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MAGISTER MILITUM ( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire , dating from the reign of Constantine . Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates .

CONTENTS

* 1 Establishment and development of the office

* 2 List of magistri militum

* 2.1 Unspecified commands * 2.2 Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae * 2.3 per Gallias * 2.4 per Hispanias * 2.5 per Illyricum * 2.6 per Orientem * 2.7 per Thracias * 2.8 Praesentalis

* 2.9 per Africam

* 2.9.1 Western Empire * 2.9.2 Eastern Empire

* 2.10 Magister Militae in Byzantine and medieval Italy

* 2.10.1 Venice

* 3 Later, less formal use of the term * 4 References * 5 Sources

ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFICE

For more details on this topic, see Late Roman army .

The title of magister militum was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions. Initially two posts were created, one as head of the foot troops, as the magister peditum ("Master of the Infantry"), and one for the more prestigious horse troops, the magister equitum ("Master of the Cavalry"). The latter title had existed since Republican times , as the second-in-command to a Roman dictator .

Under Constantine's successors, the title was also established at a territorial level: magistri peditum and magistri equitum were appointed for every praetorian prefecture (per Gallias , per Italiam , per Illyricum , per Orientem ), and, in addition, for Thrace and, sometimes, Africa . On occasion, the offices would be combined under a single person, then styled magister equitum et peditum or magister utriusque militiae ("master of both forces").

As such they were directly in command of the local mobile field army of the comitatenses , composed mostly of cavalry, which acted as a rapid reaction force . Other magistri remained at the immediate disposal of the Emperors, and were termed in praesenti ("in the presence" of the Emperor). By the late 4th century, the regional commanders were termed simply magister militum.

In the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, a "commander-in-chief" evolved with the title of magister utriusque militiae. This powerful office was often the power behind the throne and was held by Stilicho
Stilicho
, Flavius Aetius , Ricimer , and others. In the East, there were two senior generals, who were each appointed to the office of magister militum praesentalis.

During the reign of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
, with increasing military threats and the expansion of the Eastern Empire, three new posts were created: the magister militum per Armeniam in the Armenian and Caucasian provinces, formerly part of the jurisdiction of the magister militum per Orientem, the magister militum per Africam in the reconquered African provinces (534), with a subordinate magister peditum, and the magister militum Spaniae (ca. 562).

In the course of the 6th century, internal and external crises in the provinces often necessitated the temporary union of the supreme regional civil authority with the office of the magister militum. In the establishment of the exarchates of Ravenna
Ravenna
and Carthage
Carthage
in 584, this practice found its first permanent expression. Indeed, after the loss of the eastern provinces to the Muslim conquest
Muslim conquest
in the 640s, the surviving field armies and their commanders formed the first themata .

Supreme military commanders sometimes also took this title in early medieval Italy, for example in the Papal States
Papal States
and in Venice , whose Doge
Doge
claimed to be the successor to the Exarch of Ravenna
Ravenna
.

LIST OF MAGISTRI MILITUM

Part of a series on the

MILITARY OF ANCIENT ROME 753 BC – AD 476

STRUCTURAL HISTORY

ARMY

* Unit types and ranks * Legions

* Auxilia * Generals

NAVY

* Fleets * Admirals

CAMPAIGN HISTORY

* Wars and battles

* Decorations and punishments

TECHNOLOGICAL HISTORY

MILITARY ENGINEERING

* Castra
Castra
* Siege engines

* Triumphal arches * Roads

POLITICAL HISTORY

STRATEGY AND TACTICS

* Infantry tactics

FRONTIERS AND FORTIFICATIONS

* Limes
Limes

* Limes
Limes
Britannicus * Antonine Wall * Hadrian\'s Wall * Saxon Shore

* Limes
Limes
Germanicus * Alblimes * Lauter Valley Limes
Limes
* Lower Germanic Limes
Limes
* Main Limes
Limes
* Neckar-Odenwald Limes
Limes
* Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
Limes
* Wetterau Limes
Limes

