The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and
laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In
ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government
officers, and possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other
parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for
administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some
jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a
lower court, and typically deals with more minor or preliminary
matters. In other jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales), magistrates
may be volunteers without formal legal training who perform a judicial
role with regard to minor matters.
1 Original meaning
2 Continental Europe and its former colonies
3 English common law tradition
3.1 United Kingdom
3.1.1 England and Wales
3.2.1 Federal Magistrate
3.2.2 State Magistrate
3.3 Hong Kong
3.5.1 Executive Magistrate
3.6 New Zealand
3.7 Sri Lanka
3.8 United States
3.8.1 Federal courts
3.8.2 State courts
4 Other traditions
5 In popular culture
6 See also
9 External links
In ancient Rome, the word magistratus referred to one of the highest
offices of state. Analogous offices in the local authorities, such as
municipium, were subordinate only to the legislature of which they
generally were members, ex officio, often a combination of judicial
and executive power, constituting one jurisdiction. In Rome itself,
the highest magistrates were members of the so-called cursus honorum
-'career of honors'. They held both judicial and executive power
within their sphere of responsibility (hence the modern use of the
term "magistrate" to denote both judicial and executive officers), and
also had the power to issue ius honorarium, or magisterial law. The
Consul was the highest Roman magistrate. The
Praetor (the office was
later divided into two, the Urban and Peregrine Praetors) was the
highest judge in matters of private law between individual citizens,
while the Curule Aediles, who supervised public works in the city,
exercised a limited civil jurisdiction in relation to the market.
Roman magistrates were not lawyers, but were advised by jurists who
were experts in the law.
The term was maintained in most feudal successor states to the western
Roman Empire. However, it was used mainly in Germanic kingdoms,
especially in city-states, where the term magistrate was also used as
an abstract generic term denoting the highest office, regardless of
the formal titles (e.g. Consul, Mayor, Doge), even when that was
actually a council. The term "chief magistrate" applied to the highest
official, in sovereign entities the head of state and/or head of
Continental Europe and its former colonies
See also: Examining magistrate
Under the "civil law" systems of European countries, such as Belgium,
France, Italy and the Netherlands, magistrat (French), magistrato
(Italian) and magistraat (Dutch) are generic terms which comprise both
prosecutors and judges, distinguished as the 'standing' versus
'sitting' magistrature, respectively.
In Portugal, besides being used in the scope of the judiciary to
designate prosecutors and judges, the term magistrado was also used to
designate certain government officials, like the former civil
governors of district. These were referred as "administrative
magistrates" to distinguish them from the judiciary magistrates. The
President of Portugal
President of Portugal is considered the Supreme
Magistrate of the
In Finland, maistraatti (the Finnish-language cognate of "magistrate",
officially translated as "local register office") is a
state-appointed local administrative office whose responsibilities
include keeping population information and public registers, acting as
a public notary and conducting civil marriages.
In Mexico's Federal
Law System, a magistrado (magistrate) is a
superior judge (and the highest-ranking State judge), hierarchically
beneath the Supreme
Court Justices (Ministros de la Corte Suprema).
The magistrado reviews the cases seen by a judge in a second term if
any of the parties disputes the verdict. For special cases, there are
magistrados superiores (superior magistrates) who review the verdicts
of special court and tribunal magistrates.
English common law tradition
England and Wales
Magistrate (England and Wales)
In the courts of England and Wales, magistrates—also known as
justices of the peace (JPs)—are volunteers who hear prosecutions for
and dispose of 'summary offences' and some 'triable-either-way
offences' by making orders with regard to and placing additional
requirements on offenders. Magistrates/JPs are limited to issuing
sentences of no longer than twelve months. Magistrates/JPs have other
limitations in their sentencing authority with powers extending to
fines, community orders which can include curfews, electronic tagging,
requirements to perform unpaid work up to 300 hours, and supervision
for up to three years. In more serious cases, magistrates can send
'either-way' offenders to the Crown
Court for sentencing when the
magistrate feels a penalty should be imposed that is more severe than
the magistrate is capable of sentencing.
