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MAGHREBI ARABIC, or _MAGHREBI DARIJA_, is the principal spoken language in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, including Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia and Libya
Libya
. It includes Moroccan Arabic , Algerian Arabic , Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
and Libyan Arabic . It is sometimes referred to as WESTERN ARABIC (as opposed to the Eastern Arabic
Arabic
known as Mashriqi Arabic ). Speakers of Maghrebi call their language DERJA, DERIJA or DARIJA.

Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى _(al-)fushā_) is the preferred language of governments, legislation and judiciary of countries in Maghreb. Therefore, Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
is mainly a spoken and vernacular language , even though it occasionally appears in entertainment and advertising in urban areas of Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia. In Algeria, where it was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, some textbooks in the language exist, although they are no longer officially endorsed but the Algerian authorities. Maghrebi is established on a Berber and possibly a Punic substratum , influenced by the languages of the people who lived or administered the countries of the region, during the course of history, such as Latin
Latin
, Arabic
Arabic
, Ottoman Turkish , Italian , Spanish , and French .

The varieties of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
Darija have a significant degree of mutual intelligibility, specially between geographically adjacent ones (such as local dialects spoken in Eastern Morocco
Morocco
and Western Algeria or Eastern Algeria
Algeria
and North Tunisia
Tunisia
or South Tunisia
Tunisia
and Western Libya) but hardly between the Moroccan and Tunisian Darija. Conversely, the Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
and particularly the Algerian Derja cannot be understood by Eastern Arabic
Arabic
speakers (from Egypt, Sudan, Levant, Iraq, and Arabian peninsula) in general as it does derive from different substratums and a mixture of many languages (Berber, Old Arabic, Turkish, French, Spanish, Italian, and sub-Saharan languages). Some linguists like Charles A. Ferguson , William Marçais and Abdou Elimam , tend to consider Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
Darija as an independent language.

Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
continues to evolve by integrating new French or English words, notably in technical fields, or by replacing old French and Italian/Spanish ones with Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
words within some circles; more educated and upper-class people who code-switch between Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
have more French and Italian/Spanish loanwords, especially the latter came from the time of al-Andalus . Maghrebi dialects all use _n-_ as the first-person singular prefix on verbs , distinguishing them from Levantine dialects and Modern Standard Arabic.

Speakers frequently borrow words from French (in Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia), Spanish (in Morocco) and Italian (in Libya
Libya
and Tunisia) and conjugate them according to the rules of Arabic
Arabic
with some exceptions (like passive voice for example). Since it is not always written, there is no standard and it is free to change quickly and to pick up new vocabulary from neighbouring languages. This is somewhat similar to what happened to Middle English after the Norman conquest .

Linguistically, Siculo- Arabic
Arabic
and therefore its descendant Maltese are considered Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
closest to Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
, but it is no longer mutually intelligible with the varieties spoken today in North Africa. When discussing modern languages, the word is often given a geographic definition and limited to Northern Africa.

CONTENTS

* 1 Varieties * 2 Name * 3 References * 4 Further reading

VARIETIES

An overview of the different varieties of Arabic
Arabic
. Maghrebi varieties are shades of blue.

* Varieties of Arabic
Arabic
* Pre-Hilalian Arabic
Arabic
dialects * Hilalian dialects

* Koinés :

* Algerian Arabic * Moroccan Arabic * Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
* Libyan Arabic * Jebli Arabic
Arabic
* Jijel Arabic
Arabic
* Andalusian Arabic
Arabic
(extinct)

* Siculo- Arabic
Arabic
(extinct)

* Maltese language (descended from Sicilian Arabic, but influenced lexically by Tunisian, Libyan, Sicilian, Italian, French, and more recently, English)

* Western Bedouin :

* Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
* Saharan Arabic
Arabic

NAME

_Darija_, _Derja_ or _Delja_ ( Arabic
Arabic
: الدارجة‎‎) means "everyday/colloquial language"; it is also rendered as _ed-dārija_, _derija_ or _darja_. It refers to any of the varieties of colloquial Maghrebi Arabic. Although it is also common in Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to refer to the Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
varieties directly as languages, similarly it is also common in Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon
Lebanon
to refer to the Mashriqi Arabic varieties directly as languages. For instance, Algerian Arabic would be referred as _Dzayri_ (Algerian) and Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
as _Tounsi_ (Tunisian), and Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
would be referred as _Masri_ (Egyptian) and Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
as _Lubnani_ (Lebanese).

In contrast, the colloquial dialects of more eastern Arab countries, such as Egypt, Jordan and Sudan, are usually known as _al-‘āmmīya_ (العامية), though Egyptians may also refer to their dialects as _al-logha-d-darga_.

