The Info List - Magnesium

--- Advertisement ---

is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium
is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[4][5] It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. Magnesium
is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust[6] and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the planet's mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine.[7] Magnesium
occurs naturally only in combination with other elements, where it invariably has a +2 oxidation state. The free element (metal) can be produced artificially, and is highly reactive (though in the atmosphere, it is soon coated in a thin layer of oxide that partly inhibits reactivity — see passivation). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant-white light. The metal is now obtained mainly by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine, and is used primarily as a component in aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called magnalium or magnelium. Magnesium
is less dense than aluminium, and the alloy is prized for its combination of lightness and strength. Magnesium
is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body and is essential to all cells and some 300 enzymes.[8] Magnesium ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g., milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia.[8]


1 Characteristics

1.1 Physical properties 1.2 Chemical properties

1.2.1 Flammability 1.2.2 Source of light

1.3 Occurrence

2 Forms

2.1 Alloy

2.1.1 Corrosion 2.1.2 High-temperature creep and flammability

2.2 Compounds 2.3 Isotopes

3 Production 4 History 5 Uses as a metal

5.1 Aircraft 5.2 Automotive 5.3 Electronics 5.4 Other 5.5 Safety precautions

6 Useful compounds 7 Biological roles

7.1 Mechanism of action 7.2 Dietary sources, recommended intake, and supplementation 7.3 Metabolism 7.4 Detection in serum and plasma 7.5 Deficiency 7.6 Therapy 7.7 Overdose 7.8 Function in plants

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Characteristics Physical properties Elemental magnesium is a gray-white lightweight metal, two-thirds the density of aluminium. It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although, unlike the other alkaline earth metals, an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary for storage because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide that is fairly impermeable and difficult to remove. Magnesium
has the lowest melting (923 K (1,202 °F)) and the lowest boiling point 1,363 K (1,994 °F) of all the alkaline earth metals. Magnesium
reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium, a similar group 2 metal. When submerged in water, hydrogen bubbles form slowly on the surface of the metal—though, if powdered, it reacts much more rapidly. The reaction occurs faster with higher temperatures (see safety precautions). Magnesium's reversible reaction with water can be harnessed to store energy and run a magnesium-based engine. Magnesium
also reacts exothermically with most acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), producing the metal chloride and hydrogen gas, similar to the HCl reaction with aluminium, zinc, and many other metals. Chemical properties Flammability Magnesium
is highly flammable, especially when powdered or shaved into thin strips, though it is difficult to ignite in mass or bulk. Flame temperatures of magnesium and magnesium alloys can reach 3,100 °C (5,610 °F),[9] although flame height above the burning metal is usually less than 300 mm (12 in).[10] Once ignited, such fires are difficult to extinguish, with combustion continuing in nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon), and water (forming magnesium oxide and hydrogen). This property was used in incendiary weapons during the firebombing of cities in World War II, where the only practical civil defense was to smother a burning flare under dry sand to exclude atmosphere from the combustion. Magnesium
may also be used as an igniter for thermite, a mixture of aluminium and iron oxide powder that ignites only at a very high temperature. Source of light When burning in air, magnesium produces a brilliant-white light that includes strong ultraviolet wavelengths. Magnesium
powder (flash powder) was used for subject illumination in the early days of photography.[11][12] Later, magnesium filament was used in electrically ignited single-use photography flashbulbs. Magnesium powder is used in fireworks and marine flares where a brilliant white light is required. It was also used for various theatrical effects,[13] such as lightning,[14] pistol flashes,[15] and supernatural appearances.[16] Occurrence See also: Category: Magnesium
minerals. Magnesium
is the eighth-most-abundant element in the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
by mass and tied in seventh place with iron in molarity.[6] It is found in large deposits of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals, and in mineral waters, where magnesium ion is soluble. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only dolomite, magnesite, brucite, carnallite, talc, and olivine are of commercial importance. The Mg2+ cation is the second-most-abundant cation in seawater (about ⅛ the mass of sodium ions in a given sample), which makes seawater and sea salt attractive commercial sources for Mg. To extract the magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to seawater to form magnesium hydroxide precipitate.

MgCl 2 + Ca(OH) 2 → Mg(OH) 2 + CaCl 2

Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
(brucite) is insoluble in water and can be filtered out and reacted with hydrochloric acid to produced concentrated magnesium chloride.

