Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic
number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical
resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2,
or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements
have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a
similar crystal structure.
Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe. It
is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of
three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as
supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar
medium where it may recycle into new star systems.
Magnesium is the
eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and the fourth
most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon),
making up 13% of the planet's mass and a large fraction of the
planet's mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in
seawater, after sodium and chlorine.
Magnesium occurs naturally only in combination with other elements,
where it invariably has a +2 oxidation state. The free element (metal)
can be produced artificially, and is highly reactive (though in the
atmosphere, it is soon coated in a thin layer of oxide that partly
inhibits reactivity — see passivation). The free metal burns with a
characteristic brilliant-white light. The metal is now obtained mainly
by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine, and is used
primarily as a component in aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes
called magnalium or magnelium.
Magnesium is less dense than aluminium,
and the alloy is prized for its combination of lightness and strength.
Magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human
body and is essential to all cells and some 300 enzymes. Magnesium
ions interact with polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA.
Hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium
compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (e.g.,
milk of magnesia), and to stabilize abnormal nerve excitation or blood
vessel spasm in such conditions as eclampsia.
1.1 Physical properties
1.2 Chemical properties
1.2.2 Source of light
2.1.2 High-temperature creep and flammability
5 Uses as a metal
5.5 Safety precautions
6 Useful compounds
7 Biological roles
7.1 Mechanism of action
7.2 Dietary sources, recommended intake, and supplementation
7.4 Detection in serum and plasma
7.8 Function in plants
8 See also
11 External links
Elemental magnesium is a gray-white lightweight metal, two-thirds the
density of aluminium. It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air,
although, unlike the other alkaline earth metals, an oxygen-free
environment is unnecessary for storage because magnesium is protected
by a thin layer of oxide that is fairly impermeable and difficult to
Magnesium has the lowest melting (923 K (1,202 °F))
and the lowest boiling point 1,363 K (1,994 °F) of all the
alkaline earth metals.
Magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much
more slowly than calcium, a similar group 2 metal. When submerged in
water, hydrogen bubbles form slowly on the surface of the
metal—though, if powdered, it reacts much more rapidly. The reaction
occurs faster with higher temperatures (see safety precautions).
Magnesium's reversible reaction with water can be harnessed to store
energy and run a magnesium-based engine.
Magnesium also reacts exothermically with most acids such as
hydrochloric acid (HCl), producing the metal chloride and hydrogen
gas, similar to the HCl reaction with aluminium, zinc, and many other
Magnesium is highly flammable, especially when powdered or shaved into
thin strips, though it is difficult to ignite in mass or bulk. Flame
temperatures of magnesium and magnesium alloys can reach
3,100 °C (5,610 °F), although flame height above the
burning metal is usually less than 300 mm (12 in). Once
ignited, such fires are difficult to extinguish, with combustion
continuing in nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), carbon dioxide
(forming magnesium oxide and carbon), and water (forming magnesium
oxide and hydrogen). This property was used in incendiary weapons
during the firebombing of cities in World War II, where the only
practical civil defense was to smother a burning flare under dry sand
to exclude atmosphere from the combustion.
Magnesium may also be used as an igniter for thermite, a mixture of
aluminium and iron oxide powder that ignites only at a very high
Source of light
When burning in air, magnesium produces a brilliant-white light that
includes strong ultraviolet wavelengths.
Magnesium powder (flash
powder) was used for subject illumination in the early days of
photography. Later, magnesium filament was used in
electrically ignited single-use photography flashbulbs. Magnesium
powder is used in fireworks and marine flares where a brilliant white
light is required. It was also used for various theatrical
effects, such as lightning, pistol flashes, and
See also: Category:
Magnesium is the eighth-most-abundant element in the
Earth's crust by
mass and tied in seventh place with iron in molarity. It is found
in large deposits of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals, and in
mineral waters, where magnesium ion is soluble.
Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only dolomite,
magnesite, brucite, carnallite, talc, and olivine are of commercial
The Mg2+ cation is the second-most-abundant cation in seawater (about
⅛ the mass of sodium ions in a given sample), which makes seawater
and sea salt attractive commercial sources for Mg. To extract the
magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to seawater to form magnesium
2 + Ca(OH)
2 → Mg(OH)
2 + CaCl
Magnesium hydroxide (brucite) is insoluble in water and can be
filtered out and reacted with hydrochloric acid to produced
concentrated magnesium chloride.
