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Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
(Latin: Flavius Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
Augustus, Welsh: Macsen Wledig) (c. 335—August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 383 to 388. In 383, as commander of Britain, he usurped the throne against emperor Gratian, and by negotiation with emperor Theodosius I, he was made emperor in Britannia and Gaul
Gaul
the next year while Gratian's brother Valentinian II
Valentinian II
retained Italy, Pannonia, Hispania, and Africa. In 387, Maximus's ambitions led him to invade Italy, resulting in his defeat by Theodosius I
Theodosius I
at the Battle of the Save
Battle of the Save
in 388. In the view of some historians, his death marked the end of direct imperial presence in Northern Gaul
Gaul
and Britain.[1]

Contents

1 Life 2 Role in British and Breton history 3 Welsh legend

3.1 Geoffrey of Monmouth 3.2 The Dream of Macsen Wledig

4 Later literature 5 See also 6 Primary sources 7 References 8 External links

Life[edit] Maximus was born c. 335 in Gallaecia, on the estates of Count Theodosius (the Elder), to whom he was a nephew. Maximus was the son of Roman general Flavius Iulius Eucherius and the brother of Marcellinus. Near contemporaries described his dignity as offended when lesser men were promoted to high positions. Maximus was a distinguished Roman general; he served under Count Theodosius in Africa in 373 and on the Danube
Danube
in 376. It is likely he also may have been a junior officer in Britain in 368, during the quelling of the Great Conspiracy. Assigned to Britain in 380, he defeated an incursion of the Picts
Picts
and Scots in 381. The western emperor Gratian
Gratian
had become unpopular because of perceived favouritism toward Alans
Alans
over Roman citizens. The Alans
Alans
are an Iranian speaking people (see also Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Ossetians) who were early adopters of Christianity
Christianity
and migrated both east and west from their homeland. In 383 Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops. He went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions, taking a large portion of the British garrison troops with him. Following his landing in Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, emperor Gratian, whom he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon
Lyon
on August 25, 383. Continuing his campaign into Italy, Maximus was stopped from overthrowing Valentinian II, who was only twelve, when Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor, sent Flavius Bauto with a powerful force to stop him. Negotiations followed in 384 including the intervention of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, leading to an accord with Valentinian II
Valentinian II
and Theodosius I
Theodosius I
in which Maximus was recognized as Augustus
Augustus
in the west. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul, and ruled Britain, Gaul, Spain and Africa. He issued coinage and a number of edicts reorganizing Gaul's system of provinces. Some scholars believe Maximus may have founded the office of the Comes Britanniarum as well. He became a popular emperor; Quintus Aurelius Symmachus delivered a panegyric on Maximus's virtues. He used foederati forces such as the Alamanni
Alamanni
to great effect. He was also a stern persecutor of heretics. It was on his orders that Priscillian and six companions were executed for heresy, in this case of Priscillianism, although the actual civil charges laid by Maximus himself were for the practice of magic. These executions went ahead despite the wishes of prominent men such as St. Martin of Tours. Maximus's edict of 387 or 388 which censured Christians at Rome
Rome
for burning down a Jewish synagogue, was condemned by bishop Ambrose, who said people exclaimed: ‘the emperor has become a Jew’.[2] In 387 Maximus managed to force emperor Valentinian II
Valentinian II
out of Milan, after which he fled to Theodosius I. Theodosius I
Theodosius I
and Valentinian II then invaded from the east, and campaigned against Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
in July–August 388, their troops being led by Richomeres and other generals. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save,[3] and retreated to Aquileia. Meanwhile, the Franks
Franks
under Marcomer had taken the opportunity to invade northern Gaul, at the same time further weakening Maximus' position. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and the killer of emperor Gratian, was defeated near Siscia
Siscia
while Maximus' brother, Marcellinus, fell in battle at Poetovio.[4] Maximus surrendered in Aquileia, and although he pleaded for mercy was executed. The Senate passed a decree of Damnatio memoriae
Damnatio memoriae
against him. However, his mother and at least two daughters were spared.[5] Theodosius's trusted general Arbogast strangled Maximus's son, Flavius Victor, at Trier
Trier
in the fall of the same year.[6] What exactly happened to Maximus's family after his downfall is not recorded. He is known to have had a wife, who is recorded as having sought spiritual counsel from St. Martin of Tours
St. Martin of Tours
during his time at Trier. Her ultimate fate, and even her name (but see the Welsh tradition below), have not been preserved in definitive historic records. The same is true of Maximus's mother and daughters, other than that they were spared by Theodosius I. One of Maximus's daughters may have been married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Ennodius's grandson was Petronius Maximus, another ill-fated emperor, who ruled in Rome
Rome
for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants of Ennodius, and thus possibly of Maximus, included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia
Pavia
c. 514-21). We also encounter an otherwise unrecorded daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Role in British and Breton history[edit] Maximus's bid for imperial power in 383 coincides with the last date for any evidence of a Roman military presence in Wales, the western Pennines, and the fortress of Deva. Coins dated later than 383 have been found in excavations along Hadrian's Wall, suggesting that troops were not stripped from it, as was once thought.[7] In the De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae written c. 540, Gildas
Gildas
says that Maximus left Britain not only with all of its Roman troops, but also with all of its armed bands, governors, and the flower of its youth, never to return.[8] Having left with the troops and senior administrators, and planning to continue as the ruler of Britain in the future, his practical course was to transfer local authority to local rulers. Welsh legend supports that this happened, with stories such as Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (English: The Dream of Emperor Maximus), where he not only marries a wondrous British woman (thus making British descendants probable), but also gives her father sovereignty over Britain (thus formally transferring authority from Rome
Rome
back to the Britons themselves). The earliest Welsh genealogies give Maximus (referred to as Macsen/Maxen Wledig, or Emperor Maximus) the role of founding father of the dynasties of several medieval Welsh kingdoms, including those of Powys and Gwent.[9][10] He is given as the ancestor of a Welsh king on the Pillar of Eliseg, erected nearly 500 years after he left Britain, and he figures in lists of the Fifteen Tribes of Wales.[11] After he became emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Maximus would return to Britain to campaign against the Picts
Picts
and Scots (i.e., Irish), probably in support of Rome's long-standing allies the Damnonii, Votadini, and Novantae
Novantae
(all located in modern Scotland). While there he likely made similar arrangements for a formal transfer of authority to local chiefs—the later rulers of Galloway, home to the Novantae, would claim Maximus as the founder of their line, the same as did the Welsh kings.[7] The ninth century Historia Brittonum gives another account of Maximus and assigns him an important role:

The seventh emperor was Maximianus, He withdrew from Britain with all its military force, slew Gratianus the king of the Romans, and obtained the sovereignty of all Europe. Unwilling to send back his warlike companions to their wives, families, and possessions in Britain, he conferred upon them numerous districts from the lake on the summit of Mons Iovis, to the city called Cant Guic, and to the western Tumulus, that is Cruc Occident. These are the Armoric Britons, and they remain there to the present day. In consequence of their absence, Britain being overcome by foreign nations, the lawful heirs were cast out, till God interposed with his assistance.

Modern historians believe that this idea of mass British troop settlement in Brittany
Brittany
by Maximus may very well reflect some reality, as it accords with archaeological and other historical evidence and later Breton traditions. Armorica
Armorica
declared independence from the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 407 CE, but contributed archers for Flavius Aetius's defence against Attila
Attila
the Hun, and its king Riothamus was subsequently mentioned in contemporary documents as an ally of Rome's against the Goths. Despite its continued usage of two distinct languages, Breton and Gallo, and extensive invasions and conquests by Franks
Franks
and Vikings, Armorica retained considerable cultural cohesion into the 13th century. Maximus also established a military base in his native Gallaecia, i.e. Galicia (Spain), which persisted as a cultural entity despite occupation by the Suebi
Suebi
in 409, see Kingdom of Galicia. This kingdom successfully resisted the Moors and subsequently initiated the Spanish Reconquista. Aetius sent large numbers of Alans
Alans
to both Armorica
Armorica
and Galicia following the defeat of Attila
Attila
at the Battle of the Catalunian Plains. The Alans
Alans
evidently assimilated quickly into the local Celtic cultures, contributing their own legends, e.g. to the Arthurian Cycle of romances. Welsh legend[edit] Legendary versions of Maximus's career in which he marries the Welsh princess Elen may have circulated in popular tradition in Welsh-speaking areas from an early date. Although the story of Helen and Maximus's meeting is almost certainly fictional, there is some evidence for the basic claims. He is certainly given a prominent place in the earliest version of the Welsh Triads
Welsh Triads
which are believed to date from c. 1100 and which reflect far older traditions. Welsh poetry also frequently refers to Macsen as a figure of comparison with later Welsh leaders. These legends come down to us in two separate versions.[11] Geoffrey of Monmouth[edit]

Illustration from a 14th Century Welsh manuscript thought to intend to depict Magnus Maximus. Llanbeblig Hours (f. 3r.)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain/Book 5