Mg(OH) 2 + 2 HCl → MgCl 2 + 2 H 2O

From magnesium chloride, electrolysis produces magnesium. Forms Alloy As of 2013, magnesium alloy consumption was less than one million tons per year, compared with 50 million tons of aluminum alloys. Its use has been historically limited by its tendency to corrode, creep at high temperatures, and combust.[17] Corrosion The presence of iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt strongly activates corrosion. Greater than a very small percentage, these metals precipitate as intermetallic compounds, and the precipitate locales function as active cathodic sites that reduce water, causing the loss of magnesium.[17] Controlling the quantity of these metals improves corrosion resistance. Sufficient manganese overcomes the corrosive effects of iron. This requires precise control over composition, increasing costs.[17] Adding a cathodic poison captures atomic hydrogen within the structure of a metal. This prevents the formation of free hydrogen gas, an essential factor of corrosive chemical processes. The addition of about one in three hundred parts arsenic reduces its corrosion rate in a salt solution by a factor of nearly ten.[17][18] High-temperature creep and flammability Research showed that magnesium's tendency to creep at high-temperatures is eliminated by the addition of scandium and gadolinium. Flammability
is greatly reduced by a small amount of calcium in the alloy.[17] Compounds Magnesium
forms a variety of compounds important to industry and biology, including magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (Epsom salts). Isotopes Main article: Isotopes of magnesium Magnesium
has three stable isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg. All are present in significant amounts (see table of isotopes above). About 79% of Mg is 24Mg. The isotope 28Mg is radioactive and in the 1950s to 1970s was produced by several nuclear power plants for use in scientific experiments. This isotope has a relatively short half-life (21 hours) and its use was limited by shipping times. The nuclide 26Mg has found application in isotopic geology, similar to that of aluminium. 26Mg is a radiogenic daughter product of 26Al, which has a half-life of 717,000 years. Excessive quantities of stable 26Mg have been observed in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions
Ca-Al-rich inclusions
of some carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. This anomalous abundance is attributed to the decay of its parent 26Al in the inclusions, and researchers conclude that such meteorites were formed in the solar nebula before the 26Al had decayed. These are among the oldest objects in the solar system and contain preserved information about its early history. It is conventional to plot 26Mg/24Mg against an Al/Mg ratio. In an isochron dating plot, the Al/Mg ratio plotted is27Al/24Mg. The slope of the isochron has no age significance, but indicates the initial 26Al/27Al ratio in the sample at the time when the systems were separated from a common reservoir. Production

Country 2011 production (tonnes)[19]

China 661,000

U.S.[note 1] 63,500

Russia 37,000

Israel 30,000

Kazakhstan 21,000

Brazil 16,000

Ukraine 2,000

Serbia 1,500

Total 832,000

sheets and ingots

China is the dominant supplier of magnesium, with approximately 80% of the world market share. China is almost completely reliant on the silicothermic Pidgeon process
Pidgeon process
(the reduction of the oxide at high temperatures with silicon, often provided by a ferrosilicon alloy in which the iron is but a spectator in the reactions) to obtain the metal.[20] The process can also be carried out with carbon at approx 2300 °C:

2MgO (s) + Si (s) + 2CaO (s) → 2Mg (g) + Ca 2SiO 4(s) MgO (s) + C (s) → Mg (g) + CO (g)

In the United States, magnesium is obtained principally with the Dow process, by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride from brine and sea water. A saline solution containing Mg2+ ions is first treated with lime (calcium oxide) and the precipitated magnesium hydroxide is collected:

Mg2+ (aq) + CaO (s) + H 2O → Ca2+ (aq) + Mg(OH) 2(s)

The hydroxide is then converted to a partial hydrate of magnesium chloride by treating the hydroxide with hydrochloric acid and heating of the product:

Mg(OH) 2(s) + 2 HCl → MgCl 2(aq) + 2H 2O (l)

The salt is then electrolyzed in the molten state. At the cathode, the Mg2+ ion is reduced by two electrons to magnesium metal:

Mg2+ + 2 e− → Mg

At the anode, each pair of Cl− ions is oxidized to chlorine gas, releasing two electrons to complete the circuit:

2 Cl− → Cl 2 (g) + 2 e−

A new process, solid oxide membrane technology, involves the electrolytic reduction of MgO. At the cathode, Mg2+ ion is reduced by two electrons to magnesium metal. The electrolyte is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The anode is a liquid metal. At the YSZ/liquid metal anode O2− is oxidized. A layer of graphite borders the liquid metal anode, and at this interface carbon and oxygen react to form carbon monoxide. When silver is used as the liquid metal anode, there is no reductant carbon or hydrogen needed, and only oxygen gas is evolved at the anode.[21] It has been reported that this method provides a 40% reduction in cost per pound over the electrolytic reduction method.[22] This method is more environmentally sound than others because there is much less carbon dioxide emitted. The United States
United States
has traditionally been the major world supplier of this metal, supplying 45% of world production even as recently as 1995. Today, the US market share is at 7%, with a single domestic producer left, US Magnesium, a Renco Group company in Utah
born from now-defunct Magcorp.[23] History The name magnesium originates from the Greek word for a district in Thessaly
called Magnesia.[24] It is related to magnetite and manganese, which also originated from this area, and required differentiation as separate substances. See manganese for this history. In 1618, a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well there. The cows refused to drink because of the water's bitter taste, but the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal scratches and rashes. The substance became known as Epsom salts
Epsom salts
and its fame spread.[25] It was eventually recognized as hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO 4·7 H 2O. The metal itself was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in England in 1808. He used electrolysis on a mixture of magnesia and mercuric oxide.[26] Antoine Bussy
Antoine Bussy
prepared it in coherent form in 1831. Davy's first suggestion for a name was magnium,[26] but the name magnesium is now used. Uses as a metal