* Danube-Iller-Rhine Limes
Limes

* Norican Limes
Limes

* Claustra Alpium Iuliarum
Claustra Alpium Iuliarum

* Pannonian Limes
Limes

* Dacian Limes
Limes
* Moesian Limes
Limes
* Trajan\'s Wall * Anastasian Wall * Limes
Limes
Sarmatiae

* Limes
Limes
Arabicus * Limes
Limes
Tripolitanus * Limes
Limes
Mauretaniae

Military of ancient Rome portal

* v * t * e

UNSPECIFIED COMMANDS

* 383-385/8: Flavius Bauto , magister militum under Valentinian II
Valentinian II
* 385/8-394: Arbogast , magister militum under Valentinian II
Valentinian II
and Eugenius * 383–388: Andragathius * after 383-408: Flavius Stilicho
Stilicho
* 422-?: Asterius * ? – 480: Ovida

COMES ET MAGISTER UTRIUSQUE MILITIAE

* 411 – 421: Flavius Constantius * 422 - 425: Castinus * 425 - 430: Flavius Constantius Felix * 431 - 432: Bonifacius * 432 - 433: Sebastianus * 433 – 454: Flavius Aetius
Flavius Aetius
* 455 - 456: Avitus -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K PLRE I, p. 1114 * ^ PLRE I, p. 62 * ^ Arce (2004), Bárbaros y romanos en Hispania, 400-507 A.D, pág. 112 * ^ Gil, M.E. (2000), Barbari ad Pacem Incundam Conversi. El Año 411 en Hispania, pág. 83 * ^ Hughes, Ian: Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, pg. 74 * ^ Hughes, Ian: Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, pg. 75 * ^ Hughes, Ian: Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, pg. 85 * ^ Hughes, Ian: Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, pg. 87, Heather, Peter: The Fall of the Roman Empire, pg. 262, 491 * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M PLRE I, p. 1113 * ^ Hydatius, Chronica Hispania, 122 * ^ Hydatius, Chronica Hispania, 128 * ^ Hydatius, Chronica Hispania, 134 * ^ A B C D PLRE I, p. 1112 * ^ PLRE I, p. 125 * ^ PLRE I, p. 307 * ^ PLRE II, p. 597 * ^ PLRE I, pp. 1113–1114 * ^ PLRE I, p. 152 * ^ John Moorhead, Justinian (London, 1994), p. 16. * ^ John Moorhead, Justinian (London, 1994), p. 17. * ^ PLRE I, p. 395 * ^ Gesta Herwardi The term is used in chapters XII, XIV, XXII and XXIII. See The Name, Hereward for details.

SOURCES

* Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(PLRE), Vols. I-III

* v * t * e

Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
topics

* Outline * Timeline

EPOCHS

* Foundation * Kingdom (overthrow ) * Republic

EMPIRE

* ( Pax Romana
Pax Romana
* Principate * Dominate ) * Western Empire (fall * historiography of the fall ) * Eastern (Byzantine) Empire (decline * fall )

CONSTITUTION

* History * Kingdom * Republic * Empire * Late Empire * Senate * Legislative assemblies (Curiate * Centuriate * Tribal * Plebeian ) * Executive magistrates * SPQR

GOVERNMENT

* Curia * Forum * Cursus honorum * Collegiality * Emperor * Legatus
Legatus
* Dux * Officium * Praefectus * Vicarius * Vigintisexviri
Vigintisexviri
* Lictor
Lictor
* Magister militum * Imperator
Imperator
* Princeps senatus * Pontifex Maximus * Augustus * Caesar * Tetrarch * Optimates * Populares * Province

MAGISTRATES

ORDINARY

* Tribune
Tribune
* Quaestor
Quaestor
* Aedile
Aedile
* Praetor
Praetor
* Consul * Censor * Promagistrate
Promagistrate
* Governor

EXTRAORDINARY

* Dictator * Magister Equitum * Decemviri
Decemviri
* Consular Tribune
Tribune
* Triumvir * Rex * Interrex

LAW

* Twelve Tables * Mos maiorum
Mos maiorum
* Citizenship * Auctoritas * Imperium * Status * Litigation

MILITARY

* Borders * Establishment * Structure * Campaigns * Political control * Strategy * Engineering * Frontiers and fortifications (castra ) * Technology * Army (Legion * Infantry tactics * Personal equipment * Siege engines ) * Navy (fleets ) * Auxiliaries * Decorations and punishments * Hippika gymnasia