2 + 2 HCl → MgCl
2 + 2 H
From magnesium chloride, electrolysis produces magnesium.
As of 2013, magnesium alloy consumption was less than one million tons
per year, compared with 50 million tons of aluminum alloys. Its use
has been historically limited by its tendency to corrode, creep at
high temperatures, and combust.
The presence of iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt strongly activates
corrosion. Greater than a very small percentage, these metals
precipitate as intermetallic compounds, and the precipitate locales
function as active cathodic sites that reduce water, causing the loss
of magnesium. Controlling the quantity of these metals improves
corrosion resistance. Sufficient manganese overcomes the corrosive
effects of iron. This requires precise control over composition,
increasing costs. Adding a cathodic poison captures atomic
hydrogen within the structure of a metal. This prevents the formation
of free hydrogen gas, an essential factor of corrosive chemical
processes. The addition of about one in three hundred parts arsenic
reduces its corrosion rate in a salt solution by a factor of nearly
High-temperature creep and flammability
Research showed that magnesium's tendency to creep at
high-temperatures is eliminated by the addition of scandium and
Flammability is greatly reduced by a small amount of
calcium in the alloy.
Magnesium forms a variety of compounds important to industry and
biology, including magnesium carbonate, magnesium chloride, magnesium
citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium oxide,
magnesium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (Epsom salts).
Main article: Isotopes of magnesium
Magnesium has three stable isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg. All are
present in significant amounts (see table of isotopes above). About
79% of Mg is 24Mg. The isotope 28Mg is radioactive and in the 1950s to
1970s was produced by several nuclear power plants for use in
scientific experiments. This isotope has a relatively short half-life
(21 hours) and its use was limited by shipping times.
The nuclide 26Mg has found application in isotopic geology, similar to
that of aluminium. 26Mg is a radiogenic daughter product of 26Al,
which has a half-life of 717,000 years. Excessive quantities of stable
26Mg have been observed in the
Ca-Al-rich inclusions of some
carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. This anomalous abundance is
attributed to the decay of its parent 26Al in the inclusions, and
researchers conclude that such meteorites were formed in the solar
nebula before the 26Al had decayed. These are among the oldest objects
in the solar system and contain preserved information about its early
It is conventional to plot 26Mg/24Mg against an Al/Mg ratio. In an
isochron dating plot, the Al/Mg ratio plotted is27Al/24Mg. The slope
of the isochron has no age significance, but indicates the initial
26Al/27Al ratio in the sample at the time when the systems were
separated from a common reservoir.
Magnesium sheets and ingots
China is the dominant supplier of magnesium, with approximately 80% of
the world market share. China is almost completely reliant on the
Pidgeon process (the reduction of the oxide at high
temperatures with silicon, often provided by a ferrosilicon alloy in
which the iron is but a spectator in the reactions) to obtain the
metal. The process can also be carried out with carbon at approx
(s) + Si
(s) + 2CaO
(s) → 2Mg
(g) + Ca
(s) + C
(s) → Mg
(g) + CO
In the United States, magnesium is obtained principally with the Dow
process, by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride from brine and
sea water. A saline solution containing Mg2+ ions is first treated
with lime (calcium oxide) and the precipitated magnesium hydroxide is
(aq) + CaO
(s) + H
2O → Ca2+
(aq) + Mg(OH)
The hydroxide is then converted to a partial hydrate of magnesium
chloride by treating the hydroxide with hydrochloric acid and heating
of the product:
2(s) + 2 HCl → MgCl
2(aq) + 2H
The salt is then electrolyzed in the molten state. At the cathode, the
Mg2+ ion is reduced by two electrons to magnesium metal:
Mg2+ + 2 e− → Mg
At the anode, each pair of Cl− ions is oxidized to chlorine gas,
releasing two electrons to complete the circuit:
2 Cl− → Cl
2 (g) + 2 e−
A new process, solid oxide membrane technology, involves the
electrolytic reduction of MgO. At the cathode, Mg2+ ion is reduced by
two electrons to magnesium metal. The electrolyte is yttria-stabilized
zirconia (YSZ). The anode is a liquid metal. At the YSZ/liquid metal
anode O2− is oxidized. A layer of graphite borders the liquid metal
anode, and at this interface carbon and oxygen react to form carbon
monoxide. When silver is used as the liquid metal anode, there is no
reductant carbon or hydrogen needed, and only oxygen gas is evolved at
the anode. It has been reported that this method provides a 40%
reduction in cost per pound over the electrolytic reduction
method. This method is more environmentally sound than others
because there is much less carbon dioxide emitted.