An unusual application of magnesium as an illumination source while wakeskating in 1931

is the third-most-commonly-used structural metal, following iron and aluminium.[27] The main applications of magnesium are, in order: aluminium alloys, die-casting (alloyed with zinc),[28] removing sulfur in the production of iron and steel, and the production of titanium in the Kroll process.[29] Magnesium
is used in super-strong, lightweight materials and alloys. For example, when infused with silicon carbide nanoparticles, it has extremely high specific strength.[30] Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II. The Germans coined the name "Elektron" for magnesium alloy, a term which is still used today. In the commercial aerospace industry, magnesium was generally restricted to engine-related components, due fire and corrosion hazards. Currently, magnesium alloy use in aerospace is increasing, driven by the importance of fuel economy.[31] Development and testing of new magnesium alloys continues, notably Elektron 21, which (in test) has proved suitable for aerospace engine, internal, and airframe components.[32] The European Community runs three R&D magnesium projects in the Aerospace priority of Six Framework Program. In the form of thin ribbons, magnesium is used to purify solvents; for example, preparing super-dry ethanol. Aircraft

Wright Aeronautical
Wright Aeronautical
used a magnesium crankcase in the WWII-era Wright Duplex Cyclone aviation engine. This presented a serious problem for the earliest models of the Boeing B-29
Boeing B-29
heavy bomber when an in-flight engine fire ignited the engine crankcase. The resulting combustion was as hot as 5,600 °F (3,100 °C) and could sever the wing spar from the fuselage.[33][34][35]


Mg alloy motorcycle engine blocks

used the alloy Elektron in the body of an early model Mercedes-Benz
300 SLR; these cars ran (with successes) at Le Mans, the Mille Miglia, and other world-class race events in 1955. Porsche
used magnesium alloy frames in the 917/053 that won Le Mans in 1971, and continues to use magnesium alloys for its engine blocks due to the weight advantage. Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
has used magnesium in its engine components for many years.[citation needed] Mitsubishi Motors
Mitsubishi Motors
uses magnesium for its paddle shifters. BMW
used magnesium alloy blocks in their N52 engine, including an aluminium alloy insert for the cylinder walls and cooling jackets surrounded by a high-temperature magnesium alloy AJ62A. The engine was used worldwide between 2005 and 2011 in various 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 series models; as well as the Z4, X1, X3, and X5. Chevrolet
used the magnesium alloy AE44 in the 2006 Corvette Z06.

Both AJ62A and AE44 are recent developments in high-temperature low-creep magnesium alloys. The general strategy for such alloys is to form intermetallic precipitates at the grain boundaries, for example by adding mischmetal or calcium.[36] New alloy development and lower costs that make magnesium competitive with aluminium will increase the number of automotive applications. Electronics Because of low weight and good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop and tablet computers, cameras, and other electronic components.

Products made of magnesium: firestarter and shavings, sharpener, magnesium ribbon

Other Magnesium, being readily available and relatively nontoxic, has a variety of uses:

is flammable, burning at a temperature of approximately 3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F),[9] and the autoignition temperature of magnesium ribbon is approximately 473 °C (746 K; 883 °F).[37] It produces intense, bright, white light when it burns. Magnesium's high combustion temperature makes it a useful tool for starting emergency fires. Other uses include flash photography, flares, pyrotechnics, and fireworks sparklers. Magnesium is also often used to ignite thermite or other materials that require a high ignition temperature.

firestarter (in left hand), used with a pocket knife and flint to create sparks that ignite the shavings

In the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents, which are useful in organic synthesis. As an additive agent in conventional propellants and the production of nodular graphite in cast iron. As a reducing agent to separate uranium and other metals from their salts. As a sacrificial (galvanic) anode to protect boats, underground tanks, pipelines, buried structures, and water heaters. Alloyed with zinc to produce the zinc sheet used in photoengraving plates in the printing industry, dry-cell battery walls, and roofing.[28] As a metal, this element's principal use is as an alloying additive to aluminium with these aluminium-magnesium alloys being used mainly for beverage cans, sports equipment such as golf clubs, fishing reels, and archery bows and arrows. Specialty, high-grade car wheels of magnesium alloy are called "mag wheels", although the term is often misapplied to aluminium wheels. Many car and aircraft manufacturers have made engine and body parts from magnesium. Magnesium
batteries have been commercialized as primary batteries, and are an active topic of research for rechargeable secondary batteries.

