HOME
The Info List - Mahabodhi Temple


--- Advertisement ---



The Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
(literally: "Great Awakening Temple"), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha
Buddha
is said to have attained enlightenment.[1] Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
(in Gaya district) is about 96 km (60 mi) from Patna, Bihar
Bihar
state, India. The site contains a descendant of the Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree under which Buddha gained enlightenment, and has been a major pilgrimage destination for Buddhists for well over two thousand years, and some elements probably date to the period of Asoka
Asoka
(died c.232 BCE). What is now visible on the ground essentially dates from the 7th century CE, or perhaps somewhat earlier, as well as several major restorations since the 19th century. But the structure now may well incorporate large parts of earlier work, possibly from the 2nd or 3rd century CE.[2] Many of the oldest sculptural elements have been moved to the museum beside the temple, and some, such as the carved stone railing wall around the main structure, have been replaced by replicas. The main temple's survival is especially impressive, as it was mostly made of brick covered with stucco, materials that are much less durable than stone. But this means that very little of the original sculptural decoration has survived.[2] The temple complex includes two large straight-sided shikhara towers, the largest over 55 metres (180 feet) high. This is a stylistic feature that has continued in Jain and Hindu temples to the present day, and influenced Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture
in other countries, in forms like the pagoda.[2]

Contents

1 The Buddha 2 Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree 3 Temple construction

3.1 Mauryan establishment 3.2 Sunga
Sunga
structures

3.2.1 Columns with pot-shaped bases 3.2.2 Railings

3.3 Current temple by the Guptas

4 Decline 5 Mucalinda
Mucalinda
Lake 6 Restoration 7 Architectural style 8 Control of the site 9 Current status and management 10 Recent events

10.1 2013 attack

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

The Buddha[edit] Traditional accounts say that, around 589 BCE,[citation needed] Siddhartha Gautama, a young prince who saw the suffering of the world and wanted to end it, reached the forested banks of the Phalgu
Phalgu
river, near the city of Gaya, India. There he sat in meditation under a peepul tree (Ficus religiosa or Sacred Fig) which later became known as the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree. According to Buddhist
Buddhist
scriptures, after three days and three nights, Siddharta attained enlightenment and the answers that he had sought. In that location, Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
was built by Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
in around 260 BCE.[3] The Buddha
Buddha
then spent the succeeding seven weeks at seven different spots in the vicinity meditating and considering his experience. Several specific places at the current Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
relate to the traditions surrounding these seven weeks:[3]

A Buddhist
Buddhist
devotee offering prayers to the Buddha
Buddha
at the temple

Information Board

The first week was spent under the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree. During the second week, the Buddha
Buddha
remained standing and stared, uninterrupted, at the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree. This spot is marked by the Animeshlocha Stupa, that is, the unblinking stupa or shrine, to the north-east of the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
complex. There stands a statue of Buddha
Buddha
with his eyes fixed towards the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree. The Buddha
Buddha
is said to have walked back and forth between the location of the Animeshlocha Stupa
Stupa
and the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree. According to legend, lotus flowers sprung up along this route; it is now called Ratnachakrama or the jewel walk. He spent the fourth week near Ratnagar Chaitya, to the north-east side. During the fifth week, Buddha
Buddha
answered in details to the queries of Brahmins under the Ajapala Nigodh tree, now marked by a pillar. He spent the sixth week next to the Lotus pond. He spent the seventh week under the Rajyatna tree.[3]

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree[edit] Main article: Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree § Bodh Gaya

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree

A monk roaming under Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree

The Bodhi
Bodhi
tree at Bodhgaya is directly connected to the life of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, who attained enlightenment or perfect insight when he was meditating under it. The temple was built directly to the east of the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree, supposedly a direct descendant of the original Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree.[3] According to Buddhist
Buddhist
mythology, if no Bodhi
Bodhi
tree grows at the site, the ground around the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree is devoid of all plants for a distance of one royal karīsa. Through the ground around the Bodhi tree no being, not even an elephant, can travel.[4] According to the Jatakas, the navel of the earth lies at this spot,[5] and no other place can support the weight of the Buddha's attainment.[6] Another Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition claims that when the world is destroyed at the end of a kalpa, the Bodhimanda is the last spot to disappear, and will be the first to appear when the world emerges into existence again. Tradition also claims that a lotus will bloom there, and if a Buddha
Buddha
is born during that the new kalpa, the lotus flowers in accordance with the number of Buddhas expected to arise.[7] According to legend, in the case of Gautama Buddha, a Bodhi
Bodhi
tree sprang up on the day he was born.[8] Temple construction[edit] Mauryan establishment[edit]

Discovery of the Diamond throne, built by Ashoka
Ashoka
c.250 BCE.