A wide range of other legal matters is within the remit of
magistrates. In the past, magistrates have been responsible for
granting licenses to sell alcohol, for instance, but this function
is now exercised by local councils; though, there is a right of appeal
to the magistrates' court. Magistrates are also responsible for
granting search warrants to the police and other authorities;
therefore, it used to be a requirement that they live within a 15-mile
(24 km) radius of the area they preside over (the commission
area) in case they are needed to sign a warrant after hours. However,
commission areas were replaced with Local
Justice Areas by the Courts
Act 2003, meaning magistrates no longer need to live within 15 miles
(24 km); although, in practice, many still do. Section 7 of the
Courts Act 2003 states that "There shall be a commission of the peace
for England and Wales—…b) addressed generally, and not by name, to
all such persons as may from time to time hold office as justices of
the peace for England and Wales". Thus, every magistrate in England
and Wales may act as a magistrate anywhere in England or Wales.
There are two types of magistrates in England and Wales: justices
of the peace and district judges (formerly known as stipendiary
magistrates) who hold office as members of the professional judiciary.
According to requirements, around 50% of magistrates are women. Over
41% of magistrates are retired from employment while others may be
self-employed or able to arrange leave from their employment.[citation
No formal qualifications are required, but magistrates require
intelligence, common sense, integrity, and the capacity to act fairly.
Membership is widely spread throughout the area covered and drawn from
all walks of life.
Police officers, traffic wardens, and members of
the armed forces, as well as their close relatives will not be
appointed, nor will those convicted of certain criminal offences
including recent minor offences. All magistrates receive three days of
training before sitting, carried out in conjunction with a mentoring
program (mentors are magistrates with at least three years'
service), which covers basic law and procedure. They continue to
receive training throughout their judicial career. Additional training
is given to magistrates choosing to sit in the Youth
Court or those
dealing with family matters. New magistrates sit with mentors on at
least six occasions during their first eighteen months.
Magistrates are unpaid appointees, but they may receive allowances to
cover traveling expenses, subsistence, and loss of earnings for those
not paid by their employer while sitting as a magistrate, up to
£116.78 a day. A justice of the peace may sit at any magistrate's
court in England and Wales, but in practice, they are appointed to
their local bench (a colloquial and legal term for the local court)
and are provided with advice (especially on sentencing) by a legally
qualified Clerk to the Justices. They will normally sit as a panel of
three with two as a minimum. Many are members of the Magistrates'
Association, which provides advice and training and represents the
approximately 28,000 magistrates to the government. The Association
also represents magistrates on the Sentencing Guidelines
Members of the second group are known as District Judges (Magistrates'
Courts). Unlike magistrates, District Judges (Magistrates' Courts) sit
alone. They are appointed by open competition through a process
administered by the JAC and are required to be qualified solicitors,
barristers, or chartered legal executives. Some also sit in the family
court. Questions have been raised by the
Magistrates' Association as
to the legal safeguards of a single District
Judge allowed to hear a
case, decide the outcome, and pass sentence without reference to
In the courts of Scotland, the office of stipendiary magistrate was
established by Section 5 of the District Courts (Scotland) Act
1975,:Section 5 and was replaced by the office of summary sheriff
by Section 218 of the Courts Reform (Scotland) Act 2014. In
Scotland, the lowest level of law-court, the
Justice of the Peace
Court, is presided over by a
Justice of the Peace. Stipendiary
magistrates are, ex officio, justices of the peace, and when sitting
in a JP court had the summary criminal jurisdiction and powers of a
Magistrate was an office created on 23 December 1999 along
with the establishment of the Federal Magistrates
Court by the
Australian Government as a result of royal assent of the Federal
Magistrates Act 1999 (Cth). Its first judicial officers were
appointed in 2000; it first applications were filed on 23 June 2000
and the Court’s first sittings were conducted on 3 July 2000 in
Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Melbourne, Newcastle,
The Federal Magistrates'
Court of Australia dealt with more minor
Commonwealth law matters which had previously been heard by the
Court of Australia (administrative law, bankruptcy, consumer
protection, trade practices, human rights, and copyright) or the
Court (divorce, residence [or custody], and contact with [or
access to] the children, property division upon divorce, maintenance,
and child support). In some areas, such as bankruptcy and copyright,
the court had virtually unlimited jurisdiction.
The Federal Magistrates would hear shorter or less complex matters or
matters in which the monetary sum in disputes does not exceed given
amounts. For instance, property divisions where the total assets are
A$700,000 or less and consumer law matters (trade practices) where the
amount claimed is less than $750,000. The first Chief Federal
Diana Bryant left the court in 2004 when she was appointed
Justice of the Family
Court of Australia, the third person to be
appointed that position since the establishment of the Family Court.