Safety precautions

Play media

block heated with blowtorch to self-combustion, emitting intense white light

metal and its alloys can be explosive hazards; they are highly flammable in their pure form when molten or in powder or ribbon form. Burning or molten magnesium reacts violently with water. When working with powdered magnesium, safety glasses with eye protection and UV filters (such as welders use) are employed because burning magnesium produces ultraviolet light that can permanently damage the retina of a human eye.[38] Magnesium
is capable of reducing water and releasing highly flammable hydrogen gas:[39]

Mg (s) + 2 H 2O (l) → Mg(OH) 2 (s) + H 2 (g)

Therefore, water cannot extinguish magnesium fires. The hydrogen gas produced intensifies the fire. Dry sand is an effective smothering agent, but only on relatively level and flat surfaces. Magnesium
reacts with carbon dioxide exothermically to form magnesium oxide and carbon:[40]

2 Mg + CO 2 → 2 MgO + C (s)

Hence, carbon dioxide fuels rather than extinguishes magnesium fires. Burning magnesium can be quenched by using a Class D dry chemical fire extinguisher, or by covering the fire with sand or magnesium foundry flux to remove its air source.[41] Useful compounds Magnesium
compounds, primarily magnesium oxide (MgO), are used as a refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron, steel, nonferrous metals, glass, and cement. Magnesium oxide
Magnesium oxide
and other magnesium compounds are also used in the agricultural, chemical, and construction industries. Magnesium oxide
Magnesium oxide
from calcination is used as an electrical insulator in fire-resistant cables.[42] Magnesium
reacted with an alkyl halide gives a Grignard reagent, which is a very useful tool for preparing alcohols. Magnesium
salts are included in various foods, fertilizers (magnesium is a component of chlorophyll), and microbe culture media. Magnesium sulfite
Magnesium sulfite
is used in the manufacture of paper (sulfite process). Magnesium phosphate
Magnesium phosphate
is used to fireproof wood used in construction. Magnesium
hexafluorosilicate is used for moth-proofing textiles. Biological roles Main article: Magnesium
in biology Mechanism of action The important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions makes magnesium essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of all cells of all known living organisms. More than 300 enzymes require magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes using or synthesizing ATP and those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA
and RNA. The ATP molecule is normally found in a chelate with a magnesium ion.[43] Dietary sources, recommended intake, and supplementation

Examples of food sources of magnesium (clockwise from top left): bran muffins, pumpkin seeds, barley, buckwheat flour, low-fat vanilla yogurt, trail mix, halibut steaks, garbanzo beans, lima beans, soybeans, and spinach

Spices, nuts, cereals, cocoa and vegetables are rich sources of magnesium.[8] Green leafy vegetables such as spinach are also rich in magnesium.[44] In the UK, the recommended daily values for magnesium is 300 mg for men and 270 mg for women.[45] In the U.S. the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are 400 mg for men ages 19–30 and 420 mg for older; for women 310 mg for ages 19–30 and 320 mg for older.[46] Numerous pharmaceutical preparations of magnesium and dietary supplements are available. In two human trials magnesium oxide, one of the most common forms in magnesium dietary supplements because of its high magnesium content per weight, was less bioavailable than magnesium citrate, chloride, lactate or aspartate.[47][48] Metabolism An adult has 22–26 grams of magnesium,[8][49] with 60% in the skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and 1% extracellular.[8] Serum levels are typically 0.7–1.0 mmol/L or 1.8–2.4 mEq/L. Serum magnesium levels may be normal even when intracellular magnesium is deficient. The mechanisms for maintaining the magnesium level in the serum are varying gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion. Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium[50] and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level.[50] Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat.[51] Detection in serum and plasma Magnesium
status may be assessed by measuring serum and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations coupled with urinary and fecal magnesium content, but intravenous magnesium loading tests are more accurate and practical.[52] A retention of 20% or more of the injected amount indicates deficiency.[53] No biomarker has been established for magnesium.[54] Magnesium
concentrations in plasma or serum may be monitored for efficacy and safety in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdose. The newborn children of mothers who received parenteral magnesium sulfate during labor may exhibit toxicity with normal serum magnesium levels.[55] Deficiency Low plasma magnesium (hypomagnesemia) is common: it is found in 2.5–15% of the general population.[56] The primary cause of deficiency is low dietary intake: fewer than 10% of people in the United States
United States
meet the recommended dietary allowance. Other causes are increased renal or gastrointestinal loss, an increased intracellular shift, and proton-pump inhibitor antacid therapy. Most are asymptomatic, but symptoms referable to neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and metabolic dysfunction may occur.[56] Alcoholism
is often associated with magnesium deficiency. Chronically low serum magnesium levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2, fasciculation, and hypertension.[57] Therapy

