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المغرب‎‎ al-Maɣréb ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ / Tamazɣa‎

Countries and territories

Algeria Libya Mauritania Morocco Tunisia Western Sahara

Major regional organizations Arab League, Arab Maghreb
Maghreb
Union, Community of Sahel-Saharan States

Languages

Arabic
Arabic
(Maghrebi Arabic) Berber

Religion Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Traditional Berber religion, Irreligion

Capitals Tripoli
Tripoli
(Libya) Algiers
Algiers
(Algeria) Nouakchott
Nouakchott
(Mauritania) Rabat
Rabat
(Morocco) Tunis
Tunis
(Tunisia)

Currency

Algerian dinar Libyan dinar Mauritanian ouguiya Moroccan dirham Tunisian dinar

The Maghreb, also known as the Berber world,[1][2] Barbary,[3][4][5] or Berbery[6][7] (Arabic: المغرب‎ al-Maɣréb; Berber languages: Tamazɣa or Tamazgha, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ) is a major region of northern Africa
Africa
that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya
Libya
and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
(mostly controlled by Morocco) and the cities of Melilla
Melilla
and Ceuta
Ceuta
(both controlled by Spain
Spain
and claimed by Morocco). As of 2017, the region has a population of over 100 million people. In historical English and European literature, the region was known as the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
or the Barbary
Barbary
States, derived from "Berbers".[8][9] Sometimes it was referred to as the Land of the Atlas, derived from the Atlas Mountains.[10] In some current Arabic
Arabic
media and literature it is referred to as the "Greater Maghreb" (Arabic: المغرب الكبير‎, al-Maghrib al-Kabīr). In current Berber language media and literature, the region is known as "Tamazgha" or "Tamazɣa" which correspond to the English words "Barbary" and "Berbery". The region is usually defined as much or most of northern Africa including a large portion of Africa's Sahara
Sahara
Desert, excluding Egypt. The traditional definition of the region that restricted it to the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
and the coastal plains of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, was expanded by the inclusion of Mauritania
Mauritania
and of the disputed territory of Western Sahara. During the Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
era in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(711–1492), the Maghreb's inhabitants, the Muslim Berbers
Berbers
or Maghrebis, were known as "Moors"[11] or as "Afariqah" (Roman Africans).[12][need quotation to verify] Morocco
Morocco
also transliterates into Arabic
Arabic
as "al-Maghreb" (The Maghreb). Before the establishment of modern nation states in the region during the 20th century, Maghreb
Maghreb
most commonly referred to a smaller area between the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
in the south and the Mediterranean Sea. It often also included eastern Libya, but not modern Mauritania. As recently as the late 19th century it was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa
Africa
in general, and to Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
in particular.[13] The region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia, which was followed by the Roman Empire's rule or influence. That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals, the equally brief re-establishment of a weak Roman rule by the Byzantine Empire, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates
Caliphates
under the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
and the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate. The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Hammadid dynasty, Zirid
Zirid
dynasty, Marinid
Marinid
dynasty, Zayyanid dynasty, and Wattasid dynasty
Wattasid dynasty
from the 8th to 13th centuries. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for a period also controlled parts of the region. Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya
Libya
established the Maghreb
Maghreb
Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market. It was envisioned initially by Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
as a superstate[citation needed]. The union included Western Sahara implicitly under Morocco's membership,[14] putting Morocco's long cold war with Algeria
Algeria
to a rest. However, this progress was short-lived, and the union is now frozen. Tensions between Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
over Western Sahara
Western Sahara
re-emerged strongly, reinforced by the unsolved borderline issue between the two countries. These two main conflicts have hindered progress on the union's joint goals and practically made it inactive as a whole.[15] However, the instability in the region and growing cross-border security threats revived the calls for regional cooperation – foreign ministers of the Arab Maghreb Union
Arab Maghreb Union
declared a need for coordinated security policy in May 2015 during the 33rd session of the follow-up committee meeting, which brings back the hope of some form of cooperation.[16]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Antiquity 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Early modern history 2.5 Modern history

