up in 2002 to take up development of airports in the state
that are not under the AAI or the
Maharashtra Industrial Development
Corporation (MIDC). MADC is playing the lead role in the planning and
implementation of the Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport
Nagpur (MIHAN) project. Additional smaller airports include
Akola, Amravati, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gondia, Jalgaon, Karad, Kolhapur,
Nashik Road, Ratnagiri, and Solapur.
Education and social development
See also: List of higher education institutions in Maharashtra
Census of 2011 showed literacy rates in the state for males and
females were around 78% and 67% respectively.
Scottish missionary John Wilson, Indian Nationalists such as Vasudev
Balwant Phadke and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Social reformers such as
Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve and
Bhaurao Patil all played a
leading role in the setting up of modern schools and colleges during
the British colonial era . The forerunner of
Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute was established in
1821. The Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women's University,
the oldest women's liberal arts college in South Asia, started its
journey in 1916. College of Engineering Pune, established in 1854, is
the third oldest college in Asia. Government Polytechnic Nagpur,
established in 1914, is one of the oldest polytechnic in
Primary and secondary level
Students at a state run primary school in Raigad district.
Maharashtra schools are run by the state government or by private
organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly
in Marathi, English or Hindi, though
Urdu is also used. The secondary
schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School
Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary
Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open School (NIOS) or the
Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education.
Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students
typically enroll for two years in a junior college, also known as
pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility
affiliated with the
Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher
Secondary Education or any central board. Students choose from one of
three streams, namely liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon
completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or
professional degree programs.
Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, was one of the institutions
established after the Indian independence movement
Maharashtra has 24 universities with a turnout of 160,000 Graduates
Maharashtra has played a pioneering role in the
development of the modern education system in India. The University of
Mumbai, is the largest university in the world in terms of the number
of graduates and has 141 affiliated colleges. According to
prominent national rankings, 5 to 7
Maharashtra colleges and
universities are ranked among the top 20 in India.
Maharashtra is also home to such notable autonomous institutes as
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
Technological University, Institute of Chemical Technology, Homi
Bhabha National Institute, Walchand College of Engineering,
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology
Nagpur (VNIT) and
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI). Most of these
autonomous institutes are ranked the highest in
India and have very
competitive entry requirements. The University of
Pune (now Savitribai
Pune University), the National Defence Academy, Film and
Television Institute of India, Armed Forces Medical College and
National Chemical Laboratory
National Chemical Laboratory were established in
Pune soon after the
Indian independence in 1947.
Mumbai has an IIT and
Nagpur has IIM and
Maharashtra has hundreds of other private colleges and universities,
including many religious and special-purpose institutions. Most of the
private colleges were set up in the last thirty years after the State
Vasantdada Patil liberalised the Education Sector in
1982. Politicians and leaders involved in the huge cooperative
Maharashtra were instrumental in setting up the private
institutes There are also local community colleges with
generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and
lower tuition.
Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (Agricultural university) at
The state also has four agricultural universities namely Vasantrao
Marathwada Agricultural University, Mahatma Phule Krishi
Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth
Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth and Dr. Balasaheb
Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, besides these, there are other
regional universities like Sant Gadge Baba
Amravati University, Dr.
Marathwada University, North Maharashtra
University, Shivaji University, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada
University and Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj
Nagpur University, all
well established and nationally renowned, to cover the educational
needs at the district levels of the state. Apart from this, there are
a number of deemed universities in Maharashtra: the Symbiosis
International University, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Tilak
Maharashtra University and Tata Institute of Social Sciences.
The state has many Post-secondary school Industrial training
institutes (ITI) run by the government and private trusts that offer
vocational training in numerous trades such as construction, plumbing,
welding, automobile mechanic etc. Successful candidates receive the
National Trade Certificate.
In 2011, the health care system in
Maharashtra consisted of 363 rural
government hospitals, 23 district hospitals (with 7,561 beds), 4
general hospitals (with 714 beds) mostly under the Maharashtra
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and 380 private medical
establishments; these establishments provide the state with more than
30,000 hospital beds. It is the first state in
India to have nine
women's hospitals serving 1,365 beds. The state also has
significant number of medical practitioners who hold the Bachelor of
Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery qualifications. These practitioners
primarily use the traditional Indian therapy of
Ayurveda but can use
modern western medicine as well.