Intravenous magnesium is recommended by the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death for patients with ventricular arrhythmia associated with torsades de pointes who present with long QT syndrome; and for the treatment of patients with digoxin induced arrhythmias.[58] Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate
- intravenous - is used for the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.[59][60] Hypomagnesemia, including that caused by alcoholism, is reversible by oral or parenteral magnesium administration depending on the degree of deficiency.[61] There is limited evidence that magnesium supplementation may play a role in the prevention and treatment of migraine.[62]

Sorted by type of magnesium salt, other therapeutic applications include:

sulfate, as the heptahydrate called Epsom salts, is used as bath salts, a laxative, and a highly soluble fertilizer.[63] Magnesium
hydroxide, suspended in water, is used in milk of magnesia antacids and laxatives. Magnesium
chloride, oxide, gluconate, malate, orotate, glycinate, ascorbate and citrate are all used as oral magnesium supplements. Magnesium
borate, magnesium salicylate, and magnesium sulfate are used as antiseptics. Magnesium bromide
Magnesium bromide
is used as a mild sedative (this action is due to the bromide, not the magnesium). Magnesium stearate
Magnesium stearate
is a slightly flammable white powder with lubricating properties. In pharmaceutical technology, it is used in pharmacological manufacture to prevent tablets from sticking to the equipment while compressing the ingredients into tablet form. Magnesium carbonate
Magnesium carbonate
powder is used by athletes such as gymnasts, weightlifters, and climbers to eliminate palm sweat, prevent sticking, and improve the grip on gymnastic apparatus, lifting bars, and climbing rocks.

Overdose Overdose from dietary sources alone is unlikely because excess magnesium in the blood is promptly filtered by the kidneys,[56] and overdose is more likely in the presence of impaired renal function. In spite of this, megadose therapy has caused death in a young child,[64] and severe hypermagnesemia in a woman[65] and a young girl[66] who had healthy kidneys. The most common symptoms of overdose are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; other symptoms include hypotension, confusion, slowed heart and respiratory rate, deficiencies of other minerals, coma, cardiac arrhythmia, and death from cardiac arrest.[50] Function in plants Plants
require magnesium to synthesize chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis. Magnesium
in the center of the porphyrin ring in chlorophyll functions in a manner similar to the iron in the center of the porphyrin ring in heme. Magnesium
deficiency in plants causes late-season yellowing between leaf veins, especially in older leaves, and can be corrected by either applying epsom salts (which is rapidly leached), or crushed dolomitic limestone, to the soil. See also

List of countries by magnesium production Magnesium

Books View or order collections of articles

Magnesium Period 3 elements Alkaline earth metals Chemical elements (sorted alphabetically) Chemical elements (sorted by number)

Portals Access related topics

Chemistry portal

Find out more on's Sister projects

Media from Commons Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity


^ Capacity. Production figures withheld to avoid disclosing company proprietary data.