3 Population 4 Religion

4.1 Maghrebi traders in Jewish history

5 Geography

5.1 Ecoregions 5.2 Mediterranean Maghreb 5.3 Saharan Maghreb

6 Culture 7 Genetics of the Maghreb
Maghreb
population 8 Economy

8.1 Maghreb
Maghreb
countries by GDP (PPP)

9 Medieval regions 10 See also 11 Notes and references 12 External links

Terminology[edit] In classical antiquity, the Maghreb
Maghreb
or portions of the region was known by various toponyms, including Barbary, Berbery, Mauretania, Numidia, Libya, Africa, and the Land of the Atlas. The toponym maghrib is a geographical term that the Muslim Arabs gave to the region extending from Alexandria
Alexandria
in the east up to the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
in the west. Etymologically it means both the western place/land and the place where the sun sets. It is composed of the prefix m−, which makes a noun out of the verb root, and غرب (gharaba, to set, as in setting sun). Muslim historians and geographers divided the region into three areas: al-Maghrib al-Adna (the near Maghrib) which included the lands extending from Alexandria
Alexandria
up to Tarabulus (modern-day Tripoli) in the west; al-Maghrib al-Awsat (the middle Maghrib) which extended from Tripoli
Tripoli
to Bijaya (Béjaïa); and al-Maghrib al-Aqsa (the far Maghrib) which extended from Tahart (Tiaret) to the Atlantic Ocean.[17] They disagreed, however, over the start of the eastern boundary. Certain authors made it extend as far as the sea of Kulzum (the Red Sea) and thus include Egypt
Egypt
and the country of Barca in the Maghrib. Ibn Khaldun does not accept this delimitation, because, he says, the inhabitants of the Maghreb
Maghreb
do not consider Egypt
Egypt
and Barca as forming part of their country. The latter commences only at the province of Tripoli
Tripoli
and encloses the districts of which the country of the Berbers was composed in former times. Later Maghribi writers limit themselves to reproducing with a few variations in detail, the information of Ibn Khaldun.[18] As of 2017[update] the term Maghrib is still used in opposition to Mashriq
Mashriq
in a sense near to that which it had in medieval times, but it also denotes simply Morocco
Morocco
when the full al-Maghrib al-Aksa is abbreviated. Furthermore, the political union of the North African countries which certain politicians seek is called al-Maghrib al-Kabir (the grand Maghrib) or al-Maghrib al-Arabi (the Arab Maghrib).[18][19] The Berber-language speakers now call this region Tamazɣa or Tamazgha, which translates to: "Berbery" (land of the Berbers),[20][21] a term that has been popularized by Berberism activists since the second half of the 20th century. History[edit]

Maghreb
Maghreb
head ornament (Morocco)

The Great Mosque of Kairouan, founded by the Arab general Uqba Ibn Nafi (in 670), is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb[22] city of Kairouan, Tunisia.

Prehistory[edit] Main article: Prehistoric North Africa Around 3,500 BC changes in the tilt of the Earth's orbit may have created a rapid desertification of the Sahara
Sahara
and formed a natural barrier that severely limited contact between the Maghreb
Maghreb
and sub-Saharan Africa.[23] The Maghreb
Maghreb
or western North Africa
Africa
is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers
Berbers
since from at least 10,000 BC.[24] Antiquity[edit] Main articles: North Africa during Antiquity
North Africa during Antiquity
and Ancient Carthage Partially isolated from the rest of the continent by the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara
Sahara
desert, inhabitants of the northern parts of the Berber world have long had commercial and cultural ties to the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Western Asia, going back at least to the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
in the 1st millennium BC (the Phoenician colony of Carthage
Carthage
having been founded, according to tradition, in what is now Tunisia
Tunisia
circa 800 BC). Berber coast ports and cities were predominantly constructed by the Berbers. Later some Phoenicians
Phoenicians
and Carthaginians arrived for trade. The main Berber and Phoenician settlements centered in the Gulf of Tunis
Tunis
(Carthage, Utica, Tunisia) along the North African
North African
littoral between the Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules
and the Libyan coast east of ancient Cyrenaica. They dominated the trade and intercourse of the Western Mediterranean for centuries. The Carthage
Carthage
defeat in the Punic Wars during 206 BC allowed Rome to establish the Province of Africa
Province of Africa
and control many of these ports, and eventually control the entire Maghreb north of the Atlas Mountains. Rome was greatly helped by the defection of King Massinissa
Massinissa
and Carthage's eastern Numidian Massylii client-allies. Some of the most mountainous regions, such as the Moroccan Rif, remained outside Rome's control. The pressures put on the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by the invading forces of the Barbarian invasions (the Vandals
Vandals
and Spain) in the 5th-century reduced Roman control and establishment of the Vandal
Vandal
Kingdom with its capital at Carthage
Carthage
in 430 AD. A century later, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent a force under General Belisarius
Belisarius
that succeeded in destroying the Vandal
Vandal
kingdom; Byzantine rule lasted for 150 years. The Berbers contested outside-the-area control. After the 640s–700 AD period (the advent of Islam), the Arabs controlled the entire region. Middle Ages[edit] Main articles: Ifriqiya, Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Idrisid dynasty, Almoravid dynasty, Kingdom of Africa, Almohad
Almohad
Caliphate, Hafsid dynasty, Marinid
Marinid
dynasty, Ziyyanid dynasty, and Wattasid dynasty The Arabs reached the Maghreb
Maghreb
in early Umayyad
Umayyad
times. Islamic Berber kingdoms like the Almohads expansion and the spread of Islam contributed to the development of trans-Saharan trade. While restricted due to the cost and dangers, the trade was highly profitable. Commodities traded included such goods as salt, gold, ivory, and slaves. Arab control over the Maghreb
Maghreb
was quite weak. Various Islamic variations, such as the Ibadis and the Shia, were adopted by some Berbers, often leading to scorning of Caliphal control in favour of their own interpretation of Islam. The Arabic
Arabic
language and dialects spread slowly without eliminating Berber, as a result of the invasion of the Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
Arabs, unleashed by the Fatimids in punishment for their Zirid
Zirid
former Berber clients who defected and abandoned Shiism
Shiism
in the 12th century. Throughout this period, the Berber world most often was divided into three states roughly corresponding to modern Morocco, western Algeria, and eastern Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia. The region was occasionally briefly unified, as under the Almohad
Almohad
Berber empire, and briefly under the Marinids.[citation needed] Early modern history[edit] Main articles: Barbary
Barbary
Coast, Saadi dynasty, Alaouite dynasty, Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Tunisia, and Ottoman Tripolitania