In approximately 250 BCE, about 200 years after the Buddha
Buddha
attained Enlightenment, Buddhist
Buddhist
Emperor Asoka
Asoka
visited Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
in order to establish a monastery and shrine on the holy site, which have today disappeared.[3] There remains however the Diamond throne, which he had established at the foot of the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree.[9] The Diamond throne, or Vajrasana, is thought to have been built by Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
of the Maurya Empire between 250-233 BCE,.[10] at the location where the Buddha
Buddha
reached enlightenment.[11] It is worshiped today, and is the center of many festivities at the Mahabodhi Temple. Representations of the early temple structure meant to protect the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree are found at Sanchi, on the toraṇas of Stūpa I, dating from around 25 BCE, and on a relief carving from the stupa railing at Bhārhut, from the early Shunga period (c. 185–c. 73 BCE).[12] Sunga
Sunga
structures[edit]

Reconstitution of the Sunga
Sunga
period pillars at Bodh Gaya, from archaeology (left) and from artistic relief (right). They are dated to the 1st century BCE. Reconstitution done by Alexander Cunningham.[13]

Columns with pot-shaped bases[edit] Additional structures were brought in by the Sungas. In particular, columns with pot-shaped bases were found around the Diamond throne. These columns are thought to date to the 1st century BCE, towards the end of the Sungas. These columns, which were found through archaeological research at the Buddha's Walk in the Mahabodhi Temple, quite precisely match the columns described on the reliefs found on the gateway pillars.[9] Railings[edit] The railing also around the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
at Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
is quite ancient. These are old sandstone posts dating about 150 BCE, during the Sunga
Sunga
period. There are carved panels as well as medallions, with many scene similar to those of the contemporary Sunga
Sunga
railings at Bharhut
Bharhut
(150 BCE) and Sanchi
Sanchi
(115 BCE), although the reliefs at Sanchi Stupa
Stupa
No.2 are often considered as the oldest of all.[14][15] The railing was extended during the following century, down to the end of Gupta period (7th century), with coarse granite decorated with elaborate foliate ornaments and small figures as well as stupas.[16] Many parts of the initial railing have been dismantled and are now in museums, such as the Indian Museum
Indian Museum
in Kolkota, and have been replaced by plaster copies.

Sunga
Sunga
railings at Bodh Gaya

Original railings

Early photographs of the railings (Henry Baily Wade Garrick, 1880).

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Sunga
Sunga
pillar.

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Sunga
Sunga
railing.

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Sunga
Sunga
railing.

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Sunga
Sunga
railing.

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Sunga
Sunga
railing.

1903 photograph.

Remains of the railings in the Indian Museum, Kolkata.

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
original railings, Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
original railings, Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Railing post.

Another railing post.

Devotion scenes

Bodhi
Bodhi
tree.

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree.

Dharmacakra.

Medallion.

Adoration of the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree.

Animals

Elephant.

Centaur.

Horse.

Winged lion.

Cow nourishing her calf.

Bull.

Stories

The Jetavana
Jetavana
Garden at Sravasti.

Padakusalamanava Jataka.[17]

Padakusalamanava Jataka.

Woman with child and goat.

Devotee and grottoe.

Amorous scene (drawing).

Amorous scene.

Miraculous River crossing.

Miraculous river-crossing (drawing)

Devotee and apsara.

Visit of Indra
Indra
to the Indrasala Cave.

Kalpa drum.

Lakshmi
Lakshmi
lustrated by elephants.

Music scene.

Palace scene, Sibi Jataka.

Ploughing scene.

Individual elements

Devotee.

Devotee.

Devotee.

Apsara.

Apsara
Apsara
(drawing).

Vegetal medallion.

The railings today at Bodh Gaya (mainly plaster duplicates)

Plaster
Plaster
copy and reconstruction of original Sunga
Sunga
railing.

Railing.

Post relief (plaster copy).

