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In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition with a fleet known as the Armada de Molucca to reach the Moluccas or Spice Islands (in present day Indonesia). Upon the death of Magellan in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the expedition to the Spice Islands and ultimately the return trip to Spain, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the world in 1522. Thus the expedition is called the Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation.

The goal of the expedition was to find a western route to the Moluccas (Spice Islands) and trade for spices. Magellan left Spain on 20 September 1519, sailed across the Atlantic, and discovered the strait that now bears his name, allowing him to pass through the southern tip of South America into the Pacific Ocean (which he named). The fleet performed the first ever crossing of the Pacific, stopping in what is today called the Philippines, and eventually reached the Moluccas, accomplishing its goal. A much-depleted crew finally returned to Spain on 6 September 1522.

The fleet initially consisted of about 270 men and five ships: four carracks and one caravel. The expedition faced numerous hardships including mutinies, starvation, scurvy, storms, and hostile encounters with indigenous people. Magellan died in battle in the Philippine islands and was succeeded as captain-general by a series of officers, with Juan Sebastián Elcano leading the trip onward to Spain. He and seventeen other men in one ship (the Victoria) were the only ones to circumnavigate the globe.

The expedition was funded mostly by King Charles I of Spain, with the hope that it would discover a profitable western route to the Moluccas, as the eastern route was controlled by Portugal under the Treaty of Tordesillas. Though the expedition did find a route, it was much longer and more arduous than expected, and was therefore not commercially useful. Nevertheless, the first circumnavigation has been regarded as a great achievement in seamanship, and had a significant impact on the European understanding of the world.[1]

The fleet spent 13 days in Rio, during which they repaired their ships, stocked up on water and food (such as yam, cassava, and pineapple), and interacted with the locals. The expedition had brought with them a great quantity of trinkets intended for trade, such as mirrors, combs, knives and bells. The locals readily exchanged food and local goods (such as parrot feathers) for such items. The crew also found they could purchase sexual favours from the local women. Historian Ian Cameron described the crew's time in Rio as "a saturnalia of feasting and lovemaking".[41]

On December 27, the fleet left Rio de Janeiro. Pigafetta wrote that the natives were disappointed to see them leave, and that some followed them in canoes trying to entice them to stay.[42]

Río de la Plata

On February 3, the fleet continu

On February 3, the fleet continued south along the South American coast.[43] Magellan believed they would find a strait (or the southern terminus of the continent) within a short distance.[44] In fact, the fleet would sail south for another eight weeks without finding passage, before stopping to overwinter at St. Julian.

Not wanting to miss the strait, the fleet sailed as close to the coast as feasible, heightening the danger of running aground on shoals. The ships sailed only during the day, with lookouts carefully watching the coast for signs of a passage. In addition to the hazards of shallow wat

Not wanting to miss the strait, the fleet sailed as close to the coast as feasible, heightening the danger of running aground on shoals. The ships sailed only during the day, with lookouts carefully watching the coast for signs of a passage. In addition to the hazards of shallow waters, the fleet encountered squalls, storms, and dropping temperatures as they continued south and winter set in.

By the third week of March, weather conditions had become so desperate that Magellan decided they should find a safe harbor in which to wait out the winter, and resume the search for a passage in spring. On March 31, 1520, a break in the coast was spotted. There, the fleet found a natural harbor which they called Port St. Julian.[45]

The men would remain at St. Julian for five months, before resuming their search for the strait.

Easter mutiny

On October 18, the fleet left Santa Cruz heading south, resuming their search for a passage. Soon after, on October 21, they spotted a headland at 52°S latitude which they named Cape Virgenes. Past the cape, they found a large bay. While they were exploring the bay, a storm erupted. The Trinidad and Victoria made it out to open seas, but the Concepción and San Antonio were driven deeper into the bay, toward a promontory. Three days later, the fleet was reunited, and the Concepción and San Antonio reported that the storm drew them through a narrow passage, not visible from sea, which continued for some distance. Hoping they had finally found their sought-after strait, the fleet retraced the path taken by the Concepción and San Antonio. Unlike at Río de la Plata earlier, the water did not lose its salinity as they progressed, and soundings indicated that the waters were consistently deep. This was the passage they sought, which would come to be known as the Strait of Magellan. At the time, Magellan referred to it as the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos ("All Saints' Channel"), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints' Day.