Eventually, the Federal Magistrates
Court assumed a significant part
of the workload of the Federal
Court and the Family Court. By May
2004, the court was dealing with 73% of the total number of
applications made in the three courts (see the Annual Report of the
Court 2004/2005). The Federal Magistrates Court
was exercising jurisdiction well in excess of that of the state
magistrates' courts, and similar to that of the District and County
courts of the Australian states.
On 12 April 2013, in recognition of its increased jurisdiction and its
role as an intermediate court servicing regional centres as well as
capital cities throughout Australia, the Federal Magistrates
renamed the Federal Circuit
Court of Australia, the Act renamed as the
Court of Australia Act 1999, and its judicial officers
received the title "Judge" instead of "Federal Magistrate".
The State Magistrates in Australia derive from the English
Magistrates. All Magistrates are salaried officers.
The jurisdiction of the magistrates varies from state to state. They
preside over courts which are, depending on the state, called
Magistrates’ Courts, Local Courts, or Courts of Petty Sessions.
Magistrates hear bail applications, motor licensing applications,
applications for orders restraining a given individual from
approaching a specific person (“intervention orders” or
“apprehended violence orders”), summary criminal matters, the
least serious indictable criminal matters, and civil matters where the
disputed amount does not exceed A$40,000 to A$100,000 (depending on
In some states, such as
Queensland and NSW, the
Magistrate may appear
robed; although, some Magistrates are known to prefer a business suit.
Magistrates presiding in the Koori
Court (which deals with Aboriginal
defendants) were originally of a mind not to appear robed; however,
elders within the Indigenous community urged Magistrates to continue
wearing robes to mark the solemnity of the court process to
defendants. Robing is being considered for Magistrates in other
states; however, neither
Counsel nor solicitors appear robed in any
Australian Magistrates' court. Robing in summary courts is unlikely to
extend to the legal profession.
Historically, Magistrates in Australia have been referred to as
“Your Worship”. (From
Old English weorthscipe, meaning being
worthy of respect.) However, members of the magistracy are now
addressed as "Your Honour" in all states. This was partly to recognize
the increasing role magistrates play in the administration of justice,
but also to recognize the archaic nature of "Your Worship", and the
tendency for witnesses and defendants to incorrectly use "Your Honour"
in any event. It is also acceptable to address a magistrate simply as
Sir or Madam.
Main article: Magistrates'
Court (Hong Kong)
There are currently seven magistrates' courts in Hong Kong.
Magistrates exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of
offences. Although there is a general limit of two years' imprisonment
or a fine of HK$100,000, certain statutory provisions give Magistrates
the power to sentence up to three years' imprisonment and to impose a
fine up to HK$5,000,000.
This article is part of a series on
Judiciary of India
Law of India
Law and Justice
Department of Legal Affairs
Department of Justice
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Justice of India
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High courts in India
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Judges of the supreme court
High courts in India
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Judges of high courts
Session courts/courts of additional sessions judge
Courts of assistant sessions judges
Chief judicial magistrates
Additional chief judicial magistrates
Chief metropolitan magistrates
Judicial magistrate of first classs/metropolitan magistrates
Special judicial magistrates
Judicial magistrate of second classs
Courts of executive magistrates
Additional district magistrates
Special executive magistrates
Attorney General of India
Solicitor General of India
Additional solicitors general
Advocates in India
All India Bar Examination
Legal education in India
Autonomous law schools in India
List of law schools in India
Judiciary of India
There are four categories of magistrates in the
Judiciary of India.
This classification is given in the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973
(CrPC). It stipulates that in each sessions district, there shall be:
Judicial Magistrates First Class, and
an Executive Magistrates [including DM, ADMs, SDMs]
Magistrate [CJM] (including Additional Chief
Judicial Magistrates.) CJMs hear all types of criminal cases. All
magistrates' courts are controlled by the CJM. The CJM looks over the
work of judicial magistrates, but cannot take any action against them.