^ Bernath, P. F.; Black, J. H. & Brault, J. W. (1985). "The spectrum of magnesium hydride" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal. 298: 375. Bibcode:1985ApJ...298..375B. doi:10.1086/163620.  ^ Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.  ^ K. A. Gschneider, Solid
State Phys. 16, 308 (1964) ^ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-0131755536.  ^ Ash, Russell (2005). The Top 10 of Everything 2006: The Ultimate Book
of Lists. Dk Pub. ISBN 0-7566-1321-3. Archived from the original on 2006-10-05.  ^ a b "Abundance and form of the most abundant elements in Earth's continental crust" (PDF). Retrieved 15 February 2008.  ^ Anthoni, J Floor (2006). "The chemical composition of seawater". seafriends.org.nz.  ^ a b c d e "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium". Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ a b Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H. & Vicenzi, Edward P. (2000). et al Combustion%26Flame2000.pdf "Condensed-phase modifications in magnesium particle combustion in air" Check url= value (help) (PDF). Scripta Materialia. 122: 30–42. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00101-2.  ^ DOE Handbook – Primer on Spontaneous Heating and Pyrophoricity. U.S. Department of Energy. December 1994. p. 20. DOE-HDBK-1081-94. Retrieved 21 December 2011.  ^ Hannavy, John (2013-12-16). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 9781135873271.  ^ Scientific American: Supplement. 48. Munn and Company. 1899-01-01. p. 20035.  ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (1974-02-09). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 20.  ^ Altman, Rick (2007-01-01). Silent Film Sound. Columbia University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780231116633.  ^ Lindsay, David (2005-05-01). Madness in the Making: The Triumphant Rise & Untimely Fall of America's Show Inventors. iUniverse. p. 210. ISBN 9780595347667.  ^ McCormick, John; Pratasik, Bennie (2005-08-04). Popular Puppet Theatre in Europe, 1800-1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780521616157.  ^ a b c d e Dodson, Brian (29 August 2013). "Stainless magnesium breakthrough bodes well for manufacturing industries". Gizmag.com. Retrieved 29 August 2013.  ^ Birbilis, N.; Williams, G.; Gusieva, K.; Samaniego, A.; Gibson, M. A.; McMurray, H. N. (2013). "Poisoning the corrosion of magnesium". Electrochemistry Communications. 34: 295–298. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2013.07.021.  ^ "2011 Minerals Yearbook, Magnesium" (PDF). USGS. Retrieved 26 April 2013.  ^ " Magnesium
Overview". China magnesium Corporation. Retrieved 8 May 2013.  ^ Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C. (2007). "The Use of Solid-Oxide-Membrane Technology for Electrometallurgy". JOM. 59 (5): 44–49. Bibcode:2007JOM....59e..44P. doi:10.1007/s11837-007-0064-x.  ^ Derezinski, Steve (12 May 2011). " Solid
Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis
of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles" (PDF). MOxST. Retrieved 27 May 2013.  ^ Vardi, Nathan (22 February 2007). "Man With Many Enemies". Forbes.com. Retrieved 26 June 2006.  ^ "Magnesium: historical information". webelements.com. Retrieved 9 October 2014.  ^ Ainsworth, Steve (June 1, 2013). "Epsom's deep bath". Nurse Prescribing. 11 (6): 269.  ^ a b Davy, H. (1808). "Electro-chemical researches on the decomposition of the earths; with observations on the metals obtained from the alkaline earths, and on the amalgam procured from ammonia". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 98: 333–370. Bibcode:1808RSPT...98..333D. doi:10.1098/rstl.1808.0023. JSTOR 107302.  ^ Segal, David (2017-05-18). Materials for the 21st Century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192526090.  ^ a b Baker, Hugh D. R.; Avedesian, Michael (1999). Magnesium
and magnesium alloys. Materials Park, OH: Materials Information Society. p. 4. ISBN 0-87170-657-1.  ^ Ketil Amundsen; Terje Kr. Aune; Per Bakke; Hans R. Eklund; Johanna Ö. Haagensen; Carlos Nicolas; et al. (2002). "Magnesium". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_559. ISBN 3527306730.  ^ "UCLA researchers create super-strong magnesium metal". ucla.edu.  ^ Aghion, E.; Bronfin, B. (2000). " Magnesium
Alloys Development towards the 21st Century". Materials Science Forum. 350–351: 19–30. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.350-351.19.  ^ Bronfin, B.; et al. (2007). "Elektron 21 specification". In Kainer, Karl. Magnesium: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Magnesium
Alloys and Their Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-527-31764-6.  ^ Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H.; Vicenzi, Edward P. (2000). "Condensed-phase modifications in magnesium particle combustion in air". Scripta Materialia. 122: 30–42. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00101-2.  ^ Dorr, Robert F. (15 September 2012). Mission to Tokyo: The American Airmen Who Took the War to the Heart of Japan. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9781610586634.  ^ AAHS Journal. 44–45. American Aviation Historical Society. 1999.  ^ Luo, Alan A. & Powell, Bob R. (2001). "Tensile and Compressive Creep of Magnesium-Aluminum- Calcium
Based Alloys" (PDF). Materials & Processes Laboratory, General Motors Research & Development Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.  ^ " Magnesium
(Powder)". International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). IPCS INCHEM. April 2000. Retrieved 21 December 2011.  ^ "Science Safety: Chapter 8". Government of Manitoba. Retrieved 21 August 2007.  ^ "Chemistry : Periodic Table : magnesium : chemical reaction data". webelements.com. Retrieved 26 June 2006.  ^ " Magnesium
Burns in Dry Ice (CO2 Saturated) Environment". Retrieved 2016-06-15.  ^ Cote, Arthur E. (2003). Operation of Fire
Protection Systems. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 667. ISBN 9780877655848.  ^ Linsley, Trevor (2011). "Properties of conductors and insulators". Basic Electrical Installation Work. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-08-096628-1.  ^ Romani, Andrea, M.P. (2013). "Chapter 3. Magnesium
in Health and Disease". In Astrid Sigel; Helmut Sigel; Roland K. O. Sigel. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 49–79. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_3.  ^ " Magnesium
in diet". MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ "Vitamins and minerals – Others – NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ "Magnesium", pp.190-249 in "Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride". National Academy Press. 1997. ^ Firoz M; Graber M (2001). "Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations". Magnes Res. 14 (4): 257–62. PMID 11794633.  ^ Lindberg JS; Zobitz MM; Poindexter JR; Pak CY (1990). "Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide". J Am Coll Nutr. 9 (1): 48–55. doi:10.1080/07315724.1990.10720349. PMID 2407766.  ^ Saris NE, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, Khawaja JA, Lewenstam A (April 2000). "Magnesium. An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects". Clin Chim Acta. 294 (1-2): 1–26. PMID 10727669.  ^ a b c " Magnesium
University of Maryland Medical Center". Umm.edu. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ Wester PO (1987). "Magnesium". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45 (5 Suppl): 1305–12. PMID 3578120.  ^ Arnaud MJ (2008). "Update on the assessment of magnesium status". Br. J. Nutr. 99 Suppl 3: S24–36. doi:10.1017/S000711450800682X. PMID 18598586.  ^ Rob PM; Dick K; Bley N; Seyfert T; Brinckmann C; Höllriegel V; et al. (1999). "Can one really measure magnesium deficiency using the short-term magnesium loading test?". J. Intern. Med. 246 (4): 373–378. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1999.00580.x. PMID 10583708.  ^ Franz KB (2004). "A functional biological marker is needed for diagnosing magnesium deficiency". J Am Coll Nutr. 23 (6): 738S–41S. doi:10.1080/07315724.2004.10719418. PMID 15637224.  ^ Baselt, R. (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Biomedical Publications. pp. 875–7. ISBN 0-9626523-7-7.  ^ a b c Ayuk J.; Gittoes N.J. (Mar 2014). "Contemporary view of the clinical relevance of magnesium homeostasis". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 51 (2): 179–88. doi:10.1177/0004563213517628.  ^ Geiger H; Wanner C (2012). " Magnesium
in disease" (PDF). Clin Kidney J. 5 (Suppl 1): i25–i38. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfr165.  ^ Zipes DP; Camm AJ; Borggrefe M; et al. (2012). "ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society" (PDF). Circulation. 114 (10): e385–e484. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.178233. PMID 16935995.  ^ James MF (2010). " Magnesium
in obstetrics". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 24 (3): 327–337. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2009.11.004. PMID 20005782.  ^ Euser, A. G.; Cipolla, M. J. (2009). " Magnesium
Sulfate for the Treatment of Eclampsia: A Brief Review". Stroke. 40 (4): 1169–1175. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.527788. PMC 2663594 . PMID 19211496.  ^ Giannini, A. J. (1997). Drugs of Abuse (Second ed.). Los Angeles: Physicians Management Information Co. ISBN 0-87489-499-9.  ^ Teigen L, Boes CJ (2014). "An evidence-based review of oral magnesium supplementation in the preventive treatment of migraine". Cephalalgia (Review). doi:10.1177/0333102414564891. PMID 25533715. There is a strong body of evidence demonstrating a relationship between magnesium status and migraine. Magnesium
likely plays a role in migraine development at a biochemical level, but the role of oral magnesium supplementation in migraine prophylaxis and treatment remains to be fully elucidated. The strength of evidence supporting oral magnesium supplementation is limited at this time.  ^ Gowariker, Vasant; Krishnamurthy, V. P.; Gowariker, Sudha; Dhanorkar, Manik; Paranjape, Kalyani (8 April 2009). The Fertilizer Encyclopedia. p. 224. ISBN 9780470431764.  ^ McGuire, John; Kulkarni, Mona Shah; Baden, Harris (February 2000). "Fatal Hypermagnesemia
in a Child Treated With Megavitamin/Megamineral Therapy". Pediatrics. 105 (2). PMID 10654978. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ Kontani M; Hara A; Ohta S; Ikeda T (2005). " Hypermagnesemia
induced by massive cathartic ingestion in an elderly woman without pre-existing renal dysfunction". Intern. Med. 44 (5): 448–452. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.44.448. PMID 15942092.  ^ Kutsal, Ebru; Aydemir, Cumhur; Eldes, Nilufer; Demirel, Fatma; Polat, Recep; Taspınar, Ozan; Kulah, Eyup (February 2000). "Severe Hypermagnesemia
as a Result of Excessive Cathartic Ingestion in a Child Without Renal
Failure". Pediatrics. 205 (2): 570–572. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e31812eef1c. PMID 17726419. 