United States has traditionally been the major world supplier of
this metal, supplying 45% of world production even as recently as
1995. Today, the US market share is at 7%, with a single domestic
producer left, US Magnesium, a
Renco Group company in
Utah born from
The name magnesium originates from the Greek word for a district in
Thessaly called Magnesia. It is related to magnetite and
manganese, which also originated from this area, and required
differentiation as separate substances. See manganese for this
In 1618, a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water
from a well there. The cows refused to drink because of the water's
bitter taste, but the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal
scratches and rashes. The substance became known as
Epsom salts and
its fame spread. It was eventually recognized as hydrated
magnesium sulfate, MgSO
The metal itself was first isolated by Sir
Humphry Davy in England in
1808. He used electrolysis on a mixture of magnesia and mercuric
Antoine Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. Davy's
first suggestion for a name was magnium, but the name magnesium is
Uses as a metal
An unusual application of magnesium as an illumination source while
wakeskating in 1931
Magnesium is the third-most-commonly-used structural metal, following
iron and aluminium.
The main applications of magnesium are, in order: aluminium alloys,
die-casting (alloyed with zinc), removing sulfur in the production
of iron and steel, and the production of titanium in the Kroll
Magnesium is used in super-strong, lightweight materials and alloys.
For example, when infused with silicon carbide nanoparticles, it has
extremely high specific strength.
Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction
metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War
I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II.
The Germans coined the name "Elektron" for magnesium alloy, a term
which is still used today. In the commercial aerospace industry,
magnesium was generally restricted to engine-related components, due
fire and corrosion hazards. Currently, magnesium alloy use in
aerospace is increasing, driven by the importance of fuel economy.
Development and testing of new magnesium alloys continues, notably
Elektron 21, which (in test) has proved suitable for aerospace engine,
internal, and airframe components. The European Community runs
three R&D magnesium projects in the Aerospace priority of Six
In the form of thin ribbons, magnesium is used to purify solvents; for
example, preparing super-dry ethanol.
Wright Aeronautical used a magnesium crankcase in the WWII-era Wright
Duplex Cyclone aviation engine. This presented a serious problem for
the earliest models of the
Boeing B-29 heavy bomber when an in-flight
engine fire ignited the engine crankcase. The resulting combustion was
as hot as 5,600 °F (3,100 °C) and could sever the wing
spar from the fuselage.
Mg alloy motorcycle engine blocks
Mercedes-Benz used the alloy Elektron in the body of an early model
Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR; these cars ran (with successes) at Le Mans, the
Mille Miglia, and other world-class race events in 1955.
Porsche used magnesium alloy frames in the 917/053 that won Le Mans in
1971, and continues to use magnesium alloys for its engine blocks due
to the weight advantage.
Volkswagen Group has used magnesium in its engine components for many
Mitsubishi Motors uses magnesium for its paddle shifters.
BMW used magnesium alloy blocks in their N52 engine, including an
aluminium alloy insert for the cylinder walls and cooling jackets
surrounded by a high-temperature magnesium alloy AJ62A. The engine was
used worldwide between 2005 and 2011 in various 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7
series models; as well as the Z4, X1, X3, and X5.
Chevrolet used the magnesium alloy AE44 in the 2006 Corvette Z06.
Both AJ62A and AE44 are recent developments in high-temperature
low-creep magnesium alloys. The general strategy for such alloys is to
form intermetallic precipitates at the grain boundaries, for example
by adding mischmetal or calcium. New alloy development and lower
costs that make magnesium competitive with aluminium will increase the
number of automotive applications.
Because of low weight and good mechanical and electrical properties,
magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop
and tablet computers, cameras, and other electronic components.
Products made of magnesium: firestarter and shavings, sharpener,
Magnesium, being readily available and relatively nontoxic, has a
variety of uses:
Magnesium is flammable, burning at a temperature of approximately
3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F), and the autoignition
temperature of magnesium ribbon is approximately 473 °C
(746 K; 883 °F). It produces intense, bright, white
light when it burns. Magnesium's high combustion temperature makes it
a useful tool for starting emergency fires. Other uses include flash
photography, flares, pyrotechnics, and fireworks sparklers. Magnesium
is also often used to ignite thermite or other materials that require
a high ignition temperature.
Magnesium firestarter (in left hand), used with a pocket knife and
flint to create sparks that ignite the shavings
In the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents,
which are useful in organic synthesis.