Adoration of the wheel of the Law (plaster copy).

Flower Design decorated with gold leaves.

Decorated railing.

Current temple by the Guptas[edit]

Temple before restoration

While Asoka
Asoka
is considered the Mahabodhi temple's founder, the current structure dates from the Gupta Empire, in the 5th–6th century CE.[3] However this may represent a restoration of earlier work of the 2nd or 3rd century. When the temple acquired its shikhara tower, today considered more characteristic of Hindu temples, is therefore uncertain. This has an amalaka near the top.[2] The pyramidal temple probably replaced an open pavilion that had been constructed around the tree and the Asokan platform. The new Mahabodhi temple included a diamond throne (called the Vajrasana) to mark the exact spot of the Buddha's enlightenment. The Temple was restored by the British and India
India
post independence. Decline[edit] Buddhism
Buddhism
declined when the dynasties patronizing it declined, following Huna invasions and the early Arab
Arab
Islamic invasions such as that of Muhammad bin Qasim. A strong revival occurred under the Pala Empire in the northeast of the subcontinent (where the temple is situated). Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
flourished under the Palas between the 8th and the 12th century. However, after the defeat of the Palas by the Hindu Sena dynasty, Buddhism's position again began to erode and became nearly extinct in India. During the 12th century CE, Bodh Gaya and the nearby regions were invaded by Muslim
Muslim
Turk armies. During this period, the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
fell into disrepair and was largely abandoned.[3] Over the following centuries, the monastery's abbot or mahant position became occupied by the area's primary landholder, who claimed ownership of the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
grounds. In the 13th century, Burmese Buddhists built a temple with the same name and modelled on the original Mahabodhi Temple.[18][page needed] Mucalinda
Mucalinda
Lake[edit]

A statue of Mucalinda
Mucalinda
protecting the Buddha
Buddha
in Mucalinda
Mucalinda
Lake, Mahabodhi Temple

It is said that four weeks after the Buddha
Buddha
began meditating under the Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree, the heavens darkened for seven days, and a prodigious rain descended. However, the mighty king of serpents, Mucalinda, came from beneath the earth and protected with his hood the one who is the source of all protection. When the great storm had cleared, the serpent king assumed his human form, bowed before the Buddha, and returned in joy to his palace. The subject of Buddha
Buddha
meditating under the protection of Mucalinda
Mucalinda
is very common in Lao Buddhist
Buddhist
art. One modern rendition is present in Bunleua Sulilat's sculpture park Sala Keoku. Restoration[edit]

The temple as it appeared in 1899, shortly after its restoration in the 1880s

During the 11th century and the 19th century, Burmese rulers undertook restoration of the temple complex and surrounding wall.[19] In the 1880s, the then-British colonial government of India
India
began to restore Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
under the direction of Sir Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
and Joseph David Beglar. In 1885, Sir Edwin Arnold
Edwin Arnold
visited the site and under guidance from Ven. Weligama Sri Sumangala published several articles drawing the attention of the Buddhists to the deplorable conditions of Buddhagaya.[20][21] Architectural style[edit]

Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
quadriga relief of the sun god Surya
Surya
riding between Buddhist pillars (detail of a railing post), 2nd-1st century BCE.

Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
is constructed of brick and is one of the oldest brick structures to have survived in eastern India. It is considered to be a fine example of Indian brickwork, and was highly influential in the development of later architectural traditions. According to UNESCO, "the present temple is one of the earliest and most imposing structures built entirely in brick from Gupta period" (300–600 CE).[3] Mahabodhi Temple's central tower rises 55 metres (180 ft), and were heavily renovated in the 19th century. The central tower is surrounded by four smaller towers, constructed in the same style. The Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
is surrounded on all four sides by stone railings, about two metres high. The railings reveal two distinct types, both in style as well as the materials used. The older ones, made of sandstone, date to about 150 BCE, and the others, constructed from unpolished coarse granite, are believed to be of the Gupta period. The older railings have scenes such as Lakshmi, the Hindu/ Buddhist
Buddhist
goddess of wealth, being bathed by elephants; and Surya, the Hindu sun god, riding a chariot drawn by four horses. The newer railings have figures of stupas (reliquary shrines) and garudas (eagles). Images of lotus flowers also appear commonly. Images of the site include Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
(Padmapani, Khasarpana), Vajrapani, Tara, Marichi, Yamantaka, Jambhala
Jambhala
and Vajravārāhī.[22] Images of Vishnu, Shiva, Surya
Surya
and other Vedic deities are also associated with the site.[22] Control of the site[edit] In 1891, a campaign to return control of the temple to Buddhists, over the objections of the Hindu mahant. The campaign was partially successful in 1949, when control passed from the Hindu mahant to the state government of Bihar, which established a Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Temple Management Committee (BTMC) under the Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Temple Act of 1949.[23] The committee has nine members, a majority of whom, including the chairman, must by law be Hindus.[24] Mahabodhi's first head monk under the management committee was Anagarika Munindra, a Bengali man who had been an active member of the Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
Society. In 2013, the Bihar
Bihar
government amended the Bodh Gaya Temple Act of 1949, allowing for a non-Hindu to head the temple committee.[23] Current status and management[edit]