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "North African Arabic". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Tilmatine Mohand, « Substrat et convergences : Le berbère et l'arabe nord-africain », _Estudios de dialectologia norteaafricana y andalusi_, n°4, 1999, pp. 99-119 * ^ Benramdane, Farid (1998). "_Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire_ de ELIMAM, Abdou (Éd. ANEP, Alger 1997)". _Insaniyat_ (6): 129–130. Retrieved 12 February 2015. * ^ Abdou Elimam, « Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire », éd. ANEP, Alger (1997) * ^ Abdou Elimam, « Le maghribi, alias ed-darija, langue consensuelle du Maghreb
Maghreb
», éd. Dar El Gharb, Alger (2004) * ^ Borg and Azzopardi-Alexander _Maltese_ (1997:xiii) "The immediate source for the Arabic
Arabic
vernacular spoken in Malta was Muslim Sicily, but its ultimate origin appears to have been Tunisia". * ^ Wehr, Hans: _Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic_ (2011); Harrell, Richard S.: _Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic_ (1966)

FURTHER READING

* Singer, Hans-Rudolf (1980) “Das Westarabische oder Maghribinische” in Wolfdietrich Fischer and Otto Jastrow (eds.) _Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte_. Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden. 249-76.

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet * Perso- Arabic alphabet * Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza * Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl * Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād * Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ * ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre- Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
* Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters * ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani * Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq * Hijazi script * Muhaqqaq * Thuluth * Naskh (script) * Ruqʿah script * Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script * Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode * ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Varieties of Arabic
Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* _Old Arabic
Arabic
_

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * Sanaani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Bedouin

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot Maronite * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

LEVANTINE

NORTH LEVANTINE

* North Syrian

* Central Levantine

* Central Syrian * Lebanese

SOUTH LEVANTINE

* Jordanian

* Palestinian

* Urban * Central village

* Outer southern

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

WESTERN

IBERIAN

* _Andalusian _

MAGHREBI

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Central and Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

SICULO-ARABIC

* Maltese * _Sicilian _

UNDESCRIBED

* _Shirvani _

JUDEO-ARABIC

* Judeo-Iraqi

* Judeo-Baghdadi

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian * Judeo-Yemeni

CREOLES AND PIDGINS

* Babalia * _Bimbashi _ * Juba * Nubi * _Maridi _ * _Turku _

_Italics_ indicate extinct languages .

* v * t * e

Semitic languages

EAST SEMITIC LANGUAGES

* Akkadian
Akkadian
* Eblaite

WEST SEMITIC AND CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES

NORTHWEST

CANAANITE

HEBREW

* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Mizrahi * Yemenite * Sephardi * Ashkenazi * Samaritan * Modern

PHOENICIAN

* Punic

OTHERS

* Ammonite * Moabite * Edomite

ARAMAIC

WESTERN

* Jewish Palestinian * Samaritan * Christian Palestinian * Nabataean * Western Neo-Aramaic

EASTERN

* Biblical * Hatran * Syriac * Jewish Babylonian Aramaic * Chaldean Neo-Aramaic * Assyrian Neo-Aramaic * Senaya * Koy Sanjaq Surat * Hértevin * Turoyo * Mlahsô * Mandaic * Judeo-Aramaic * Syriac Malayalam

OTHERS

* Amorite * Eteocypriot * Ugaritic
Ugaritic

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard

DIALECTS

MASHRIQI (EASTERN)

ARABIAN PENINSULAR

* Dhofari

* Gulf

* Bahrani * Shihhi

* Hejazi * Najdi * Omani

* Yemeni

* Judeo-Yemeni

BEDOUIN

* Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

OTHERS

* Egyptian

* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Levantine

* Cypriot * Lebanese * Palestinian

* Mesopotamian

* North Mesopotamian * Judeo-Iraqi

* Sudanese

* Central Asian

* Tajiki * Uzbeki

* Shirvani

MAGHREBI (WESTERN)

* Algerian * Saharan * Shuwa * Hassānīya * Andalusian

* Libyan Arabic

* Judeo-Tripolitanian

* Sicilian

* Maltese

* Moroccan Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan

* Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic

* Judeo-Tunisian

OTHERS

* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Nabataean Arabic
Arabic

SOUTH SEMITIC LANGUAGES

WESTERN SOUTH

OLD SOUTH

* Sabaean * Minaean * Qatabanian * Hadramautic * Awsānian

ETHIOPIAN

NORTH

* Ge\'ez * Tigrinya * Tigre * Dahalik

SOUTH

AMHARIC

* Argobba

HARARI

* Silt\'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) * Zay

OUTER

_N-GROUP_

* Gafat * Soddo

_TT-GROUP_

* Mesmes * Muher

* West Gurage

* Mesqan * Ezha * Chaha * Gura * Gumer * Gyeto * Ennemor * Endegen

MODERN SOUTH ARABIAN

* Bathari * Harsusi * Hobyot * Mehri * Shehri * Soqotri

* v * t * e

Languages of the Maghreb
Maghreb

VERNACULAR

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Jewish

* Moroccan * Tripolitanian * Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Central and Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

BERBER

EASTERN

* Awjila * Fezzan * Ghadamès * Kufra * Nafusi * Siwa

NORTHERN

* Non-Zenatic

* Atlas * Kabyle

* Zenatic

* Eastern Middle Atlas * Northern Saharan * Riffian * Shawiya * Tunisian-Zuwara * Western Algerian

TUAREG

* Tamahaq * Tamashek * Tawellemmet * Tayart

SOUTHWESTERN

* Tetserret * Zenaga

NILO-SAHARAN

* Korandje * Teda

NIGER-CONGO

* Wolof * Soninké * Pulaar * Bambara

ROMANCE

* French * Italian

* Spanish

*