Maharashtra has a life expectancy at birth of 67.2 years in 2011,
ranking it third among 29 Indian states. The total fertility rate
of the state is 1.9. The
Infant mortality rate is 28 and the
maternal mortality ratio is 104 (2012–2013), which are lower than
the national averages. Public health services are governed
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), through various
departments. The Ministry is divided into two departments: the Public
Health Department, which includes family welfare and medical relief,
and the Department of Medical Education and Drugs.
In Maharashtra, health insurance includes any program that helps pay
for medical expenses, whether through privately purchased insurance,
social insurance or a social welfare program funded by the
government. In a more technical sense, the term is used to
describe any form of insurance that provides protection against the
costs of medical services. This usage includes private insurance
and social insurance programs such as National Health Mission, which
pools resources and spreads the financial risk associated with major
medical expenses across the entire population to protect everyone, as
well as social welfare programs such as National Rural Health Mission
(NRHM) and the Health Insurance Program, which provide assistance to
people who cannot afford health coverage.
Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station, the state's power production
Although its population makes
Maharashtra one of the country's largest
energy users, conservation mandates, mild weather in the
largest population centres and strong environmental movements have
kept its per capita energy use to one of the smallest of any Indian
state. The high electricity demand of the state constitutes 13%
of the total installed electricity generation capacity in India, which
is mainly from fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas.
Mahavitaran is responsible for distribution of electricity throughout
the state by buying power from Mahanirmiti, captive power plants,
other state electricity boards and private sector power generation
As of 2012,
Maharashtra was the largest power generating state in
India, with installed electricity generation capacity of 26,838
MW. The state forms a major constituent of the western grid of
India, which now comes under the North, East, West and North Eastern
(NEWNE) grids of India.
Maharashtra Power Generation Company
(MAHAGENCO) operates thermal power plants. In addition to the
state government-owned power generation plants, there are privately
owned power generation plants that transmit power through the
Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company, which is
responsible for transmission of electricity in the state.
Culture of Maharashtra
Culture of Maharashtra and List of State Protected
Monuments in Maharashtra
Further information: Cultural activities of Maharashtra
Main article: Maharashtrian cuisine
A typical simple Maharashtrian meal with bhaaji, bhakari, raw onion
Pav Bhaji,a popular dish from Maharashtra
Maharashtra cuisine covers a range from mild to very spicy dishes.
Wheat, rice, jowar, bajri, vegetables, lentils and fruit form staple
food of the Maharashtrian diet. Some of the popular traditional dishes
include puran poli, ukdiche modak, and batata wada.
Pav Bhaji and Vada
pav are dishes that became very popular in the last fifty years.
Meals (mainly lunch and dinner) are served on a plate called thali.
Each food item served on the thali has a specific place. In some
households, meals begin with a thanksgiving offering of food
(Naivedya) to the household Gods.
Maharashtrian cuisine has many
regional varieties including Malvani (Konkani) and Varadhi.
Though quite different, both use a lot of seafood and coconut.
The staple foods of the
Konkani people are rice and fish
The bhaajis are vegetable dishes made with a particular vegetable or a
combination. They require the use of goda (sweet) masala, essentially
consisting of some combination of onion, garlic, ginger, red chilli
powder, green chillies and mustard. Depending on the caste or
specific religious tradition of a family, onion and garlic may not be
used in cooking. A particular variant of bhaaji is the rassa or
curry. Vegetarians prepare rassa or curry of potatoes and or
cauliflower with tomatoes or fresh coconut kernel and plenty of water
to produce a soup-like preparation rather than bhaaji. Varan is
nothing but plain dal, a common Indian lentil stew. Aamti is variant
of the curry, typically consisting of a lentil (tur) stock, flavoured
with goda masala, tamarind or amshul, and jaggery (gul).
Among seafood, the most popular fish is bombil or the Bombay
duck. All non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are eaten with
boiled rice, chapatis or with bhakris, made of jowar, bajra or rice
Special rice puris called vada and amboli, which is a pancake
made of fermented rice, urad dal, and semolina, are also eaten as a
part of the main meal.