1707 map of northwest Africa
Africa
by Guillaume Delisle, including the Maghreb

After the Middle Ages, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
loosely controlled the area east of Morocco. Modern history[edit] Further information: Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara, French protectorate of Morocco, French Algeria, French Protectorate of Tunisia, and Italian Libya Further information: North African Campaign
North African Campaign
(World War I), North African Campaign, and Western Desert Campaign Further information: Western Sahara
Western Sahara
War, Algerian War of Independence, History of Algeria
Algeria
since 1962, History of modern Tunisia, Kingdom of Libya, and Libya
Libya
under Gaddafi After the 19th century, areas of the Maghreb
Maghreb
were colonized by France, Spain
Spain
and later Italy. Today, more than two and a half million Maghrebi immigrants live in France, many from Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco. In addition, there are 3 million French of Maghrebi origin (in 1999) (with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
or Tunisia).[25] Another estimation gives a number of six million.[26] Population[edit] Main article: Maghrebis

Algiers, Algeria

Casablanca, Morocco

The Maghreb
Maghreb
is primarily inhabited by peoples of Berber ancestral origin. Berbers
Berbers
are autochthonous to Algeria
Algeria
(80%), Libya
Libya
(>60%), Morocco
Morocco
(80%), and Tunisia
Tunisia
(>60%).[27] French, Arab, West African and Jewish populations also inhabit the region. The Maghreb
Maghreb
population was 1/8th of France
France
in 1800, 1/4th in 1900 and par in 2000. The Maghreb
Maghreb
is home to 1% of the global population as of 2010.[28] Various other influences are also prominent throughout the Maghreb. In northern coastal towns, in particular, several waves of European immigrants influenced the population in the Medieval era. Most notable were the moriscos and muladies, that is, the indigenous Spaniards (Moors) who forcibly converted to Catholicism and later to be expelled, together with ethnic Arab and Berber Muslims, from the Spanish Catholic
Catholic
Reconquista. Other European contributions included French, Italians, and others captured by the corsairs.[29] Historically, the Maghreb
Maghreb
was home to significant Jewish communities called Maghrebim
Maghrebim
who predated the 7th-century introduction and conversion of the region to Islam. These were later augmented by Jews from Spain
Spain
who, fleeing the Spanish Catholic
Catholic
Inquisition, established a presence in North Africa, chiefly in the urban trading centers. Many Jews from Spain
Spain
emigrated to North America
North America
in the early 19th century or to France
France
and Israel later in the 20th century. Another significant group are Turks who came over with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. A large Turkish descended population exists, particularly in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria. Sub-Saharan Africans joined the population mix during centuries of trans-Saharan trade. Traders and slaves went to the Maghreb
Maghreb
from the Sahel
Sahel
region. On the Saharan southern edge of the Maghreb
Maghreb
are small communities of black populations, sometimes called Haratine, who are apparently descended from black populations who inhabited the Sahara during its last wet period and then migrated north. In Algeria
Algeria
especially, a large European minority, the "pied noirs", immigrated and settled under French colonial rule in late 19th century. The overwhelming majority of these, however, left Algeria during and following the war for independence.[30] Religion[edit]

The mausoleum of Madghacen.