External links

at The Periodic Table of Videos
The Periodic Table of Videos
(University of Nottingham) Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Magnesium " Magnesium
– a versatile and often overlooked element: new perspectives with a focus on chronic kidney disease". Clin Kidney
J. 5 (Suppl 1). February 2012. 

v t e

Periodic table
Periodic table
(Large cells)

1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 H


2 Li Be

B C N O F Ne

3 Na Mg

Al Si P S Cl Ar

4 K Ca Sc

Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

5 Rb Sr Y

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og

Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Post-​transition metal Metalloid Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas Unknown chemical properties

v t e


MgB2 MgBr2 MgCO3 MgC2O4 MgC6H6O7 MgC14H10O4 MgCl2 Mg(ClO4)2 MgF2 MgH2 Mg(HCO3)2 MgI2 Mg(NO3)2 MgO MgO2 Mg(OH)2 MgPo MgS MgSO3 MgSO4 MgU2O7 Mg2Al3 Mg2Si Mg2SiO4 Mg2Si3O8 Mg3N2 Mg3(PO4)2 Mg2(CrO4)2

v t e

Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor


Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA BOAA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Proline Quisqualic acid Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam Cyclothiazide CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 Farampator
(CX-691, ORG-24448) CX-717 CX-1739 CX-1942 Diazoxide Hydrochlorothiazide
(HCTZ) IDRA-21 LY-392098 LY-395153 LY-404187 LY-451646 LY-503430 Mibampator
(LY-451395) Nooglutyl ORG-26576 Oxiracetam PEPA PF-04958242 Piracetam Pramiracetam S-18986 Tulrampator
(S-47445, CX-1632)