Members of Rotary club in
Nagpur wearing the traditional Maharashtrian
lugade or (nauwari), nine yard sari
Traditionally, Marathi women commonly wore the sari, often distinctly
designed according to local cultural customs. Most middle aged
and young women in urban
Maharashtra dress in western outfits such as
skirts and trousers or shalwar kameez with the traditionally nauvari
or nine-yard lugade, disappearing from the markets due to a lack
of demand. Older women wear the five-yard sari. In urban areas,
the five-yard sari, especially the Paithani, is worn by younger women
for special occasions such as marriages and religious ceremonies.
Among men, western dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear
traditional costumes such as the dhoti and pheta on cultural
Gandhi cap is the popular headgear among older men in
rural Maharashtra. Women wear traditional jewelleries
derived from Marathas and
Peshwas dynasties. Kolhapuri saaj, a special
type of necklace, is also worn by Marathi women. In urban areas,
many women and men wear western attire.
Music and dance
Maharashtrian artists have made major contributions to Indian
Classical music. Its vibrant folk form includes Powada, Bharuds and
Gondhals. Cities like
Pune have been playing a major
role in preservation of music like
Bhavageet and Natya Sangeet, which
are inherited from Indian classical music. The songs from
and Marathi films are popular in urban areas.
Marathi dance forms draw from folk traditions.
Lavani is popular form
of dance in the state. The Bhajan, Kirtan and Abhangas of the Varkari
sect (Vaishanav Devotees) have a long history and are part of their
daily rituals. Koli dance (as called 'Koligeete') is among
the most popular dances of Maharashtra. As the name suggests, it is
related to the fisher folk of Maharashtra, who are called Kolis.
Popular for their unique identity and liveliness, their dances
represent their occupation. This type of dance is represented by both
men and women. While dancing, they are divided into groups of two.
These fishermen display the movements of waves and casting of the nets
during their koli dance performances.,
P L Deshpande (in centre),one of the most popular authors in Marathi
Maharashtra’s regional literature is about lives and circumstances
Marathi people in specific parts of the state. The Marathi
language, which boasts a rich literary heritage, is written in the
Devanagari script. The earliest instances of Marathi literature
is by Sant
Dnyaneshwar with his
Bhawarthadeepika (popularly known as
Dnyaneshwari). The compositions, written in the 13th century, are
spiritually inclined. Other compositions are by
Bhakti saints such as
Tukaram, Eknath, Namdev, Sant Sena Maharaj Ramdas, and Gora
Kumbhar. Their compositions are mostly in poetic form, which are
Maharashtra has a long tradition in spiritual
literature, evidenced by the Amrutanubhav, Bhavarth Deepika, Bhagavata
Eknathi Bhagwat and Bhavarth Ramayan.
Marathi literature includes the works of authors such as
Balshastri Jambhekar, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal
Hari Deshmukh, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Jyotirao Phule, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar,
Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar, Ram Ganesh Gadkari, Tryambak Bapuji Thombre,
Hari Narayan Apte,
Vishnushastri Chiplunkar and Keshavsuta. 20th
century notable writers include Mahadevshastri Joshi, Kusumagraj, Pu
La Deshpande, Va Pu Kale, Vyankatesh Digambar Madgulkar, Vishnu
Sakharam Khandekar, Prahlad Keshav Atre, B. S. Mardhekar, Sane Guruji,
Vinoba Bhave, Chintamani Tryambak Khanolkar,
Bahinabai Chaudhari and
Laxmanshastri Joshi. Vishwas Patil, Ranjit Desai, Shivaji Sawant,
Narayan Surve, Vinda Karandikar, Shanta Shelke, Durga Bhagwat, Suresh
Bhat, Ratnakar Matkari, Varjesh Solanki, Manya Joshi, Hemant Divate,
Mangesh Narayanrao Kale,
Avinash Dharmadhikari ,
Bhalchandra Nemade ,
Narendra Jadhav and
Saleel Wagh are some of the more recent authors.
As well in Regional Languages are spoken in
Maharashtra as Kokani,
Koli, Malvani, Varhadi,
Bollywood and Marathi cinema
Maharashtra is a prominent location for the Indian entertainment
industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media
being set there. Mainstream
Hindi films are popular in
Maharashtra, especially in urban areas.
Mumbai is the largest centre
for film and television production and a third of all Indian films are
produced in the state. Multimillion-dollar
Bollywood productions, with
the most expensive costing up to ₹1.5 billion (US$23 million),
are filmed there. The
Marathi film industry, previously located
in Kolhapur, has spread throughout Mumbai. Well known for its art
films, the early
Marathi film industry included acclaimed directors
such as Dadasaheb Phalke, and V. Shantaram.