The original religions of the peoples of the Maghreb
Maghreb
seem[31] to have been based and related with fertility cults of a strong matriarchal pantheon, given the social and linguistic structures of the Amazigh cultures antedating all Egyptian and eastern, Asian, northern Mediterranean, and European influences. Historic records of religion in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region show its gradual inclusion in the Classical World, with coastal colonies established first by Phoenicians, some Greeks, and later extensive conquest and colonization by the Romans. By the 2nd century of the common era, the area had become a center of Phoenician-speaking Christianity, where bishops spoke and wrote in Punic, and even Emperor Septimius Severus was noted by his local accent. Roman settlers and Romanized populations converted to Christianity. The region produced figures such as Christian Church writer Tertullian
Tertullian
(c. 155 – c. 202); and Christian Church martyrs or leading figures such as Perpetua
Perpetua
and Felicity (martyrs, c. 200 CE); St. Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage
Carthage
(+ 258); St. Monica; her son the philosopher St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo I (+ 430) (1); and St. Julia of Carthage
Carthage
(5th century). The arrival of Islam
Islam
in 647 challenged the domination of Christianity. The first permanent foothold of Islam
Islam
was the founding of the city of Kairouan
Kairouan
in 667. Carthage
Carthage
fell in 698 and the remainder of the region followed by 709. Gradual Islamization proceeded slowly. From the end of the 7th century the region's peoples began their total conversion to Islam
Islam
which took more than 400 years. Many left during this time for Italy. Although surviving letters showed correspondence from regional Christians
Christians
to Rome up until the 12th century. Christianity was still a living faith. Although there were a fair number of conversions after the conquest Muslims did not become a majority until some time late in the 9th century and became vast majority during the 10th (Staying Roman, Jonathan Conant, pp. 362–368, 2012). Christian bishoprics and dioceses continued to be active, with relations continuing with Rome. As late as Pope Benedict VII (974–983) reign, a new Archbishop of Carthage
Carthage
was consecrated. Evidence of Christianity
Christianity
in the region fades from the 10th century.[32] However, by the end of the 11th century only two bishops were left in Carthage
Carthage
and Hippo Regius. Pope Gregory VII, 1073–85, consecrated a new bishop for Hippo. Christianty seems to have suffered several shocks that lead to its demise. First many upper-class urban-dwelling Latin-speaking Christians
Christians
left for Europe
Europe
after the Muslim conquest. The second were large scale conversions to Islam
Islam
from the end of the 9th century and many Christians
Christians
of a much reduced community left in the mid-11th century and evacuated by the Norman rulers of Sicily in the 12th. The Latin-African language lingered on a while longer. There is a small but thriving Jewish community, as well as a small Christian community. Most Muslims follow the Sunni
Sunni
Maliki
Maliki
school. Small Ibadi
Ibadi
communities remain in some areas. A strong tradition of venerating marabouts and saints' tombs is found throughout regions inhabited by Berbers. Any map of the region demonstrates the tradition by the proliferation of "Sidi"s, showing places named after the marabouts. Like some other religious traditions, this has substantially decreased over the 20th century. A network of zaouias traditionally helped proliferate basic literacy and knowledge of Islam in rural regions.

Christian family from Kabylia.

There are communities of Christians
Christians
mostly Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
and Protestant
Protestant
in Algeria
Algeria
(100,000–380,000),[33][34] Mauritania
Mauritania
(6,500), Morocco
Morocco
(~380,000),[35] Libya
Libya
(170,000), and Tunisia
Tunisia
(25,000).[36] Most of the Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
in Greater Maghreb
Maghreb
are of French, Spanish, and Italian descent who immigrated during the colonial era, while some are foreign missionaries or immigrant worker. There is also a Christian communities of Berber or Arab descent in Greater Maghreb countries, mostly converted during the modern era or under and after French colonialism.[37][38] Prior to independence, Algeria
Algeria
was home to 1.4 million Pied-Noir
Pied-Noir
(mostly Catholic),[39] and Morocco
Morocco
was home to half a million Europeans,[40] and Tunisia
Tunisia
was home to 255,000 Europeans,[41] and Libya
Libya
was home to 145,000 Europeans. In religion, most of pieds-noirs in Maghreb
Maghreb
are Roman Catholic
Catholic
Christians. Due to the exodus of the pieds-noirs in the 1960s there are more North African Christians
Christians
of Berber or Arab descent live in France
France
than in Greater Maghreb. Recently, the Protestant
Protestant
community of Berber or Arab descent has experienced significant growth, and conversions to Christianity, especially to Evangelicalism, is common in Algeria,[42] especially in the Kabylie,[43] Morocco[44] and Tunisia.[45] A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity
Christianity
in Algeria.[46] The number of the Moroccans
Moroccans
who converted to Christianity
Christianity
(most of them secret worshippers) are estimated between 40,000[47]-150,000.[48][49] International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian Muslims who convert to Christianity.[45] A 2015 study estimate some 1,500 believers in Christ from a Muslim background living in the Libya.[50] Maghrebi traders in Jewish history[edit] In the 10th century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad
Baghdad
became increasingly hostile to Jews, some Jewish traders emigrated to the Maghreb, especially Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia. Over the following two or three centuries, such Jewish traders became known as the Maghribis, a distinctive social group who traveled throughout the Mediterranean world. They passed this identification on from father to son. Their tight-knit pan- Maghreb
Maghreb
community had the ability to use social sanctions as a credible alternative to legal recourse, which was weak at the time anyway. This unique institutional alternative permitted the Maghribis to very successfully participate in Mediterranean trade.[51] Geography[edit] Ecoregions[edit] The Maghreb
Maghreb
is divided into a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
region in the north, and the arid Sahara
Sahara
in the south. The Maghreb's variations in elevation, rainfall, temperature, and soils give rise to distinct communities of plants and animals. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) identifies several distinct ecoregions in the Maghreb. Mediterranean Maghreb[edit]