On October 28, the fleet reached an island in the strait (likely Elizabeth Island or Dawson Island), which could be passed in one of two directions. Magellan directed the fleet to split up to explore the respective paths. They were meant to regroup within a few days, but the San Antonio would never rejoin the fleet.[58] While the rest of the fleet waited for the return of the San Antonio, Gonzalo de Espinosa led a small ship to explore the further reaches of the strait. After three days of sailing, they reached the end of the strait and the mouth of the Pacific Ocean. After another three days, Espinosa returned. Pigafetta writes that, on hearing the news of Espinosa's discovery, Magellan wept tears of joy.[59] The fleet's remaining three ships completed the journey to the Pacific by November 28, after weeks of fruitlessly searching for the San

On October 28, the fleet reached an island in the strait (likely Elizabeth Island or Dawson Island), which could be passed in one of two directions. Magellan directed the fleet to split up to explore the respective paths. They were meant to regroup within a few days, but the San Antonio would never rejoin the fleet.[58] While the rest of the fleet waited for the return of the San Antonio, Gonzalo de Espinosa led a small ship to explore the further reaches of the strait. After three days of sailing, they reached the end of the strait and the mouth of the Pacific Ocean. After another three days, Espinosa returned. Pigafetta writes that, on hearing the news of Espinosa's discovery, Magellan wept tears of joy.[59] The fleet's remaining three ships completed the journey to the Pacific by November 28, after weeks of fruitlessly searching for the San Antonio.[60] Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness.[61]

The San Antonio failed to rejoin the rest of Magellan's fleet in the strait. At some point, they reversed course and sailed back to Spain. The ship's officers later testified that they had arrived early at the appointed rendezvous location, but it's not clear whether this is true.[62] The pilot of the San Antonio at the time, Álvaro de Mezquita, was Magellan's cousin and loyal to the captain-general. He directed attempts to rejoin the fleet, firing cannons and setting off smoke signals. At some point he was overpowered in yet another mutiny attempt, this one successful. He was stabbed by the pilot of the San Antonio, Estêvão Gomes, and put in chains for the remainder of the journey.[63] Gomes was known to have feelings of animosity towards Magellan (as documented by Pigafetta, who wrote that "Gomes... hated the Captain General exceedingly", because he had hoped to have his own expedition to the Moluccas funded instead of Magellan's[64]), and shortly before the fleet was separated, had argued with him about their next course of action. While Magellan and the other officers agreed to continue west to the Moluccas, thinking that their 2–3 months of rations would be sufficient for the journey, Gomes argued that they should return to Spain the way they had come, to muster more supplies for another journey through the strait.[65]

The San Antonio reached Seville approximately six months later, on May 6, 1521. There ensued a trial of the ship's men which lasted six months. With Mezquita being the only one loyal to Magellan, the majority of testimony produced a villainous and distorted picture of Magellan's actions. In particular, in justifying the mutiny at St. Julian, the men claimed that M

The San Antonio reached Seville approximately six months later, on May 6, 1521. There ensued a trial of the ship's men which lasted six months. With Mezquita being the only one loyal to Magellan, the majority of testimony produced a villainous and distorted picture of Magellan's actions. In particular, in justifying the mutiny at St. Julian, the men claimed that Magellan had tortured Spanish seamen (during the return journey across the Atlantic, Mezquita was tortured into signing a statement to this effect) and claimed that they were merely trying to make Magellan follow the king's orders. Ultimately, none of the mutineers faced charges in Spain. Magellan's reputation suffered as a result, as did his friends and family. Mezquita was kept in jail for a year following the trial, and Magellan's wife, Beatriz, had her financial resources cut off, and was placed under house arrest, along with their son.[66]

Magellan (along with contemporary geographers) had no conception of the vastness of the Pacific Ocean. He imagined that South America was separated from the Spice Islands by a small sea, which he expected to cross in as little as three or four days.[67] In fact, they spent three months and twenty days at sea, before reaching Guam and then the Philippines.