The temple undergoing repairs (from January, 2006).

The Bihar
Bihar
state government assumed responsibility for the protection, management, and monitoring of temple and its properties when India gained its independence. Pursuant to the Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Temple Act of 1949, such responsibilities are shared with the Bodhgaya Temple Management Committee, and an advisory board. By law, the Committee must consist of four Buddhist
Buddhist
and four Hindu representatives, including the head of Sankaracharya Math monastery as an ex-officio Hindu member.[25] The Committee serves for a three-year term.[25] A 2013 Amendment to Bodhgaya Temple Management Act allows the Gaya District Magistrate to be the Chairman of committee, even if he is not Hindu.[26] The Advisory Board consists of the governor of Bihar
Bihar
and twenty to twenty-five other members, half of them from foreign Buddhist countries. In June 2002, the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
became a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[25] All finds of religious artifacts in the area are legally protected under the Treasure Trove Act of 1878. The temple's head monk, Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhipala, resigned in 2007 after he was charged with cutting the branches of Holy Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree on a regular basis and selling them to foreigners for significant amounts of money. A newspaper alleged that wealthy Thai buyers bought a branch with the cooperation of senior members of the temple's management committee.[27] While the temple's spokesman stated that botanists had pruned the tree, the Bihar
Bihar
home secretary ordered the tree examined.[28] A criminal charge was filed against Bodhipala.[citation needed] If convicted, Bodhipala would be subject to at least 10 years' imprisonment. Following the expiration of the Committee's term in September 2007, Bihar's government delayed appointing a new Committee and the district magistrate administered the temple pending such appointment.[25] Eventually, on May 16, 2008 the government announced the appointment of a new Temple Management Committee.[29] As of June 2017, the temples head monk was Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Chalinda.[2] Recent events[edit] In 2013, the upper portion of the temple was covered with gold. The gold was a gift from the King of Thailand and devotees from Thailand, and installed with the approval of the Archaeological Survey of India.[30] 2013 attack[edit] Main article: 2013 Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
blasts On 7 July 2013, ten low-intensity bombs exploded in the temple complex, injuring 5 people. One bomb was near the statue of Buddha
Buddha
and another was near the Mahabodhi tree. Three unexploded bombs were also found and defused. The blasts took place between 5.30 a.m. and 6.00 a.m.[31][32] The main temple was undamaged.[31] The Intelligence Bureau of India
India
may have alerted state officials of possible threats around 15 days prior to the bombing.[33] On 4 November 2013, the National Investigation Agency
National Investigation Agency
announced that the Islamic terrorist group Indian Mujahideen was responsible for the bombings.[34][35] See also[edit]

Part of a series on

Buddhism

History

Timeline Gautama Buddha

Councils Later Buddhists

Dharma Concepts

Four Noble Truths

Five Aggregates Impermanence

Suffering Non-self

Dependent Origination

Middle Way Emptiness Karma

Rebirth Saṃsāra Cosmology

Buddhist
Buddhist
texts

Buddhavacana Tripiṭaka Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras Pāli Canon Tibetan canon Chinese canon

Practices

Three Jewels

Buddhist
Buddhist
Paths to liberation

Morality Perfections Meditation Philosophical reasoning

Mindfulness Wisdom

Compassion

Aids to Enlightenment Monasticism

Laity

Nirvāṇa

Four Stages Arhat

Buddha Bodhisattva

Traditions

Theravāda Pāli Mahāyāna

Hinayana Chinese Vajrayāna

Tibetan Navayana Newar

Buddhism
Buddhism
by country

India China Thailand Japan Myanmar Sri Lanka Laos Cambodia Korea Taiwan Tibet Bhutan Mongolia Russia