Dada Kondke is the most
prominent name in Marathi film. The
Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India's
highest award in cinema, given annually by the Government of
lifetime contribution to Indian cinema.
Main article: Marathi theatre
Playwright Vijay Tendulkar
Modern Theatre in
Maharashtra can trace its origins to the British
colonial era in the middle of the 19th century. It is modelled mainly
after the western tradition but also includes forms like Sangeet Natak
(Musical drama). In recent decades, Marathi
Tamasha has been also been
incorporated in some experimental plays. Today, theatre continues
to have a marked presence in
Pune with an educated loyal
audience base, when most theatre in other parts of
India have had
tough time facing the onslaught of cinema and television. Its
repertoire ranges from humorous social plays, farces, historical
plays, musical, to experimental plays and serious drama. Marathi
Playwrights such as Vijay Tendulkar, P. L. Deshpande, Mahesh
Satish Alekar have influenced theatre throughout
India. Besides Marathi theatre,
Maharashtra and particularly,
Mumbai, has had a long tradition of theatre in other languages such as
Hindi and English.
India building in Mumbai
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in
this state and the book-publishing industry employs about 250,000
Sakal published from
Pune and other major Maharashtrian
cities, has the largest circulation for Marathi Newspaper in
Maharastra as on Dec, 2016. Other major Marathi newspapers are
Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Nava Kaal, Pudhari, and Lokmat. Tarun
Bharat and Kesari, two newspapers that once were quite influential
during the colonial and the post-independence era have stopped the
print edition and are now published only digitally. Popular Marathi
language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya,
Lokprabha and Chitralekha. Major English language newspapers
which are published and sold in large numbers are Daily News &
Analysis, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Indian Express,
Mumbai Mirror, Asian Age,
MiD-DAY and The Free Press Journal. Some
prominent financial dailies like The Economic Times, Mint, Business
Standard and The Financial Express are widely circulated.
Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi, Kannada, Gujarati and
Urdu are also read by a select readership.
The television industry developed in
Maharashtra and is a significant
employer in the state's economy. Numerous Indian and
international television channels can be watched in Maharashtra
through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television
provider. The four major
India broadcast networks are all
headquartered in Maharashtra: The Times, STAR India,
CNN-IBN and ZEEL.
Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster and provides two
free terrestrial channels. Multi system operators provide a mix of
Marathi, Bengali, Nepali, Hindi, English and international channels
via cable. The wide range of cable channels available includes sports
channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like
Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC
Awaaz, Zee Business,
ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. Marathi 24-hour
television news channels include ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas,
TV9 Maharashtra, ETV Marathi,
TV9 Maharashtra and Jai Maharashtra.
India Radio is a public radio station. Private FM stations are
available in all major cities. Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Reliance
Communications, Aircel, MTS India, Tata Indicom,
Idea Cellular and
Tata DoCoMo are available cellular phone operators.
the highest share of the internet market at 18.8% of total households
internet users in India. Broadband internet is available in all
towns, villages and cities, provided by the state-run MTNL and BSNL
and by other private companies.
Dial-up access is provided
throughout the state by
BSNL and other providers.
Main article: Sports in Maharashtra
The most popular sports in
Kabaddi and Cricket.
Children playing cricket in Mumbai
A mallakhamba team of the Indian Army's
Bombay Sappers performs on the
As in the rest of India, cricket is popular in
Maharashtra and is
played on grounds and in streets throughout the state.
various domestic level franchise-based leagues for hockey, chess,
tennis and badminton. The state is home to top national football clubs
Tigers F.C., Kenkre F.C., Bengal
Mumbai FC and Air
India FC. Adventure sports such as paragliding, water sports,
rock climbing, backpacking, mountaineering and scuba diving are also
popular in the state. Other notable sports played in the state
include Kho kho, fencing, archery and shooting.
Maharashtra has an
Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League franchise known as the Mumbai
Indians and Rising
Pune Supergiants; the
Association (MCA), regulates cricket in state.
Maharashtra has three
domestic cricket teams: the
Mumbai cricket team,
Vidarbha cricket team. Wankhede Stadium, which has a capacity
of 45,000, hosted the final match of the 2011
Cup. It is home to the
Mumbai Indians and
Maharashtra football team represents the state in competition for the
Mumbai District Football Association (MDFA) is the
organisation responsible for Association football in and around
Mumbai. The state has two club franchises playing in Elite Football
League of India.