Dwarf fan palm, grown in Maghreb
Maghreb
countries

The portions of the Maghreb
Maghreb
between the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
and the Mediterranean Sea, along with coastal Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in Libya, are home to Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub. These ecoregions share many species of plants and animals with other portions of Mediterranean Basin. The southern extent of the Mediterranean Maghreb
Maghreb
corresponds with the 100 mm isohyet, or the southern range of the European Olive
Olive
(Olea europea)[52] and Esparto Grass (Stipa tenacissima).[53]

Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets (Morocco, Canary Islands (Spain), Western Sahara) Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
(Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) Mediterranean woodlands and forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests
(Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Spain) Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe (Morocco)

Saharan Maghreb[edit] The Sahara
Sahara
extends across northern Africa
Africa
from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the Red Sea. Its central part is hyper-arid and supports little plant or animal life, but the northern portion of the desert receives occasional winter rains, while the strip along the Atlantic coast receives moisture from marine fog, which nourishes a greater variety of plants and animals. The northern edge of the Sahara
Sahara
corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet, which is also the northern range of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera).[53]

North Saharan steppe and woodlands: This ecoregion lies along the northern edge of the Sahara, next to the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecoregions of the Mediterranean Maghreb
Maghreb
and Cyrenaica. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form a transition between the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara
Sahara
proper to the south. It covers 1,675,300 square km (646,800 square miles) in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, and Western Sahara.[54] Atlantic coastal desert: The Atlantic coastal desert
Atlantic coastal desert
occupies a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast, where fog generated offshore by the cool Canary Current provides sufficient moisture to sustain a variety of lichens, succulents, and shrubs. It covers 39,900 square kilometres (15,400 sq mi) in Western Sahara
Western Sahara
and Mauritania.[55] Sahara
Sahara
desert: This ecoregion covers the hyper-arid central portion of the Sahara
Sahara
where rainfall is minimal and sporadic. Vegetation is rare, and this ecoregion consists mostly of sand dunes (erg), stone plateaus (hamada), gravel plains (reg), dry valleys (wadi), and salt flats. It covers 4,639,900 square km (1,791,500 square miles) of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sudan.[56] Saharan halophytics: Seasonally flooded saline depressions in the Maghreb
Maghreb
are home to halophytic, or salt-adapted, plant communities. The Saharan halophytics cover 54,000 square km (20,800 square miles), including Tunisian salt lakes
Tunisian salt lakes
of central Tunisia, Chott Melghir
Chott Melghir
in Algeria, and other areas of Egypt, Algeria, Mauritania, and Western Sahara.[57]

Culture[edit]