Outline Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

v t e

India
India
portal Buddhism
Buddhism
portal Architecture portal

Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
is one of the most replicated Buddhist
Buddhist
structures, both as temples and miniature replicas.[36]

Zhenjue Temple, Beijing China Mahabodhi Temple, Bagan, Burma Wat
Wat
Chet Yot, Chiang Mai, Thailand Shwegugyi Temple

Notes[edit]

^ "World Heritage Day: Five must-visit sites in India".  ^ a b c d Harle, 201; Michell, 228-229 ^ a b c d e f g h " Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
Complex at Bodh Gaya". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 January 2015.  ^ "Tipitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Kaligga Bodhi
Bodhi
Jataka, Jataka
Jataka
N:o 479". Internet Sacred Text Archive. Retrieved 6 January 2015.  ^ J.iv.233 (puthuvinābhi) ^ J.iv.229 ^ DA.ii.412 ^ DA.ii.425; BuA.248 ^ a b Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.240 ^ Buddhist
Buddhist
Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le p.240 ^ A Global History of Architecture, Francis D. K. Ching, Mark M. Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash, John Wiley & Sons, 2017 p.570ff ^ "Sowing the Seeds of the Lotus: A Journey to the Great Pilgrimage Sites of Buddhism, Part I" by John C. Huntington. Orientations, November 1985 pg 61 ^ Mahâbodhi, or the great Buddhist
Buddhist
temple under the Bodhi
Bodhi
tree at Buddha-Gaya, Alexander Cunningham, 1892 [1] ^ Didactic Narration: Jataka
Jataka
Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka
Jataka
Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.15ff ^ "The railing of Sanchi
Sanchi
Stupa
Stupa
No.2, which represents the oldest extensive stupa decoration in existence, (and) dates from about the second century B.C.E" Constituting Communities: Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Religious Cultures of South and Southeast Asia, John Clifford Holt, Jacob N. Kinnard , Jonathan S. Walters, SUNY Press, 2012 p.197 ^ British Library Online Gallery ^ The Padakusalamanava Jataka, in which a horse-headed ogress falls in love with one of her preys, and the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
(the future Buddha) is born of their union. In: Didactic Narration: Jataka
Jataka
Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka
Jataka
Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.15ff ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. ^ "History of Bodh Gaya, India, Place of Buddhas Enlightenment". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 2014-03-03.  ^ India
India
Revisited by Sri Edwin Arnold
Edwin Arnold
Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dipak K. Barua, “ Buddha
Buddha
Gaya Temple: its history” ^ a b Geary, David; Sayers, Matthew R.; Amar, Abhishek Singh (2012). Cross-disciplinary perspectives on a contested Buddhist
Buddhist
site : Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
jataka. London: Routledge. pp. 29–40. ISBN 978-0-415-68452-1.  ^ a b Amendment allows non-Hindu to head Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
temple committee, The Hindu, August 1, 2013 ^ D.C.Ahir (1994). Buddha
Buddha
Gaya Through the Ages. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications. pp. 127–133. ISBN 81-7030-409-1.  ^ a b c d Buddhists seek control over Mahabodhi temple management IANS. March 28, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2008. ^ "The Controversial Bodhgaya Temple (Amendment) Bill 2013". Archived from the original on August 7, 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ Scandal gnaws at Buddha's holy tree in India. Denyer, Simon. Reuters News Service. February 3, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008. ^ No damage to Bodhi
Bodhi
tree: Govt. Singh, Sanjay. July 21, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2008. ^ "Holiest Buddhist
Buddhist
shrine gets governing panel, finally". Thaindian.com. 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2010-04-24.  ^ "300 kg gold gift from Thailand gives Bodhgaya temple a new look". India
India
Today. Retrieved 2014-03-04.  ^ a b "Serial Blasts rock Mahabodhi temple in Bodha gaya: terror attack, Center says". The Times of India. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ Law, Kumar Mishra (7 July 2013). "5 injured in multiple blasts at Mahabodhi temple in Bodh Gaya". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ "Security beefed up in city, Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
– The Times of India". The Times Of India.  ^ Tiwari, Deeptiman (6 November 2013). "Ranchi document helps NIA crack Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
blast case". Times of India. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  ^ Gaikwad, Rahi; Yadav Anumeha; Pandey Devesh (7 November 2013). " Patna
Patna
terror cell behind Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
strike too: NIA". The Hindu. Patna, Ranchi, New Delhi. The Hindu. Retrieved 7 November 2013.  ^ The Mahabodhi temple: pilgrim souvenirs of Buddhist, J. Guy, Burlington Magazine, 1991, 133, 3560357

