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The Mahanadi
Mahanadi
is a major river in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 square kilometres (54,700 sq mi) and has a total course of 858 kilometres (533 mi).[1] The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and Odisha.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Sources 3 Middle course 4 Mouth 5 Navigation 6 Trade and agriculture 7 Water 8 Floods 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The word Mahanadi
Mahanadi
is a compound of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words maha ("great") and nadi ("river").[2] Sources[edit]

Mahanadi
Mahanadi
river

Mahanadi
Mahanadi
is a major river with its delta on the east coast

Like many other seasonal Indian rivers, the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
too is a combination of many mountain streams and thus its precise source is impossible to pinpoint. However its farthest headwaters lie 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Pharsiya village 442 metres (1,450 ft) above sea level south of sihawa town in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh.[3][4] The hills here are an extension of the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
and are a source of many other streams which then go on to join the Mahanadi. For the first 80 kilometres (50 mi) of its course, the Mahanadi flows in a northerly direction and drains the Raipur district
Raipur district
and touches eastern portions of Raipur
Raipur
city. It is a rather narrow river at this stage and the total width of its valley does not exceed 500–600 metres. Middle course[edit] After being joined by the Seonath, the river flows in an easterly direction through the remaining part of its journey. It is joined by the Jonk and Hasdeo rivers here before entering into Odisha
Odisha
after covering about half of its total length. Near the city of Sambalpur, it is dammed by the largest earthen dam in the world, the Hirakud Dam. A composite structure of the earth, concrete and masonry, the dam measures 24 kilometres (15 mi) including the Dykes. It spans two hills; the Lamdungri on the left and the Chandili Dunguri on the right. It also forms the biggest artificial lake in Asia, with a reservoir holding 743 square kilometres (287 sq mi) at full capacity, with a shoreline of over 640 kilometres (400 mi).[5] After the formation of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
State, the major portion of Mahanadi
Mahanadi
basin now lies in Chhattisgarh. Presently, only 154 square kilometres (59 sq mi) basin area of Hasdeo River in Anuppur District lies in Madhya Pradesh. Before the construction of the dam in 1953, the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
was about a mile wide at Sambalpur
Sambalpur
and carried massive amounts of silt, especially during the monsoon. Today, it is a rather tame river after the construction of the dam and is joined by the Ib, Ong, Tel and other minor streams. It then skirts the boundaries of the Baudh district
Baudh district
and forces a tortuous way between ridges and ledges in a series of rapids until it reaches Dholpur, Odisha. The rapids end here and the river rolls towards the Eastern Ghats, forcing its way through them via the 64 kilometres (40 mi) long Satkosia Gorge. The Satakosia Gorge ends at Badamul of Nayagarh. Dense forests cover the hills flanking the river here. The river enters the Odisha
Odisha
plains at Naraj, about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Cuttack, where it pours down between two hills that are a mile apart. A barrage has been constructed here to regulate the river's flow into Cuttack.[6] Mouth[edit]

The Mahanadi River Delta
Mahanadi River Delta
at False Point.

The river traverses Cuttack district
Cuttack district
in an east-west direction. Just before entering Cuttack, it gives off a large distributary called the Kathjori. The city of Cuttack
Cuttack
stands on the spit separating the two channels. The Kathjori
Kathjori
then throws off many streams like the Kuakhai, Devi and Surua which fall into the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
after entering Puri district. The Kathjori
Kathjori
itself falls into the sea as the Jotdar. Other distributaries of Mahanadi
Mahanadi
include the Paika, Birupa, Chitroptala river, Genguti and Lun.The Birupa then goes on to join the Brahmani River at Krushnanagar and enters the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
at Dhamra. The Mahanadi
Mahanadi
proper enters the sea via several channels near Paradeep
Paradeep
at False Point, Jagatsinghpur. The combined Delta of the Mahanadi's numerous distributaries and the Brahmani is one of the largest in India.[7] Navigation[edit] Prior to the construction of Hirakud Dam, the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
was navigable from its mouth up to Arrang, about a 190 kilometres (120 mi) from its source. However numerous barrages apart from the Hirakud have put an end to that. Today, boats are restricted to the delta region and the Hirakud reservoir.[6][8] Trade and agriculture[edit]

Mahanadi
Mahanadi
River

The Mahanadi
Mahanadi
is an important river in the state of Odisha. This river flows slowly for about 900 kilometres (560 mi) and deposits more silt than any other river in the Indian subcontinent. The cities of Cuttack
Cuttack
and Sambalpur
Sambalpur
were prominent trading places in the ancient world and the river itself has been referred to as the Manada in Ptolemy's works. However today the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
valley is best known for its fertile soil and flourishing agriculture. Prior to the Hirakud dam, the river carried more silt than any other river in the Indian subcontinent.[9] Water[edit]