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's fictional Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136), the basis for many English and Welsh legends, Maximianus as he calls him, was a Roman senator, a nephew of Coel Hen through Coel's brother Ioelinus, and king of the Britons following the death of Eudaf Hen. Geoffrey writes this came about because Octavius wanted to wed his daughter to such a powerful half-Roman-half-Briton and to give the kingship of Britain, as a dowry, to that husband, so he sent a message to Rome
Rome
offering his daughter to Maximian. Caradocus, the Duke of Cornwall, had suggested and supported the marriage between Octavius's daughter and Maximian. Maximian
Maximian
accepted the offer and left Rome
Rome
for Britain. Geoffrey claims further that Maximian
Maximian
gathered an army as he sacked Frankish towns along the way. He invaded Clausentum (modern Southampton) unintentionally and nearly fought the army of the Britons under Conan Meriadoc before agreeing to a truce. Following further negotiations, Maximian
Maximian
was given the kingship of Britain and Octavius retired. Five years into his kingship, Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
assembled a vast fleet and invaded Gaul, leaving Britain in the control of Caradocus. Upon reaching the kingdom of Armorica
Armorica
(historically, the region between the Loire and Seine rivers, later comprising Brittany, Normandy, Anjou, Maine and Touraine), he defeated the king and killed thousands of inhabitants. Before departing to Rome, he summoned Conanus, the rebellious nephew of Octavius, and asked him to rule as king of the land, which was renamed Brittany, or "Little Britain". Conan's men married native women after cutting out their tongues to preserve the purity of their language. Geoffrey of Monmouth presents this legend to explain the Welsh name for Brittany, Llydaw, as originating from lled-taw or "half-silent". Given that Conan was well established in genealogies as the founder of Brittany, this account is certainly connected to an older tradition than Geoffrey. Following the death of Caradocus, rule of Britain as regent passed to Dionotus, who - facing a foreign invasion - appealed to Maximus, who finally sent a man named Gracianus Municeps with two legions to stop the attack. He killed many thousands before the invaders fled to Ireland. Maximus died in Rome
Rome
soon after and Dionotus became the official king of the Britons. Unfortunately, before he could begin his reign, Gracianus took hold of the crown and made himself king over Dionotus. The Dream of Macsen Wledig[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Dream of Maxen Wledig

Main article: The Dream of Macsen Wledig Although the Mabinogion
Mabinogion
tale The Dream of Macsen Wledig
The Dream of Macsen Wledig
is written in later manuscripts than Geoffrey's version, the two accounts are so different that scholars agree the Dream cannot be based purely on Geoffrey's version. The Dream's account also seems to accord better with details in the Triads, so it perhaps reflects an earlier tradition. Macsen Wledig, the Emperor of Rome, dreams one night of a lovely maiden in a wonderful, far-off land. Awakening, he sends his men all over the earth in search of her. With much difficulty they find her in a rich castle in Wales, daughter of a chieftain based at Segontium (Caernarfon), and lead the Emperor to her. Everything he finds is exactly as in his dream. The maiden, whose name is Helen or Elen, accepts and loves him. Because Elen is found a virgin, Macsen gives her father sovereignty over the island of Britain and orders three castles built for his bride. In Macsen's absence, a new emperor seizes power and warns him not to return. With the help of men from Britain led by Elen's brother Conanus (Welsh: Cynan Meriadoc, Breton: Conan Meriadeg), Macsen marches across Gaul
Gaul
and Italy
Italy
and recaptures Rome. In gratitude to his British allies, Macsen rewards them with a portion of Gaul
Gaul
that becomes known as Brittany. Later literature[edit] The prominent place of Macsen in history, Welsh legend and in the Matter of Britain
Matter of Britain
means he is often a character or referred to in historical and Arthurian fiction. Such stories include Stephen R. Lawhead's Pendragon Cycle, Mary Stewart's The Hollow Hills, Jack Whyte's Camulod Chronicles, M J Trow's Britannia series, Nancy McKenzie's Queen of Camelot
Queen of Camelot
and Rudyard Kipling's Puck of Pook's Hill. The popular Welsh folk song Yma o Hyd, recorded by Dafydd Iwan
Dafydd Iwan
in 1981, recalls Macsen Wledig and celebrates the continued survival of the Welsh people
Welsh people
since his days. See also[edit]

Pillar of Eliseg

Primary sources[edit] He is mentioned in a number of ancient and medieval sources:

Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
Rerum Gestarum Libri Qui Supersunt XXXI.4.9 Geoffrey of Monmouth Histories of the Kings of Britain V.5-6 Gildas
Gildas
De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae
De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae
II.13-14 'Nennius' Historia Brittonum 27; 29 Orosius Historium adversum paganos VII.34 Pacatus Panegyricus Latini Pacati Deprani Dictus Theodosio Prosper (Tiro) of Aquitaine Chronicon 384; 388 Socrates Scholasticus Historia Ecclesiastica V.8; V.11 Sozomen Historia Ecclesiastica VII.13 Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
Dialogi II.6;III.11,13 Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
Historia Sacra II.49-51 Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
Vita Sancti Martini XX Trioedd Ynys Prydein (The Welsh Triads) Zosimus Historia Nova

References[edit]

^ "The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 500—c. 700" by Paul Fouracre, Rosamond McKitterick, p. 48 ^ Ambrose, Patrologia Latina, 16–17 (1845), nos. 40 ^ Pan. Lat. II.34 ^ Pan. Lat. II.35-6 ^ Ambrose, Ep. 40.32 ^ Susan Wise Bauer, "The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade", W. W. Norton & Company, 22 feb 2010 (p.68) ^ a b Frere, Sheppard Sunderland (1987), "The End of Roman Britain", Britannia: A History of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
(3rd, revised ed.), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, p. 354, ISBN 0-7102-1215-1  ^ Giles, John Allen, ed. (1841), "The Works of Gildas", The Works of Gildas
Gildas
and Nennius, London: James Bohn, p. 13 , The History, ch. 14. ^ Phillimore, Egerton, ed. (1887), "Pedigrees from Jesus College MS. 20", Y Cymmrodor, VIII, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, pp. 83–92  ^ Phillimore, Egerton (1888), "The Annales Cambriae and Old Welsh Genealogies, from Harleian MS. 3859", in Phillimore, Egerton, Y Cymmrodor, IX, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, pp. 141–183  ^ a b Rachel Bromwich, editor and translator. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, Third Edition, 2006. 441-444

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Magnus Maximus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis account Roman Empire
Roman Empire
account "Genèse de la Bretagne armoricaine" Roman Emperors DIR Magnus Maximus

Magnus Maximus Non-dynastic Born: 335 Died: 28 August 388

Regnal titles

Preceded by Gratian
Gratian
and Valentinian II Roman Emperor 383-388 Served alongside: Valentinian II, Theodosius I
Theodosius I
and Flavius Victor Succeeded by Valentinian II
Valentinian II
and Theodosius I

Political offices

Preceded by Valentinian II, Eutropius Consul of the Roman Empire 388 with Theodosius I
Theodosius I
and Maternus Cynegius Succeeded by Timasius, Promotus

Legendary titles

Preceded by Octavius King of Britain 383–388 with Dionotus (regent) Succeeded by Gracianus Municeps

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

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Celtic mythology
Celtic mythology
series

Welsh mythology

Texts and tales

Four Branches of the Mabinogi

Pwyll
Pwyll
Pendefig Dyfed Branwen
Branwen
ferch Llŷr Manawydan fab Llŷr Math fab Mathonwy

Arthurian

Culhwch
Culhwch
and Olwen Preiddeu Annwfn Pa gur Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain Geraint
Geraint
and Enid Peredur
Peredur
son of Efrawg The Dream of Rhonabwy Geraint
Geraint
son of Erbin

Other

Taliesin Cad Goddeu Welsh Triads The Dream of Macsen Wledig Englynion y Beddau Giant tales Lludd and Llefelys

Characters

Afaon fab Taliesin Amaethon Arawn Arianrhod Arthur Afallach Beli Mawr Bleiddwn Blodeuwedd Bedwyr Bendigeidfran Branwen Cai Caradog ap Bran Caswallawn Ceridwen Cigfa Creiddylad Culhwch Cyhyraeth Cyledr Wyllt Cymidei Cymeinfoll Cynon Dôn Drudwas Dylan ail Don Dywel fab Erbin Edern ap Nudd Efnysien Elen Elffin ap Gwyddno Eliwlod Eufydd Euroswydd Geraint Gilfaethwy Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr Goewin Gofannon Goreu fab Custennin Gronw Pebr Gwawl Gwern Gwrhyr Gwyddno Garanhir Gwydion Gwyn ap Nudd Gwythyr Gwalchmei Hafgan Hefeydd Hueil mab Caw Hychddwn Hyddwn Iddog ap Mynio Idris Llefelys Lleu Llŷr Lludd Llwyd Mabon Madoc ap Uthyr Macsen Wledig Mallt-y-Nos Manawydan Math Matholwch Menw Modron Morfydd Morfran Nisien Olwen Penarddun Penpingion Peredur Pryderi Pwyll Rhiannon Saint Cyllin Saint Eigen Sanddef Seithenyn Taliesin Tegid Foel Teyrnon Ysbaddaden