References[edit]

Harle, J.C., The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176 Michell, George, The Penguin Guide to the Monuments of India, Volume 1: Buddhist, Jain, Hindu, 1989, Penguin Books, ISBN 0140081445

Further reading[edit]

Horner, I.B. (trans.) (1975; reprinted 2000). The Minor Anthologies of the Pali
Pali
Canon (Part III): 'Chronicle of Buddhas' (Buddhavamsa) and 'Basket of Conduct' (Cariyapitaka). Oxford: Pali
Pali
Text Society. ISBN 0-86013-072-X. Doyle, Tara N. (2003-09-11). Liberate the Mahabodhi Temple! Socially Engaged Buddhism, Dalit-Style. In: Steven Heine, Charles Prebish (eds), Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Modern World. Oxford University Press. pp. 249–280. ISBN 0-19-514698-0.  Kinnard, Jacob N. (1998). When Is The Buddha
Buddha
Not the Buddha? The Hindu/ Buddhist
Buddhist
Battle over Bodhgayā and Its Buddha
Buddha
Image, Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66 (4), 817-839 Knopf, Rainer (2000). Bodh-Gaya: Ein internationales Zentrum des Buddhismus in nicht-buddhistischer Umgebung, Internationales Asienforum 31 (3-4), 289-314 NCERT (2012). An Introduction to Indian Art (PDF). NCERT. ISBN 978-93-5007-187-8.  von Schroeder, Ulrich (2001). Buddhist
Buddhist
Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. One: India
India
& Nepal; Vol. Two: Tibet & China. Hong Kong: Visual Dharma
Dharma
Publications, Ltd. ISBN 962-7049-07-7. Mahãbodhi temple, known to the Tibetans as rDo rje gdan («dorje den») (Skt.: Vajrāsana), pp. 103, 212, 216, 219, 246, 320–351, 356, 360, 369, 395, 396, 677, 707, 708, 870, 1242; Fig. IV–1. Replicas of the Mahābodhi temple in Tibet, pp. 321–351; Figs. IV–2–5; Pls. 111, 112, 113A–C, 113D–F, 114A–C, 114D–F, 115A–C, 115D–F.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
(category)

Land Enlightenment of the Buddha Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
and attraction around it Bodhgaya News UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage

v t e

World Heritage Sites in India

North

Agra Fort The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Fatehpur Sikri Great Himalayan National Park Humayun's Tomb Keoladeo National Park Khajuraho Group of Monuments Kalka-Shimla Railway Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks Qutub Minar and its Monuments Red Fort
Red Fort
Complex Taj Mahal

East

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Kaziranga National Park Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
Complex Nalanda Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Sun Temple at Konark Sundarbans National Park Khangchendzonga National Park

South

Great Living Chola Temples Group of Monuments at Hampi Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram Group of Monuments at Pattadakal Nilgiri Mountain Railway Western Ghats

West

Historic City of Ahmadabad Ajanta Caves Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Churches and convents of Goa Elephanta Caves Ellora Caves Hill Forts of Rajasthan Jantar Mantar of Jaipur Rani ki vav Buddhist
Buddhist
Monuments at Sanchi Western Ghats

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha
Buddha
stayed Buddha
Buddha
in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
canon Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist
Buddhist
schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist
Buddhist
councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from Nepal Buddhist
Buddhist
crisis Sinhalese Buddhist
Buddhist
nationalism Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture Korean Buddhist
Buddhist
temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

v t e

Gautama Buddha

Buddhism Core teachings

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Middle Way sayings

Disciples

ten principal disciples

Four sights Family Places

Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree, Mahabodhi Temple pilgrimage sites

Miracles Birthday Prophesied Physical characteristics Death Relics

Cetiya tooth footprint

Buddha
Buddha
statues Iconography Films Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in world religions

Hinduism

Commons Wikiquote

Authority control

.