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Deforestation * Commerce * Finance * Currency * Republican currency * Imperial currency

TECHNOLOGY

* Abacus * Numerals * Civil engineering * Military engineering * Military technology * Aqueducts * Bridges * Circus * Concrete * Domes * Forum * Metallurgy * Roads * Sanitation * Thermae

CULTURE

* Architecture * Art * Bathing * Calendar * Clothing * Cosmetics * Cuisine * Hairstyles * Education * Literature * Music * Mythology * Religion * Romanization * Sexuality * Theatre * Wine

SOCIETY

* Patricians * Plebs * Conflict of the Orders * Secessio plebis
Secessio plebis
* Equites * Gens * Tribes * Naming conventions * Demography * Women * Marriage * Adoption * Slavery * Bagaudae

LANGUAGE (LATIN)

* History * Alphabet * Versions (Old * Classical * Vulgar * Late * Medieval * Renaissance * New * Contemporary * Ecclesiastical ) * Romance languages
Romance languages

WRITERS

* Apuleius * Caesar * Catullus
Catullus
* Cicero
Cicero
* Ennius * Horace
Horace
* Juvenal
Juvenal
* Livy * Lucan
Lucan
* Lucretius
Lucretius
* Martial
Martial
* Ovid
Ovid
* Petronius
Petronius
* Phaedrus * Plautus
Plautus
* Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
* Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
* Propertius
Propertius
* Quintilian
Quintilian
* Quintus Curtius Rufus * Sallust
Sallust
* Seneca * Statius
Statius
* Suetonius
Suetonius
* Tacitus
Tacitus
* Terence
Terence
* Tibullus
Tibullus
* Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
* Virgil
Virgil
* Vitruvius
Vitruvius

MAJOR CITIES

* Alexandria
Alexandria
* Antioch
Antioch
* Aquileia * Berytus * Bononia * Carthage
Carthage
* Constantinopolis * Eboracum * Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
* Londinium
Londinium
* Lutetia * Mediolanum * Pompeii
Pompeii
* Ravenna
Ravenna
* Roma * Smyrna
Smyrna
* Vindobona * Volubilis
Volubilis

Lists and other topics

* Wars and battles * Generals * Legions * Emperors * Geographers * Cities and towns * Institutions * Laws * Consuls * Tribunes * Distinguished women * Nomina * Gentes * Climate * Legacy

* Fiction / Films

ANCIENT ROME PORTAL

* v * t * e

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
topics

HISTORY

PRECEDING

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* Dominate

(330–717) EARLY

* Constantinian dynasty * Valentinian dynasty * Theodosian dynasty * Leonid dynasty * Justinian dynasty * Heraclian dynasty * Twenty Years\' Anarchy

(717–1204) MIDDLE

* Isaurian dynasty * Nikephorian dynasty * Amorian dynasty * Macedonian dynasty * Doukas dynasty * Komnenos dynasty * Angelos dynasty

(1204–1453) LATE

* Fourth Crusade * Latin
Latin
Empire / Nicaea / Epirus –Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond / others * Palaiologos dynasty * Fall of Constantinople

GOVERNANCE

CENTRAL

* Emperors

* Basileus * Autokrator
Autokrator

* Senate * Imperial bureaucracy * Eparch

EARLY

* Praetorian prefects * Magister officiorum * Comes sacrarum largitionum
Comes sacrarum largitionum
* Comes rerum privatarum * Quaestor
Quaestor
sacri palatii

MIDDLE

* Logothetes tou dromou * Sakellarios * Logothetes tou genikou * Logothetes tou stratiotikou * Chartoularios tou sakelliou * Chartoularios tou vestiariou * Epi tou eidikou * Protasekretis * Epi ton deeseon

LATE

* Megas logothetes * Mesazon

PROVINCIAL

EARLY

* Praetorian prefectures * Dioceses * Provinces * Quaestura exercitus * Exarchate of Ravenna * Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Bandon * Catepanates