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 ATPO Becampanel Caroverine CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX Fanapanel
(MPQX) GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Kynurenine Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) NBQX PNQX Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate YM90K Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Cyclopropane Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Evans blue GYKI-52466 GYKI-53655 Halothane Irampanel Isoflurane Perampanel Pregnenolone sulfate Sevoflurane Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline


Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine 5-Iodowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA ATPA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Kainic acid LY-339434 Proline Quisqualic acid SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide Diazoxide Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LY-382884 NBQX NS102 Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Evans blue NS-3763 Pregnenolone sulfate


Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA Aspartate Glutamate Homocysteic acid
Homocysteic acid
(L-HCA) Homoquinolinic acid Ibotenic acid NMDA Proline Quinolinic acid Tetrazolylglycine Theanine; Glycine
site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine ACBD ACC (ACPC) ACPD AK-51 Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) B6B21 CCG D-Alanine D-Cycloserine D-Serine DHPG Dimethylglycine Glycine HA-966 L-687414 L-Alanine L-Serine Milacemide Neboglamine
(nebostinel) Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin Spermidine Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol DHEA (prasterone) DHEA sulfate
DHEA sulfate
(prasterone sulfate) Epipregnanolone sulfate Pregnenolone sulfate SAGE-201 SAGE-301 SAGE-718

Antagonists: Competitive antagonists: AP5
(APV) AP7 CGP-37849 CGP-39551 CGP-39653 CGP-40116 CGS-19755 CPP Kaitocephalin LY-233053 LY-235959 LY-274614 MDL-100453 Midafotel
(d-CPPene) NPC-12626 NPC-17742 PBPD PEAQX Perzinfotel PPDA SDZ-220581 Selfotel; Glycine
site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101) 5,7-DCKA 7-CKA ACC ACEA-1011 ACEA-1328 Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) AV-101 Carisoprodol CGP-39653 CNQX D-Cycloserine DNQX Felbamate Gavestinel GV-196771 Harkoseride Kynurenic acid Kynurenine L-689560 L-701324 Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LU-73068 MDL-105519 Meprobamate MRZ 2/576 PNQX Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine Co 101676 Diaminopropane Diethylenetriamine Huperzine A Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site): 2-MDP 3-HO-PCP 3-MeO-PCE 3-MeO-PCMo 3-MeO-PCP 4-MeO-PCP 8A-PDHQ 18-MC α-Endopsychosin Alaproclate Alazocine
(SKF-10047) Amantadine Aptiganel Argiotoxin-636 Arketamine ARL-12495 ARL-15896-AR ARL-16247 Budipine Coronaridine Delucemine
(NPS-1506) Dexoxadrol Dextrallorphan Dextromethadone Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Dieticyclidine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Ephenidine Esketamine Etoxadrol Eticyclidine Fluorolintane Gacyclidine Ibogaine Ibogamine Indantadol Ketamine Ketobemidone Lanicemine Levomethadone Levomethorphan Levomilnacipran Levorphanol Loperamide Memantine Methadone Methorphan Methoxetamine Methoxphenidine Milnacipran Morphanol NEFA Neramexane Nitromemantine Noribogaine Norketamine Orphenadrine PCPr PD-137889 Pethidine
(meperidine) Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Propoxyphene Remacemide Rhynchophylline Rimantadine Rolicyclidine Sabeluzole Tabernanthine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists: Besonprodil Buphenine
(nylidrin) CO-101244 (PD-174494) Eliprodil Haloperidol Isoxsuprine Radiprodil (RGH-896) Rislenemdaz
(CERC-301, MK-0657) Ro 8-4304 Ro 25-6981 Safaprodil Traxoprodil
(CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004 MPX-007 TCN-201 TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen Magnesium Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene Butane Chloroform Cyclopropane Desflurane Diethyl ether Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Halothane Hexanol Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Octanol Sevoflurane Toluene Trichloroethane Trichloroethanol Trichloroethylene Urethane Xenon Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896 Bumetanide Caroverine Conantokin D-αAA Dexanabinol Flufenamic acid Flupirtine FPL-12495 FR-115427 Furosemide Hodgkinsine Ipenoxazone (MLV-6976) MDL-27266 Metaphit Minocycline MPEP Niflumic acid Pentamidine Pentamidine
isethionate Piretanide Psychotridine Transcrocetin

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators Glutamate
metabolism/transport modulators

Authority control

LCCN: sh85079651 GND: 4128915-8 BNF: cb119771902 (data) NDL: 0056