As an additive agent in conventional propellants and the production of
nodular graphite in cast iron.
As a reducing agent to separate uranium and other metals from their
As a sacrificial (galvanic) anode to protect boats, underground tanks,
pipelines, buried structures, and water heaters.
Alloyed with zinc to produce the zinc sheet used in photoengraving
plates in the printing industry, dry-cell battery walls, and
As a metal, this element's principal use is as an alloying additive to
aluminium with these aluminium-magnesium alloys being used mainly for
beverage cans, sports equipment such as golf clubs, fishing reels, and
archery bows and arrows.
Specialty, high-grade car wheels of magnesium alloy are called "mag
wheels", although the term is often misapplied to aluminium wheels.
Many car and aircraft manufacturers have made engine and body parts
Magnesium batteries have been commercialized as primary batteries, and
are an active topic of research for rechargeable secondary batteries.
Magnesium block heated with blowtorch to self-combustion, emitting
intense white light
Magnesium metal and its alloys can be explosive hazards; they are
highly flammable in their pure form when molten or in powder or ribbon
form. Burning or molten magnesium reacts violently with water. When
working with powdered magnesium, safety glasses with eye protection
and UV filters (such as welders use) are employed because burning
magnesium produces ultraviolet light that can permanently damage the
retina of a human eye.
Magnesium is capable of reducing water and releasing highly flammable
Mg (s) + 2 H
2O (l) → Mg(OH)
2 (s) + H
Therefore, water cannot extinguish magnesium fires. The hydrogen gas
produced intensifies the fire. Dry sand is an effective smothering
agent, but only on relatively level and flat surfaces.
Magnesium reacts with carbon dioxide exothermically to form magnesium
oxide and carbon:
2 Mg + CO
2 → 2 MgO + C (s)
Hence, carbon dioxide fuels rather than extinguishes magnesium fires.
Burning magnesium can be quenched by using a Class D dry chemical fire
extinguisher, or by covering the fire with sand or magnesium foundry
flux to remove its air source.
Magnesium compounds, primarily magnesium oxide (MgO), are used as a
refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron, steel,
nonferrous metals, glass, and cement.
Magnesium oxide and other
magnesium compounds are also used in the agricultural, chemical, and
Magnesium oxide from calcination is used as
an electrical insulator in fire-resistant cables.
Magnesium reacted with an alkyl halide gives a Grignard reagent, which
is a very useful tool for preparing alcohols.
Magnesium salts are included in various foods, fertilizers (magnesium
is a component of chlorophyll), and microbe culture media.
Magnesium sulfite is used in the manufacture of paper (sulfite
Magnesium phosphate is used to fireproof wood used in construction.
Magnesium hexafluorosilicate is used for moth-proofing textiles.
Magnesium in biology
Mechanism of action
The important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions makes
magnesium essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of all cells
of all known living organisms. More than 300 enzymes require magnesium
ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes using or
synthesizing ATP and those that use other nucleotides to synthesize
DNA and RNA. The ATP molecule is normally found in a chelate with a
Dietary sources, recommended intake, and supplementation
Examples of food sources of magnesium (clockwise from top left): bran
muffins, pumpkin seeds, barley, buckwheat flour, low-fat vanilla
yogurt, trail mix, halibut steaks, garbanzo beans, lima beans,
soybeans, and spinach
Spices, nuts, cereals, cocoa and vegetables are rich sources of
magnesium. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach are also rich in
In the UK, the recommended daily values for magnesium is 300 mg
for men and 270 mg for women. In the U.S. the Recommended
Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are 400 mg for men ages 19–30 and
420 mg for older; for women 310 mg for ages 19–30 and
320 mg for older.
Numerous pharmaceutical preparations of magnesium and dietary
supplements are available. In two human trials magnesium oxide, one of
the most common forms in magnesium dietary supplements because of its
high magnesium content per weight, was less bioavailable than
magnesium citrate, chloride, lactate or aspartate.
An adult has 22–26 grams of magnesium, with 60% in the
skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and 1%
extracellular. Serum levels are typically 0.7–1.0 mmol/L or
1.8–2.4 mEq/L. Serum magnesium levels may be normal even when
intracellular magnesium is deficient. The mechanisms for maintaining
the magnesium level in the serum are varying gastrointestinal
absorption and renal excretion. Intracellular magnesium is correlated
with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium
and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending
on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions
inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate,
phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted
in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat.