Mumbai Gladiators and
Pune Marathas are
teams based in
Pune hold derby races at the
Mahalaxmi Racecourse and Pune
Race Course respectively. The wrestling championship Hind
Kesari is widely popular in the rural regions and is affiliated with
India Amateur Wrestling Federation (AIAWF). Maharashtra
Chess Association is the apex body for the game of chess in
Tennis League is India's first league
format in tennis.
Notable athletes from
Maharashtra include retired
Sachin Tendulkar and
Sunil Gavaskar who were part of the Indian
national cricket team;,
Indian national cricket team
Indian national cricket team player
Rohit Sharma, Asian Games silver medalist Hiranna M. Nimal, India's
first individual Olympic Medalist- wrestler Khashaba Jadhav, chess
player Rohini Khadilkar, tennis player Gaurav Natekar, former hockey
players Dhanraj Pillay,
Viren Rasquinha and badminton players Nikhil
Kanetkar and Aparna Popat.
A number of Indian sports either originated in
Maharashtra or were
formalized here.These include Kabbadi,Kho kho, and Mallakhamba.In
rural areas of Maharashtra,wrestling ,and bullock cart competitions
take place during the annual Jatra (Carnival) of a locality.
See also: Tourism in Maharashtra
According to a survey,most tourists visiting places in
from the state.Two other states,
Andhra Pradesh send the
largest number of domestic visitors to Maharashtra.Foreign visitors to
Maharashtra account for just 2% of the tourist.Visitors from USA,
UK,Germany and UAE each form a significant percentage of foreign
Mumbai, the biggest and the most cosmopolitan city in
tourists from all over the world for its many attractions including
colonial architecture,beaches, movie industry,shopping and active
nightlife.Pune,called the cultural capital of Maharashtra, also
attracts many visitors during the annual
The area around Aurangabad has many ancient and medieval sites
including the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Ajanta and Ellora caves,
the ancient fort at Devgiri/Daulatabad, and the
Bibi Ka Maqbara
Bibi Ka Maqbara in
The mountainous districts of Western
Maharashtra are dotted with the
ruins of hundreds of mountain forts from Deccan Sultanate and the
Maratha empire eras respectively.These forts and the surrounding hills
are popular with people interested in trekking, hiking and Heritage
tourism related to Shivaji Maharaj..
The British built many hill-stations during the colonial era for
government officials to escape from the heat of Indian summers.These
places have been magnets for tourism for a long time.The important
hill stations in Western
Maharashtra are Mahabaleshwar, and
Chikhaldara is the hill station popular
Khandoba temple in
Pune district as the family deity of majority of
Marathi people attracts large number of pilgrims
Places of worship that attract pilgrims from other parts of
beyond include the Sikh Gurudwara of Hazur Sahib at
Nanded and the
shrine of Saibaba at Shirdi.The places associated with the Varkari
sect such as Pandharpur,
Alandi attract pilgrims from all
Maharashtra throughout the year but particularly during religious
observations at these places. A new place for pilgrimage is the
Statue of Ahimsa, a 108 ft idol of first
Rishabhanatha carved in monolithic stone consecrated at
Mangi Tungi .
It is recorded in the Guinness
Book of World Records as the tallest
Jain idol in the world.
Vidarbha region of
Maharashtra has numerous nature reserve
parks.These include,Melghat Tiger Reserve in
Akola and Amravati
district, Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in
Chandrapur district ,
Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary in
life sanctuary and
Navegaon National Park
Navegaon National Park (bird sanctuary) of Gondia
The state Government has established
Maharashtra Tourism Development
Corporation (MTDC) for systematic development and promotion of tourism
in the state. MTDC has, since its inception, been involved in the
development and maintenance of the various tourist locations of
Maharashtra. MTDC owns and maintains resorts at all key tourist
centers and having more resorts is on the plan.
Nighttime skyline of Downtown
Mumbai at Nariman Point
Ganeshotsav festival in Pune
Venna Lake at Mahabaleshwar
Tadoba Tiger reserve
India – book
Make In Maharashtra
Maratha dynasties and states
List of Marathi people
Religion in Maharashtra
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