The CJM can only report the misbehavior of judicial magistrates to the
High Court. A court of Chief
Judicial Magistrates can sentence a
person to jail up to ten years and impose fines of up to ₹30,000
(US$460). The CJM is the most senior among all magistrates in their
2. There is a Sub-Divisional
Magistrate (SDJM) in every
subdivision. They hear cases related to the Dowry Act, EC Act, and
other criminal cases. They also maintain and control the judicial
court below them. A court of Sub-Divisional
Judicial Magistrates may
sentence a person to fines of up to ten years and impose fine up to
Judicial magistrates can try criminal cases.
Magistrate First Class can sentence a person to jail for
up to seven years and impose a fine of up to ₹15,000 (US$230).
4. An Executive
Magistrate is an officer of the Executive branch (as
opposed to the
Judicial branch) who is invested with specific powers
under both the
CrPC and the
Indian Penal Code (IPC). These powers are
conferred by Sections 107-110, 133, 144, 145, and 147 of the CrPC.
These officers cannot try any accused nor pass verdicts. A person
arrested on the orders of a court located outside the local
jurisdiction should be produced before an Executive
Magistrate who can
also set the bail amount for the arrested individual to avoid police
custody, depending on the terms of the warrant. The Executive
Magistrate also can pass orders restraining persons from committing a
particular act or preventing persons from entering an area (Section
144 CrPC). There is no specific provision to order a "curfew". The
Executive Magistrates alone are authorised to use force against
people. In plain language, they alone can disperse an "unlawful
assembly". Technically, the police are to assist the Executive
Magistrate. Executive Magistrates can dictate to the police the manner
of force (baton charge/ tear gas/blank fire/firing) and also, how much
force should be used. They can also seek the assistance of the Armed
Forces to quell a riot.
Each District contains the following
One or two Additional Chief
Judicial Magistrates [ACJM]
One or two Sub-Divisional
Judicial Magistrates [SDJM]
Judicial Magistrates 1st class [JM]
There are, in each Administrative District (as opposed to a Sessions
District) the following kinds of Executive Magistrates:
District Magistrate (DM)
Two or more Additional District Magistrates (ADM)
Four or more Subdivisional District Magistrates (SDM)and
At least ten Executive Magistrates
All the Executive Magistrates of the district, except the ADM, are
under the control of the DM.
These magistrates are normally conferred on the officers of the
Revenue Department, although an officer can be appointed exclusively
as an Executive Magistrate. Normally, the Collector of the district is
appointed as the DM. Similarly, the Sub-Collectors are appointed as
the SDMs. Tehsildars and Deputy/Additional Tehsildars are appointed as
Under the old CrPC, there was no distinction between the Executive and
Judicial Magistrates; some states still follow the old CrPC.
According to the Code of Criminal Procedure(CrPC),1898; there are two
classes of Magistrates in Bangladesh,namely: -
Judicial Magistrate; and
(b) Executive Magistrate.
There shall be four classes of judicial Magistrate, namely:
(a) Chief Metropolitan
Magistrate in Metropolitan Area and Chief
Magistrate to other areas
Magistrate of the first class, who shall in Metropolitan area, is
known as Metropolitan Magistrate
Magistrate of the second class
Magistrate of the third class
Main article: Executive
Magistrate of Bangladesh
According to the section-10(6)of the Code of Criminal
Procedure(CrPC)1898, members of Bangladesh Civil
Service(Administration) Cadre, who are in the capacity of Assistant
Commissioner, Upozila Nirbahi Officer(UNO), and Additional Deputy
Commissioner(ADC) shall be Executive Magistrates and may exercise the
power of Executive
Magistrate within their existing respective local
areas. Besides this, according to the provision of the section-10(5)
of CrPC,1898; The Government may, if it thinks it expedient or
necessary, appoint any persons employed in the Bangladesh Civil
Service (Administration) to be an Executive
Magistrate and confer the
powers of an Executive
Magistrate on any such member.
Every Administrative District has the following Executive Magistrates:
District Magistrate (DM): In every district and in every
Metropolitan Area, the Government shall appoint as many persons as it
thinks fit to be Executive Magistrates and shall appoint one of them
to be the District Magistrate.
District Magistrate (ADM): The Government may also
appoint any Executive
Magistrate to be an Additional District
Magistrate. Additional District Magistrates shall have all or any of
the powers of a
District Magistrate under this Code or under any other
law for the time being in force, as the Government may direct.
(c) Additional Deputy Commissioner (ADC): All the ADC's in the
district are Executive Magistrate.