Detection in serum and plasma
Magnesium status may be assessed by measuring serum and erythrocyte
magnesium concentrations coupled with urinary and fecal magnesium
content, but intravenous magnesium loading tests are more accurate and
practical. A retention of 20% or more of the injected amount
indicates deficiency. No biomarker has been established for
Magnesium concentrations in plasma or serum may be monitored for
efficacy and safety in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to
confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in
the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdose. The newborn
children of mothers who received parenteral magnesium sulfate during
labor may exhibit toxicity with normal serum magnesium levels.
Low plasma magnesium (hypomagnesemia) is common: it is found in
2.5–15% of the general population. The primary cause of
deficiency is low dietary intake: fewer than 10% of people in the
United States meet the recommended dietary allowance. Other causes are
increased renal or gastrointestinal loss, an increased intracellular
shift, and proton-pump inhibitor antacid therapy. Most are
asymptomatic, but symptoms referable to neuromuscular, cardiovascular,
and metabolic dysfunction may occur.
Alcoholism is often
associated with magnesium deficiency. Chronically low serum magnesium
levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type
2, fasciculation, and hypertension.
Intravenous magnesium is recommended by the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006
Guidelines for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and
the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death for patients with ventricular
arrhythmia associated with torsades de pointes who present with long
QT syndrome; and for the treatment of patients with digoxin induced
Magnesium sulfate - intravenous - is used for the management of
pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Hypomagnesemia, including that caused by alcoholism, is reversible by
oral or parenteral magnesium administration depending on the degree of
There is limited evidence that magnesium supplementation may play a
role in the prevention and treatment of migraine.
Sorted by type of magnesium salt, other therapeutic applications
Magnesium sulfate, as the heptahydrate called Epsom salts, is used as
bath salts, a laxative, and a highly soluble fertilizer.
Magnesium hydroxide, suspended in water, is used in milk of magnesia
antacids and laxatives.
Magnesium chloride, oxide, gluconate, malate, orotate, glycinate,
ascorbate and citrate are all used as oral magnesium supplements.
Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate, and magnesium sulfate are used
Magnesium bromide is used as a mild sedative (this action is due to
the bromide, not the magnesium).
Magnesium stearate is a slightly flammable white powder with
lubricating properties. In pharmaceutical technology, it is used in
pharmacological manufacture to prevent tablets from sticking to the
equipment while compressing the ingredients into tablet form.
Magnesium carbonate powder is used by athletes such as gymnasts,
weightlifters, and climbers to eliminate palm sweat, prevent sticking,
and improve the grip on gymnastic apparatus, lifting bars, and
Overdose from dietary sources alone is unlikely because excess
magnesium in the blood is promptly filtered by the kidneys, and
overdose is more likely in the presence of impaired renal function. In
spite of this, megadose therapy has caused death in a young child,
and severe hypermagnesemia in a woman and a young girl who had
healthy kidneys. The most common symptoms of overdose are nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea; other symptoms include hypotension, confusion,
slowed heart and respiratory rate, deficiencies of other minerals,
coma, cardiac arrhythmia, and death from cardiac arrest.
Function in plants
Plants require magnesium to synthesize chlorophyll, essential for
Magnesium in the center of the porphyrin ring in
chlorophyll functions in a manner similar to the iron in the center of
the porphyrin ring in heme.
Magnesium deficiency in plants causes
late-season yellowing between leaf veins, especially in older leaves,
and can be corrected by either applying epsom salts (which is rapidly
leached), or crushed dolomitic limestone, to the soil.
List of countries by magnesium production
View or order collections of articles
Period 3 elements
Alkaline earth metals
Chemical elements (sorted alphabetically)
Chemical elements (sorted by number)
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Periodic table (Large cells)
Alkaline earth metal
Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators
Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine
Acromelic acid (acromelate)
Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam
Farampator (CX-691, ORG-24448)
Tulrampator (S-47445, CX-1632)
Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators:
pentobarbital, sodium thiopental)
Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline
Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine
Acromelic acid (acromelate)
SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide
UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators:
pentobarbital, sodium thiopental)
Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA
Homocysteic acid (L-HCA)
Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine
Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin
Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol
DHEA sulfate (prasterone sulfate)
Antagonists: Competitive antagonists:
Glycine site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101)
ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine
Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site):
Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists:
Rislenemdaz (CERC-301, MK-0657)
Traxoprodil (CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004
TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen
Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene
Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators
Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators
Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators
BNF: cb119771902 (data)