The fleet entered the Pacific from the Strait of Magellan on November 28, 1520, and initially sailed north, following the coast of Chile. By mid-December, they altered their course to west-north-west.[68] They were unfortunate in that, had their course differed slightly, they could have encountered a number of Pacific islands which would have offered fresh food and water, such as the Juan Fernandez Islands, the Marshall Islands, Easter Island, the Society Islands, or the Marquesas Islands. As it was, they encountered only two small uninhabited islands during the crossing, at which they were unable to land. The first, sighted January 24, they named San Pablo (likely Puka-Puka).[69] The second, which they sighted February 21, was likely Caroline Island.Chile. By mid-December, they altered their course to west-north-west.[68] They were unfortunate in that, had their course differed slightly, they could have encountered a number of Pacific islands which would have offered fresh food and water, such as the Juan Fernandez Islands, the Marshall Islands, Easter Island, the Society Islands, or the Marquesas Islands. As it was, they encountered only two small uninhabited islands during the crossing, at which they were unable to land. The first, sighted January 24, they named San Pablo (likely Puka-Puka).[69] The second, which they sighted February 21, was likely Caroline Island.[70] They crossed the equator on February 13.

Not expecting such a long journey, the ships were not stocked with adequate food and water, and much of the seal meat they had stocked putrified in the equatorial heat. Pigafetta described the desperate conditions in his journal:

we only ate old biscuit reduced to powder, and full of grubs, and stinking from the dirt which the rats had made on it when eating the good biscuit, and we drank water that was yellow and stinking. We also ate the ox hides which were under the main-yard, so that the yard should not break the rigging: they were very hard on account of the sun, rain, and wind, and we left them for four or five days in the sea, and then we put them a little on the embers, and so ate them; also the sawdust of wood, and rats which cost half-a-crown each, moreover enough of them were not to be got.[33]

Moreover, most of the men suffered from symptoms of scurvy, whose cause was not understood at the time. Pigafetta reported that, of the 166 men[71][72][need quotation to verify] who embarked on the Pacific crossing, 19 died and "twenty-five or thirty fell ill of diverse sicknesses".[33] Magellan, Pigafetta, and other officers were not afflicted with scorbutic symptoms, which may have been because they ate preserved quince which (unbeknownst to them) contained the vitamin C necessary to protect against scurvy.[73]

On March 6, 1521, the fleet reached the Mariana Islands. The first land they spotted was likely the island of Rota, but the ships were unable to land there, and instead dropped anchor thirty hours later on Guam. They were met by native Chamorro people in proas, a type of outrigger canoe then unknown to Europeans. Dozens of Chamorros came aboard and began taking items from the ship, including rigging, knives, and any items made of iron. At some point, there was a physical confrontation between the crew and the natives, and at least one Chamorro was killed. The remaining natives fled with the goods they had obtained, also taking Magellan's bergantina (the ship's boat kept on the Trinidad) as they retreated.[74][75] For this act, Magellan called the island Isla de los Ladrones (Island of Thieves).[76]

The next day, Magellan retaliated, sending a raiding party ashore which looted and burned forty or fifty Chammoro houses and killed seven men.[77] They recovered the berganti

The next day, Magellan retaliated, sending a raiding party ashore which looted and burned forty or fifty Chammoro houses and killed seven men.[77] They recovered the bergantina and left Guam the next day, March 9, continuing westward.[78]

he Philippines The fleet reached the Philippines on March 16, and would remain there until May 1. The expedition represented the first documented European contact with the Philippines.[79] Though the stated goal of Magellan's expedition was to find a passage through South America to the Moluccas, and return to Spain laden with spices, at this point in the journey, Magellan seemed to acquire a zeal for converting the local tribes to Christianity. In doing so, Magellan eventually became embroiled in a local political dispute, and died in the Philippines, along with dozens of other officers and crew.