Zobra bridge view

Average annual surface water potential of 66.9 km³ has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 50.0 km³ is utilisable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 80,000 square kilometres (31,000 sq mi), which is 4% of the total culturable area of the country. Present use of surface water in the basin is 17.0 km³. Live storage capacity in the basin has increased significantly since independence. From just about 0.8 km³ in the pre-plan period, the total live storage capacity of the completed projects has increased to 8.5 km³. In addition, a substantial storage quantity of over 5.4 km³ would be created on completion of projects under construction. Additional storage to the tune of over 11.0 km³ would become available on execution of projects under consideration. The hydropower potential of the basin has been assessed as 627 MW at 60% load factor.[10] At its peak during the monsoon, the Mahanadi
Mahanadi
has a discharge rate of 2,000,000 cubic feet (57,000 m3) per second,[3] almost as much as the much larger Ganges. However owing to its seasonal nature the river is mostly a narrow channel flanked by wide sand banks for most of the year.[11] Floods[edit]

Mahanadi River
Mahanadi River
near Satkosia Tiger Reserve, Odisha

Plum-headed parakeet
Plum-headed parakeet
at Tikarpara on the bank of river Mahanadi.

The Mahanadi
Mahanadi
was notorious for its devastating floods for much of recorded history. Thus it was called 'the sorrow of Orissa'. However the construction of the Hirakud Dam
Hirakud Dam
has greatly altered the situation. Today a network of canals, barrages and check dams keep the river well in control. However heavy rain can still cause large scale flooding as evidenced in September, 2008 when 16 people died as the river breached its banks. In 2011, September heavy down pour of rain caused flash flood and many mud dwellings in more than 25 villages above Hirakud Dam
Hirakud Dam
which were never got affected before; both in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and Odisha
Odisha
have melted down due to back water, which could not pass through the river.[12] References[edit]

^ Mahanadi River
Mahanadi River
(river, India) - Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Dharmendra Nath Shastri (1973). Studies in indology. Institute of Indology. p. 146.  ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 16, page 431 - Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
- Digital South Asia
Asia
Library ^ and Water Resources of India
India
by Sharad K. Jain, Pushpendra K. Agarwal, Vijay P. Singh ^ [1] Archived November 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b http://www.riversofindia.in/rivers-flowing-into-bay-of-bengal/mahanadi-river.htm ^ [2] Archived November 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 16, page 432 - Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
- Digital South Asia
Asia
Library ^ Research within Academic Books, Articles and Research Topics Questia, Your Online Research Library ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  ^ http://aquarians.hpage.co.in/mahanadi_54159339.html ^ http://www.firstpost.com/politics/orissa-floods-mahanadi-flows-above-danger-mark-14-lakh-affected-81743.html

Further reading[edit]

The Imperial Gazetteer of India-William Hunter, 1901 The Encyclopædia Britannica-1911 Ed. The Columbus Encyclopedia

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mahanadi
Mahanadi
River.

Rivers Network - Mahanadi
Mahanadi
river watersheds webmap Odisha
Odisha
Govt. blamed for declining quality of river water Mahanadi
Mahanadi
River Kayaking on River Mahanadi

v t e

Hydrography
Hydrography
of the Indian subcontinent

Inland rivers

Beas Betwa Bhagirathi Brahmaputra Chambal Chenab Damodar Godavari Gandaki Ganges Ghaghara Indus Jhelum Kali Kaveri Kosi Krishna Luni Mahanadi Mahaweli Meghna Narmada Padma Ravi Sarasvati Sankosh Sharda Son Sutlej Tapti Yamuna

Inland lakes, deltas, etc.

Ganges
Ganges
Basin Ganges
Ganges
Delta Indus Delta Dal Lake Pookode Lake Skeleton Lake Chilika Lake Lake Powai Borith Lake Saiful Muluk Gosaikunda Nizam Sagar Red Hills Lake Malampuzha Kerala backwaters Pulicat Lake

Coastal

Indian Ocean Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Mannar Laccadive Sea Palk Strait

Categories

Lakes of Bangladesh / India
India
/ Nepal / Pakistan Reservoirs and dams in India Rivers of Bangladesh / Bhutan / India
India
/ Nepal / Pakistan

v t e

Hydrography
Hydrography
of Odisha

Rivers

Bhargavi Baitarani Brahmani Budhabalanga Daya Devi Dhamra Ib Indravati Kadua Kharkai Kuakhai Koina Kolab Kushabhadra Mahanadi Malguni Nagavali Ong Rushikulya Sankh South Karo South Koel Subarnarekha Surubalijora Tel Telen Vamsadhara