Traditional Maghrebi cuisine

Further information: Moroccan cuisine Further information: Algerian cuisine Further information: Tunisian cuisine The countries of the Maghreb
Maghreb
share many cultural traditions. Among these is a culinary tradition that Habib Bourguiba
Habib Bourguiba
defined as Western Arab, where couscous is the staple food, as opposed to Eastern Arab where white rice is the staple food. In terms of food, similarities beyond the starches are found throughout the Arab world. Genetics of the Maghreb
Maghreb
population[edit] The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Maghreb
Maghreb
population seems to be mainly modulated by geography, The Y-DNA Haplogroups E1b1b and J make up the vast majority of the genetic markers of the populations of the Maghreb. Haplogroup E1b1b is the most widespread among Maghrebi groups, especially the downstream lineage of E1b1b1b1a, which is typical of the indigenous Berbers
Berbers
of North-West Africa. Haplogroup J is more indicative of Middle East
Middle East
origins, and has its highest distribution among populations in Arabia and the Levant. Due to the distribution of E-M81(E1b1b1b1a), which has reached its highest documented levels in the world at 95–100% in some populations of the Maghreb, it has often been termed the "Berber marker" in the scientific literature. The second most common marker, Haplogroup J especially J1[58][59] which is typically Middle Eastern and originates in the Arabian peninsula can reach frequencies of up to 35% in the region.[60][61] Its highest density is founded in the Arabian Peninsula.[61] Haplogroup R1,[62] which is a Eurasian marker has also been observed in the Maghreb, though with lower frequency. The Y-DNA Haplogroups shown above are observed in both Arabs and Berber-speakers. The Maghreb
Maghreb
Y chromosome
Y chromosome
pool (including both Arab and Berber populations) may be summarized for most of the populations as follows where only two haplogroups E1b1b and J comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes:[63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70]

Haplogroup Marker Sahara/Mauritania Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya

n

189 760 156 601 –

A

– 0.26 – – –

B

0.53 0.66 – 0.17 –

C

– – – – –

DE

– – – – –

E1a M33 5.29 2.76 0.64 0.5 –

E1b1a M2 6.88 3.29 5.13 0.67 –

E1b1b1 M35 – 4.21 0.64 1.66 –

E1b1b1a M78 – 0.79 1.92 – –

E1b1b1a1 V12 – 0.26 0.64 – –

E1b1b1a1b V32 – – – – –

E1b1b1a2 V13 – 0.26 0.64 – –

E1b1b1a3 V22 – 1.84 1.28 3 –

E1b1b1a4 V65 – 3.68 1.92 3.16 –

E1b1b1b M81 65.56 67.37 64.23 72.73 –

E1b1b1c M34 11.11 0.66 1.28 1.16 –

F M89 – 0.26 3.85 2.66 –

G M201 – 0.66 – 0.17 –

H M69 – – – – –

I

– 0.13 – 0.17 –

J1

3.23 6.32 1.79 6.64 –

J2

– 1.32 4.49 2.83 –

K

– 0.53 0.64 0.33 –

L

– – – – –

N

– – – – –

O

– – – – –

P, R

– 0.26 – 0.33 –

Q

– – 0.64 – –

R1a1

– – 0.64 0.5 –

R1b M343 – – – – –

R1b1a V88 6.88 0.92 2.56 1.83 –

R1b1b M269 0.53 3.55 7.04 0.33 –

R2

– – – – –

T M70 – – – 1.16 –

Economy[edit] Maghreb
Maghreb
countries by GDP (PPP)[edit]

List by the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(2013) List by the World Bank
World Bank
(2013) List by the CIA World Factbook (2013)

Rank Country GDP (PPP) $M

44  Algeria 285,541

58  Morocco 179,240

70  Tunisia 108,430

81  Libya 70,386

148  Mauritania 8,241

Rank Country GDP (PPP) $M

34  Algeria 421,626

55  Morocco 241,757

70  Libya 132,695

75  Tunisia 120,755

143  Mauritania 11,835

Rank Country GDP (PPP) $M

45  Algeria 284,700

58  Morocco 180,000

68  Tunisia 108,400

81  Libya 73,600

151  Mauritania 8,204

Medieval regions[edit]

Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(currently Tunisia, Constantinois
Constantinois
and Tripolitania) Djerid Sous M'zab Draa Valley Hodna Rif Maghreb
Maghreb
al-Awsat (Central Maghreb
Maghreb
– currently Northern Algeria) Maghreb
Maghreb
al-Aqsa (Western Maghreb
Maghreb
– currently Morocco) Maghreb
Maghreb
al-Adna (Eastern Maghreb
Maghreb
– currently Libya
Libya
and Tunisia) Tamesna Tripolitania

See also[edit]

Africa
Africa
portal Francophonie portal

Arab Maghreb
Maghreb
Union Barbary
Barbary
Coast Berber people History of Algeria History of Libya History of Mauritania History of Morocco History of Tunisia History of Western Sahara Maghreb
Maghreb
French Maghreb
Maghreb
toponymy Maghrebi script Maghrebi Arabic Mashriq Moors Mughrabi (other) Plazas de soberanía Tamazgha

Notes and references[edit]

^ UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. II ^ Medieval Cuisine of the Islamic World, Lilia Zaouali, 2007, University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ^ History and Present Condition of the Barbary
Barbary
States, Michael Russell, 1837, New York. ^ Travels in England, France, Spain, and the Barbary
Barbary
States, Mordecai Manuel Noah, 1819, London. ^ Journey into Barbary: Travels across Morocco, Wyndham Lewis, 1987, New York. ^ Kharijite political influences in medieval Berbery, William J. T. Brown, University of Wisconsin-Madison. ^ Algiers
Algiers
with Notices of the Neighbouring States of Barbary, Perceval Barton Lord, 1835, London. ^ " Barbary
Barbary
Wars, 1801–1805 and 1815–1816". Retrieved 2014-06-04.  ^ "Antique Maps of North Africa". Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved 2014-06-04.  ^ Amin, Samir (1970). The Maghreb
Maghreb
in the modern world: Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco. Penguin. p. 10. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ "The Moors
Moors
were simply Maghrebis, inhabitants of the Maghreb, the western part of the Islamic world, that extends from Spain
Spain
to Tunisia, and represents a homogeneous cultural entity", Titus Burckhardt, "Moorish culture in Spain". Suhail Academy. 1997, p.7 ^ The muslim conquest and settlement of North Africa
Africa
and Spain, Abdulwahid Thanun Taha, Routledge Library Edition: Muslim Spain
Spain
p21 ^ Elisee Reclus, Africa, edited by A. H. Keane, B. A., Vol. II, North-West Africa, Appleton and company, 1880, New York, p.95 ^ "L'Union du Maghreb
Maghreb
arabe". Retrieved 2010-05-17.  ^ "Maghreb". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  ^ North Africa
Africa
Post (2015) " Maghreb
Maghreb
Countries Urged to Devise Common Security Strategy, Integration Project Remains Deadlocked" http://northafricapost.com/7594-maghreb-countries-urged-to-devise-common-security-strategy-integration-project-remains-deadlocked.html ^ Idris El Hareir; Ravane Mbaye (2011). The Spread of Islam
Islam
Throughout the World. UNESCO. pp. 375–376. ISBN 978-92-3-104153-2.  ^ a b Jan-Olaf Blichfeldt (1985). Early Mahdism: Politics and Religion in the Formative Period of Islam. Brill Archive. pp. 1183–1184. GGKEY:T7DEYT42F5R.  ^ Hassan Sayed Suliman (1987). The Nationalist Movements in the Maghrib: A Comparative Approach. Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. p. 8. ISBN 978-91-7106-266-6.  ^ "Tamazgha, North African
North African
Berbers". Retrieved 2010-02-09.  ^ McDougall, James (2006-07-31). History and the culture of nationalism in Algeria
Algeria
(Page: 189). ISBN 978-0-521-84373-7. Retrieved 2011-01-14.  ^ Titus Burckhardt, Art of Islam, Language and Meaning: Commemorative Edition, World Wisdom, Inc, 2009, page 128 ^ Sahara's Abrupt Desertification Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks, Science Daily, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/07/990712080500.htm ^ Hsain Ilahiane, Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen)(2006), p. 112, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0810864908 ^ An Estimation of the Foreign-Origin Populations of France, Michèle Tribalat ^ "Estimé à six millions d'individus, l'histoire de leur enracinement, processus toujours en devenir, suscite la mise en avant de nombreuses problématiques...", « Être Maghrébins en France » in Les Cahiers de l’Orient, n° 71, troisième trimestre 2003 ^ Tej K. Bhatia, William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 0631227350. Retrieved 27 August 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Brunel, Claire, Maghreb
Maghreb
regional and global integration: a dream to be fulfilled, Peterson Institute, 2008, p.1 ^ Davis, Robert. "British Slaves on the Barbary
Barbary
Coast". BBC. Retrieved 5 November 2009.  ^ " France
France
and Maghreb
Maghreb
– An enhanced partnership with the Maghreb (March 20, 2007)". French ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  ^ [1] ^ Insoll, T. (2003) "The Archaeology of Islam
Islam
in Sub-Saharan Africa", Cambridge World Archaeology, http://content.schweitzer-ne.de/static/content/catalog/newbooks/978/052/165/9780521651714/9780521651714_Excerpt_001.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Deeb, Mary Jane. "Religious minorities" Algeria
Algeria
(Country Study). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Helen Chapan Metz, ed. December 1993. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[2] ^ Kjeilen, Tore. "Algeria". LookLex Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Morocco ^ Fr Andrew Phillips. "The Last Christians
Christians
Of North-West Africa: Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2013.  ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 ^ Rising numbers of Christians
Christians
in Islamic countries could pose threat to social order Archived 2016-03-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe
Europe
since 1945: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland. p. 398. ISBN 0-8153-4057-5.  ^ De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (1994) Migration and development co-operation.. Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9. ^ Angus Maddison (20 September 2007). Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD:Essays in Macro-Economic History: Essays in Macro-Economic History. OUP Oxford. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1. Retrieved 26 January 2013.  ^ *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity
Christianity
in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001 ^ Lucien Oulahbib, Le monde arabe existe-t-il ?, page 12, 2005, Editions de Paris, Paris. ^ Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011) ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
(September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census ^ House-Churches' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians
Christians
of Morocco
Morocco
Are Praying in Secret ^ Morocco: No more hiding for Christians ^ Osservatorio Internazionale: "La tentazione di Cristo" Archived 2014-09-05 at Archive.is
Archive.is
April 2010 ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10): 1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015.  ^ Avner Greif (June 1993). "Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders' Coalition" (PDF). American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review. Retrieved 2007-07-11. . See also Greif's "Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders" in the Journal of Economic History Vol. XLIX, No. 4 (Dec. 1989) pp.857–882 ^ Dallman, Peter R. (1998) Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. California Native Plant Society/University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-20809-9 ^ a b Wickens, Gerald E. (1998) Ecophysiology of Economic Plants in Arid
Arid
and Semi- Arid
Arid
Lands. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-3-540-52171-6 ^ "North Saharan steppe and woodlands". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "Atlantic coastal desert". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ " Sahara
Sahara
desert". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ "Saharan halophytics". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 31, 2007.  ^ combined (Semino et al. 2004 30%) & (Arredi et al. 2004 32%) ^ "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe
Europe
and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–1034. May 2004. doi:10.1086/386295.  ^ Alshamali F, Pereira L, Budowle B, Poloni ES, Currat M (2009). "Local population structure in Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
revealed by Y-STR diversity". Hum. Hered. 68 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1159/000210448. PMID 19339785.  ^ a b *Alshamali et al. 2009 81% (84/104) *Malouf et al. 2008: 70% (28/40) *Cadenas et al. 2008:45/62 = 72.6% J1-M267 ^ Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample ^ Bosch E, Calafell F, Comas D, et al. (April 2001). "High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Variation Shows a Sharp Discontinuity and Limited Gene Flow between Northwestern Africa
Africa
and the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (4): 1019–29. doi:10.1086/319521. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1275654 . PMID 11254456.  ^ Nebel A, Landau-Tasseron E, Filon D, et al. (June 2002). "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (6): 1594–6. doi:10.1086/340669. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 379148 . PMID 11992266.  ^ Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, et al. (May 2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe
Europe
and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1181965 . PMID 15069642.  ^ Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, et al. (August 2004). "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (2): 338–345. doi:10.1086/423147. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1216069 . PMID 15202071.  ^ Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P, et al. (May 2004). "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1014–22. doi:10.1086/386294. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1181964 . PMID 15042509.  ^ Robino C, Crobu F, Di Gaetano C, et al. (May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122 (3): 251–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5. ISSN 0937-9827. PMID 17909833.  ^ Onofri V, Alessandrini F, Turchi C, et al. (August 2008). "Y-chromosome markers distribution in Northern Africa: High-resolution SNP and STR analysis in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Morocco
Morocco
populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 1 (1): 235–6. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.173.  ^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, et al. (2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African
North African
Landscape. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Maghreb.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maghreb.