(d) Upazila Nirbahi Officer or Sub-District Executive Officer
(e) Assistant Commissioner; including Senior Assistant Commissioner
and Assistant Commissioner (Land)
The position of stipendiary magistrate in New Zealand was renamed in
1980 to that of district court judge. The position was often known
simply as magistrate, or the postnominal initials SM after a
magistrate's name in newspapers' court reports.
In the late 1990s, a position of community magistrate was created for
district courts on a trial basis. Under this system, two community
magistrates were initially required to sit to consider a case; some of
these community magistrates are still serving.
In Sri Lanka, a magistrate is a Judaical Officer appointed to preside
over a Magistrate's
Court to a particular jurisdiction under the
Judicature Act No 02 of 1978. The post was formally known as Police
Magistrate when the magistrate courts were known as police magistrate
courts. Magistrates have jurisdiction over the criminal cases filed
under the penal code. They carryout first mortem and post mortem
examinations; issue search warrants, arrest warrants and produce
suspected persons; grants bail. In many cases magistrates preside over
primary courts Unofficial magistrates can be appointed from among
the senior lawyers of the local bar. There are three types of
Magistrate (only of the metropolitan area of Colombo)
Magistrate (found when there are more than one Magistrate
in one station)
Magistrates are somewhat less common in the United States than in
Europe, but the position does exist in some state jurisdictions and in
The term "magistrate" is often used (chiefly in judicial opinions) as
a generic term for any independent judge who is capable of issuing
warrants, reviewing arrests, etc. When used in this way, it
does not denote a judge with a particular office. Instead, it denotes
(somewhat circularly) a judge or judicial officer who is capable of
hearing and deciding a particular matter. That capability is defined
by State statute or by common law. In Virginia, for example, the
Constitution of 1971 created the office of magistrate to replace the
use in cities and counties of the justice of the peace, which is
common in many states for this function.
As noted above, the terms "magistrate" or "chief magistrate" were
sometimes used in the early days of the republic to refer to the
President of the United States, as in President John Adams's message
U.S. Senate upon the death of George Washington: "His example
is now complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates,
citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future
generations, as long as our history shall be read" (December 19,
Main article: United States magistrate judge
In the United States federal courts, a magistrate judge is a judicial
officer authorized by 28 U.S.C. § 631 et seq. They were
formerly known as U.S. commissioners, and then as magistrates.
Magistrate judges, as they have been designated since 1990, are
appointed by the life-term federal district judges of a particular
court, serving terms of eight years if full-time, or four years if
part-time, and may be reappointed.
Magistrate judges conduct a wide
range of judicial proceedings to expedite the disposition of the civil
and criminal caseloads of the United States district courts. Congress
set forth in the statute the powers and responsibilities that could be
delegated by district court judges to magistrate judges. To achieve
maximum flexibility in meeting the needs of each court, however,
Congress left to the individual courts the actual determination of
which duties to assign to magistrate judges.
In many state court systems in the United States, magistrate courts
are the successor to
Justice of the Peace
Justice of the Peace courts, and frequently have
authority to handle the trials of civil cases up to a certain dollar
amount at issue, applications for bail, arrest and search warrants,
and the adjudication of petty or misdemeanor criminal offences. In
Ohio, magistrates are subordinate to the judge or judges who appoint
them, and all of their decisions are subject to the review, amendment,
approval, or reversal by a judge. In some states, including West
Virginia and Georgia, magistrates are elected and not appointed.
Main article: County magistrate
Magistrate, or chief magistrate, is also a common translation of the
Chinese xianzhang (县长/縣長 literally: county leader) the
political head of a county or xiàn (县/縣) which ranks in the third
level of the administrative hierarchy of China. The translation dates
China in which the county magistrate was the lowest
official in the imperial Chinese bureaucracy and had judicial in
addition to administrative functions.
In modern-day China, the county leader is elected by the local
people's congress but the process is controlled by the Communist
Party. Although there are elections at the lower township level, these
elections (with one exception, which was considered irregular and
illegal) have not extended up to the county level. County leaders,
particularly in rural areas, can affect the lives of ordinary people
by enforcing central government regulations or by turning a blind eye
to their violation.
In Switzerland, magistrate is a designation for the persons holding
the most senior executive and judicial offices. On the federal level,
the members of the Federal Council, the Federal Chancellor, and the
judges on the Federal Supreme
Court are called magistrates. The
designation of magistrate is not a title or style. It does not, by
itself, confer any particular privileges.