Lakes

Anshupa Chilika Kanjia

Waterfalls

Badaghagara Barehipani Duduma Phurlijharan Joranda Khandadhar, Kendujhar Khandadhar, Sundagarh Koilighugar Sanaghagara

Hot springs

Taptapani Deulajhari Atri Tarabalo

Beaches

Chandipur Gahirmatha Gopalpur-on-Sea Konark Puri Talsari

Dams

Deras Hirakud Mandira Rengali

Bridges

Mahanadi
Mahanadi
Bridge, Boudh Second Mahanadi
Mahanadi
Rail Bridge

Harbours/Ports/Proposed Ports

Astaranga Dhamara Kirtania Paradip

Related topics

Godavari basin Mahanadi-Brahmani-Baitarani basin

Hydrography
Hydrography
of surrounding areas

Andhra Pradesh Chhattisgarh Jharkhand Bengal

v t e

Hydrography
Hydrography
of Chhattisgarh

Rivers

Hasdeo Ib Indravati Jonk Kanhar Mahanadi Mand Pari Rend Rihand Sabari Sankh Shivnath Sileru Sondur Tandula

Waterfalls

Chitrakoot Teerathgarh

Dams

Dudhawa Gangrel Hasdeo Bango Sondur Tandula

Related topics

Godavari basin Mahanadi-Brahmani-Baitarani basin Son basin

Hydrography
Hydrography
of surrounding areas

Odisha Jharkhand Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh

v t e

Mahanadi–Brahmani–Baitarani basin

Rivers

Baitarani Bhargavi Brahmani Daya Devi Hasdeo Ib Jonk Kathajodi Koina Kuakhai Kushabhadra Mahanadi Mand North Karo Ong Pairi Sankh Shivnath Sondur Surubalijora South Karo South Koel Tel River

Dams, barrages

Dudhawa Dam Gangrel Dam Hasdeo Bango Dam Hirakud Dam Mandira Dam Rengali Dam Sondur Dam

Geographical features

Dandakaranya Dakshina Kosala Chota Nagpur Plateau Western Orissa Mahanadi River
Mahanadi River
Delta Bhitarkanika Mangroves

Riparian districts

Chhattisgarh

Dhamtari Kanker Raipur Janjgir–Champa Raigarh Jashpur Korba Koriya Surguja

Madhya Pradesh

Anuppur

Jharkhand

Gumla Khunti Ranchi West Singhbhum

Odisha

Jharsuguda Kendujhar Mayurbhanj Sundergarh Boudh Angul Jajpur Cuttack Kendrapara Khordha Jagatsinghpur Puri

Languages/ people

Baiga Bonda Gondi Kol Oraon Munda Santal Hindi Chhattisgarhi Oriya Kosli

Coalfields

Jhilimili Chirimiri Korba Mand Raigarh Ib Valley Talcher

Industries

Korba Super Thermal Power Plant Talcher Super Thermal Power Station Talcher Thermal Power Station

Transport

NH 5 NH 6 NH 42 NH 78 NH 111 Second Mahanadi
Mahanadi
Rail Bridge Tatanagar–Bilaspur section and Bilaspur–Nagpur section of Howrah–Nagpur–Mumbai line Jharsuguda–Vizianagaram line

Other basins

Damodar Godavari Kosi Narmada Son

v t e

Eastern Ghats

Rivers

Champavathi River Godavari Gosthani River Gundlakamma River Kaveri Krishna Kundu River Mahanadi Nagavali River Palar Penner River Ponnaiyar Rushikulya Sabari River Sarada River Sileru River Sweata Nadi Vasishta Nadi Vellar Vamsadhara River

Regions

Deccan Plateau Kolar Plateau

Hills

Bilgiri (Biligirirangan) Chitteri Erramala Kalrayan Karanthamalai Kolli Lankamalla Mahendragiri Mettur Nallamalla Pachaimalai Palamalai Palkonda Shevaroy Sirumalai Vada Chennimalai Velikonda

Waterfalls

Agaya Gangai Kiliyur Mayil Uthu Mangalam Periyar Pudur Megan Talakona
Talakona
Falls Ubbalamadugu Falls

States

Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Odisha Tamil Nadu Telangana West Bengal

Parks & Reserves

Badrama Wildlife Sanctuary Chilika Bird Sanctuary Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary Kanger Ghati National Park Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary Kolleru Lake Bird Sanctuary Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary Lakhari Valley Wildlife Sanctuary Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve Nalbana Bird Sanctuary Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary Papikonda Wildlife Sanctuary Pulicat Lake
Pulicat Lake
Bird Sanctuary Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary Simlipal National Park Sri Venkateswara National Park Telineelapuram and Telukunchi Bird Sanctuaries Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244319

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