Politics, economics, and human affairs analysis in the Maghhreb Maghreb
Maghreb
Radio Stations News and Views of the Maghreb Peacekeeping mission in Maghreb: The MINURSO

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Island

Niger Senegal Upper Volta

 

French Togoland James Island Albreda

French Equatorial Africa

Chad Gabon Middle Congo Ubangi-Shari French Cameroons

French Comoros

Anjouan Grande Comore Mohéli

 

French Somaliland
French Somaliland
(Djibouti) Madagascar Isle de France

v t e

Former French colonies in the Americas

New France

Acadia Louisiana Canada Terre Neuve

French Caribbean

Dominica Grenada The Grenadines Saint-Domingue

Haïti, Dominican Republic

Saint Kitts & Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent Tobago Virgin Islands

Equinoctial France

Berbice France
France
Antarctique Inini

French colonization of the Americas French West India Company

v t e

Former French colonies in Asia
Asia
and Oceania

French India

Chandernagor Coromandel Coast Madras Mahé Pondichéry Karaikal Yanaon

Indochinese Union

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

Cochinchina Annam Tonkin

Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, China

French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

State of Syria

Aleppo Damascus

Alawite State Greater Lebanon Jabal al-Druze Sanjak of Alexandretta

Oceania

New Hebrides

Vanuatu

Port Louis-Philippe (Akaroa)

France– Asia
Asia
relations French East India Company

Present

v t e

Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic
Antarctic
Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 235904198 GND: 4036963-8

Coordinates: 30°N 5°E / 30°N 5°

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