LATE

* Kephale * Despotates

DIPLOMACY

* Treaties * Diplomats

MILITARY

ARMY

* Battle tactics * Military manuals * Wars * Battles * Revolts * Siege warfare * Generals * Mercenaries

EARLY

* Late Roman army

* East Roman army
Roman army

* Foederati
Foederati
* Bucellarii * Scholae Palatinae
Scholae Palatinae
* Excubitors

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Tourma * Droungos * Bandon * Tagmata * Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools
* Hetaireia * Akritai * Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard

LATE

* Komnenian army

* Pronoia * Vestiaritai

* Palaiologan army

* Allagion * Paramonai

* Grand Domestic
Grand Domestic

NAVY

* Karabisianoi

* Maritime themata

* Cibyrrhaeot * Aegean Sea * Samos

* Dromon * Greek fire
Greek fire
* Droungarios of the Fleet * Megas doux
Megas doux
* Admirals * Naval battles

RELIGION AND LAW

RELIGION

* Eastern Orthodox Church * Byzantine Rite * Ecumenical councils * Saints * Patriarchate of Constantinople
Constantinople
* Arianism
Arianism
* Monophysitism
Monophysitism
* Paulicianism * Iconoclasm * Great Schism * Bogomilism * Hesychasm * Mount Athos
Mount Athos

* Missionary activity

* Bulgaria * Moravia * Serbs * Kievan Rus\'

* Jews * Muslims

LAW

* Codex Theodosianus
Codex Theodosianus
* Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
* Ecloga
Ecloga
* Basilika * Hexabiblos * Mutilation

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARCHITECTURE

* Secular

* Sacred

* Cross-in-square
Cross-in-square
* Domes

CONSTANTINOPLE

* Great Palace of Constantinople
Constantinople
* Blachernae Palace * Hagia Sophia * Hagia Irene * Chora Church
Chora Church
* Pammakaristos Church
Pammakaristos Church
* City Walls

THESSALONICA

* Arch of Galerius and Rotunda * Hagios Demetrios * Hagia Sophia * Panagia Chalkeon

RAVENNA

* San Vitale * Sant\'Apollinare in Classe * Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo

OTHER LOCATIONS

* Daphni Monastery * Hosios Loukas * Nea Moni of Chios * Saint Catherine\'s Monastery * Mystras
Mystras

ART

* Icons * Enamel * Glass * Mosaics * Painters * Macedonian period art * Komnenian renaissance

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Coinage * Mints

* Trade

* silk * Silk Road * Varangians

* Dynatoi

LITERATURE

* Novel

* Acritic songs

* Digenes Akritas

* Alexander romance * Historians

EVERYDAY LIFE

* Calendar * Cuisine * Dance * Dress * Flags and insignia * Hippodrome

* Music

* Octoechos

* People

* Byzantine Greeks

* Slavery * Units of measurement

* Science * Learning

* Encyclopedias * Inventions * Medicine

* Philosophy

* Neoplatonism

* Scholars * University

IMPACT

* Byzantine commonwealth * Byzantine studies * Museums * Byzantinism * Cyrillic script * Neo- Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
* Greek scholars in the Renaissance * Third Rome
Rome
* Megali Idea
Megali Idea

* BYZANTINE EMPIRE PORTAL

HIGHEST MILITARY RANKS

* General officer * Flag officer * Air officer

* Imperator
Imperator
* Marshal of Italy * Generalissimo * Generalissimus of the Soviet Union * Supreme Allied Commander * Admiral of the Navy * General of the Armies * General of the Air Force * Generalfeldmarschall * Mareşal * Marshal of the air force * Marshal of the Russian Federation
Marshal of the Russian Federation
* Marshal of the Soviet Union * Mushir * Magister militum * Spahbed * Ispahsalar * Beylerbey * Chom Thap Thai * Constable of France * Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools
* Grand Domestic
Grand Domestic
* Shogun
Shogun
* Dux bellorum * Grand marshal * Hetman * Jenderal besar * Polemarch * Reichsmarschall
Reichsmarschall
* Federal General of Switzerland * Sardar * Serasker * Autokrator
Autokrator
* First marshal of the empire * Da yuan shuai * Dai-gensui * Taewonsu * Yuan shuai * Wonsu * Marshal of Y

.