Animals and creatures

Adar Llwch Gwin Adar Rhiannon Afanc Cavall (Cafall, Cabal) Ceffyl Dŵr Cewri Coblynau Coraniaid Cŵn Annwn Cyhyraeth Dreigiau Gwyllgi Gwyllion Llamhigyn y Dŵr Morgens Plentyn Newid Pwca Twrch Trwyth Tylwyth Teg

Locations

Annwn Cornwall
Cornwall
(Celliwig) Caer Sidi Cantre'r Gwaelod Dyfed
Dyfed
(Arberth, Gwales) Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(Aberffraw, Arfon, Ardudwy, Caer Dathyl) Ireland London
London
(Ludgate)

Miscellaneous

Excalibur
Excalibur
(Caledfwlch) Cauldron of rebirth Llech Ronw Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain

v t e

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Works

Prophetiae Merlini
Prophetiae Merlini
(c. 1135) Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(c. 1136) Vita Merlini (c. 1150)

Translations

Roman de Brut Layamon's Brut Brut y Brenhinedd

Characters

Aeneas Saint Alban Albanactus Alhfrith of Deira Allectus Ambrosius Aurelianus Amphibalus Andragius Archgallo Archmail King Arthur Arvirargus Ascanius Augustine of Canterbury Aurelius Conanus Bedivere Beldgabred Beli Mawr Belinus Bladud Bledric ap Custennin Bledudo Brennius Brutus Greenshield Brutus of Troy Budic II of Brittany Cadfan ap Iago Cadoc Cador Cadwaladr Cadwallon ap Cadfan Camber (legendary king) Cap of Britain Capetus Silvius Capoir Caracalla Caradocus Carausius Cassivellaunus Catellus Catigern Cherin Claudius Cledaucus Clotenus Coel Hen Coilus Conan Meriadoc Constans
Constans
II (usurper) Constantine the Great Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) Constantine (Briton) Constantius Chlorus Cordelia of Britain Corineus Cunedagius Cunobeline Danius Saint David Digueillus Diocletian Dionotus Dunvallo Molmutius Ebraucus Edadus Edern ap Nudd Edwin of Northumbria Eldol Eldol, Consul of Gloucester Elidurus Eliud Enniaunus Estrildis Eudaf Hen Ferrex Fulgenius Gawain Gerennus Goffar the Pict Gogmagog (folklore) Goneril Gorboduc Gorbonianus Gorlois Gracianus Municeps Guiderius Guinevere Guithelin Gurgintius Gurguit Barbtruc Gurgustius Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio Queen Gwendolen Helena (empress) Helenus Hengist and Horsa Hoel Humber the Hun Iago ap Beli Idvallo Igraine Ingenius of Britain Jago of Britain Julius and Aaron Julius Asclepiodotus Julius Caesar Sir Kay Keredic Kimarcus Kinarius Latinus Lavinia Leil Leir of Britain Locrinus King Lot Lucius of Britain Lucius Tiberius Lud son of Heli Maddan Maelgwn Gwynedd Magnus Maximus Mandubracius Queen Marcia Marganus Marganus II Marius of Britain Mempricius Merianus Merlin Millus Mordred Morgause Morvidus Myrddin Wyllt Nennius of Britain Octa of Kent Oenus Oswald of Northumbria Oswiu of Northumbria Owain mab Urien Penda of Mercia Peredur Peredurus Pir of the Britons Porrex I Porrex II Publius Septimius Geta Quintus Laberius Durus Redechius Redon of Britain Regan (King Lear) Rhydderch Hael Rience Rivallo Rud Hud Hudibras Runo Sawyl Penuchel Septimius Severus Silvius (mythology) Sisillius I Sisillius II Sisillius III Son of Gorbonianus Taliesin Tasciovanus Trahern Turnus Urianus Uther Pendragon Venissa Vespasian Vortigern Vortimer Vortiporius Wulfhere of Mercia Ywain Æthelberht of Kent Æthelfrith of Northumbria Œthelwald of Deira

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Avalon Battle of Arfderydd Battle of Badon Battle of Camlann Battle of Guoloph Brut y Tywysogion Crocea Mors Excalibur Lailoken List of legendary kings of Britain List of legendary rulers of Cornwall Logres Matter of Britain Molmutine Laws Nennius Riothamus River Malvam Siege of Exeter (c. 630) Locations associated with Arthurian legend Treachery of the Long Knives Trinovantum Trojan genealogy of Nennius Walter of Oxford

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 232377471 LCCN: nb2011017452 ISNI: 0000 0003 6575 2652 GND: 102398631 SUDOC: 030947316 BNF:

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