In Taiwan, magistrates are the heads of government of counties. The
county magistrate elections are heavily and sometimes bitterly
contested, and are often a stepping-stone to higher office. County
magistrate elections were first open to election in the 1960s and,
before the end of martial law in 1991, were the highest elected
position of any real power, and hence, the focus of election campaigns
In Kenya, there are five categories of magistrates, namely: Resident
Magistrate, Senior Resident Magistrate, Principal Magistrate, Senior
Principal Magistrate, and Chief Magistrate. Chief
Magistrate is the
highest ranking among magistrates and also assumes administrative
control of magistrate courts in his or her jurisdiction. A Chief
Magistrate has jurisdiction in a dispute that does not exceed seven
million Kenya shillings. For Senior Principal Magistrates, the limit
is in disputes not exceeding five million Kenya shillings; for
Principal Magistrates it is disputes not exceeding four million Kenya
shillings. Senior Resident Magistrates have jurisdiction in disputes
not exceeding three million Kenya shillings and Resident Magistrates
in disputes not exceeding two million Kenya shillings.
In popular culture
The British humorist
P.G. Wodehouse wrote in one of his Jeeves and
Wooster stories, "Jeeves and the
Feudal Spirit" (1955), "Well, you
know what magistrates are. The lowest form of pond life. When a fellow
hasn't the brains and initiative to sell jellied eels, they make him a
Bertie Wooster often appeared before magistrates when he
was arrested for minor offences.
A plump and foolish magistrate is a key character in Amy Tan's
children's book (and the related
PBS television show) Sagwa, the
Chinese Siamese Cat.
In the post-colonial novel
Waiting for the Barbarians
Waiting for the Barbarians by J. M.
Coetzee, the story is told from the narrative perspective of the
magistrate of one of the settlements in what is presumed to be Africa.
Walt Disney movie Davy Crockett: King of the Wild Frontier,
Crockett is appointed magistrate of the local community.
Magistrates appear in the
Star Trek universe as well. On Star Trek:
Deep Space Nine, Constable Odo often threatens detainees or those he
suspects are guilty of various crimes and violations that he will send
them to the magistrate, or tells them sarcastically, in response to
their pleas of innocence, to "Tell it to the magistrate."
In the first installment of the popular
StarCraft real-time strategy
series, one plays as a magistrate working for the Confederacy, a cruel
government. One later joins the Sons of Korhal, aiding in the
Magistrate of Bangladesh
Justice in Eyre
^ p4 and p18, Nicholas, Barry, An Introduction to Roman
University Press, 1975) ISBN 0-19-876063-9
^ toimitusneuvosto, www.maistraatti.fi -. "Startpage".
^ Under a law of 1729 which instituted Brewster sessions, a special
meeting of quarter sessions (Richardson, John (1974) The Local
Historian's Encyclopedia. New Barnet: Historical Publications; p. 270;
Hey, David, ed. (1996) The Oxford Companion to Local and Family
History. Oxford University Press; pp. 46-47)
^ Courts and Tribunals Judiciary, Magistrates: who are they....
Retrieved: 4 January 2015.
^ The Magistracy and the work of magistrates Archived 2008-12-04 at
the Wayback Machine.
^ John Thornhill, Chairman of the
Magistrates' Association -
Solicitors Journal - April 2011
^ a b UK Parliament. District Courts (Scotland) Act 1975 as amended
(see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
^ Scottish Parliament.
Courts Reform (Scotland) Act 2014
Courts Reform (Scotland) Act 2014 as amended
(see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
^ Federal Magistrates Act 1999 (Cth) s 8.
^ Federal Attorney-General's announcement Archived 2013-04-20 at the
^ ICTA. "
Judicial Hierarchy". www.jsc.gov.lk.
^ "opinio02". www.island.lk.
^ Education 2020 Homeschool Console; Government course - Vocabulary,
"usage" section for magistrate: "The term, magistrate, is often used
for any independent judge who is capable of issuing warrants and
^ "Van Wer County
Ohio Common Pleas
Court General Division".
^ See art. 1 of the Bundesgesetz über Besoldung und berufliche
Vorsorge der Magistratspersonen, SR/RS 172.121.
^ "Kenya Law: Home Page". www.kenyalaw.org.
Van Wert County,
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