On March 16, a week after leaving Guam, the fleet first sighted the island of Samar, then landed on the island of Homonhon, which was then uninhabited. They spent nearly two weeks on Homonhon, resting and gathering fresh food and water, before leaving on March 27.[80] On the morning of March 28, they neared the island of Limasawa, and encountered some natives in canoes. For the first time on the journey, Magellan's slave Enrique of Malacca found that he was able to communicate with the natives in Malay (an indication that they had indeed completed a circumnavigation, and were approaching familiar lands).[80] They exchanged gifts with the natives (receiving porcelain jars painted with Chinese designs), and later that day were introduced to their leader, Rajah Kolambu[n 3]. Magellan would become a "blood brother" to Kolambu, undergoing the local blood compact ritual with him.[81]

Magellan and his men noted that the island was rich in gold, and found that the locals were eager to trade it for iron at par. While at Limasawa, Magellan gave some of the natives a demonstration of Spanish armour, weapons, and artillery, by which they were apparently impressed.[82]

On Sunday March 31, Easter Day, Magellan and fifty of his men came ashore to Limasawa to participate in the first Catholic Mass in the Philippines, given by the armada's chaplain. Kolambu, his brother (who was also a local leader), and other islanders joined in the ceremony, and expressed an interest in their religion. Following Mass, Magellan's men raised a cross on the highest hill on the island, and formally declared the island, and the entire archipelago of the Philippines (which he called the Islands of St Lazarus) as a possession of Spain.[83]

Cebu

On April 2, Magellan held a conference to decide the fleet's next course of action. His officers urged him to head south-west for the Mollucas, but instead he decided to press further into the Philippines. On Apr

On April 2, Magellan held a conference to decide the fleet's next course of action. His officers urged him to head south-west for the Mollucas, but instead he decided to press further into the Philippines. On April 3, the fleet sailed north-west from Limasawa towards the island of Cebu, which Magellan learned of from Kolambu. The fleet was guided to Cebu by some of Kolambu's men.[84] They sighted Cebu April 6, and made landfall the next day. Cebu had regular contact with Chinese and Arab traders and normally required that visitors pay tribute in order to trade. Magellan convinced the island's leader, Rajah Humabon, to waive this requirement.

As he had in Limasawa, Magellan gave a demonstration of the fleet's arms in order to impress the locals. Again, he also preached Christianity to the natives, and on April 14, Humabon and his family were baptised and given an image of the As he had in Limasawa, Magellan gave a demonstration of the fleet's arms in order to impress the locals. Again, he also preached Christianity to the natives, and on April 14, Humabon and his family were baptised and given an image of the Holy Child (later known as Santo Niño de Cebu). In the coming days, other local chieftains were baptised, and in total, 2,200 locals from Cebu and other nearby islands were converted.[85]

When Magellan learned that a group on the island of Mactan, led by Lapu-Lapu, resisted Christian conversion, he ordered his men to burn their homes. When they continued to resist, Magellan informed his council on April 26 that he would bring an armed contingent to Mactan and make them submit under threat of force.[86]

Magellan mustered a force of 60 armed men from his crew to oppose Lapu-Lapu's forces. Some Cebuano men followed Magellan to Mactan, but were instructed by Magellan not to join the fight, but merely to watch.[87] He first sent an envoy to Lapu-Lapu, offering him a last chance to accept the king of Spain as their ruler, and avoid bloodshed. Lapu-Lapu refused. Magellan took 49 men to the shore while 11 remained to guard the boats Though they had the benefit of relatively advanced armour and weaponry, Magellan's forces were greatly outnumbered. Pigafetta (who was present on the battlefield) estimated the enemy's number at 1,500.[88] Magellan's forces were driven back and decisively defeated. Magellan died in battle, along with several comrades, including Cristovao Rebelo, Magellan's illegitimate son.[89]

May 1 Massacre

Following Magellan's death, the remaining men held an election to select a new leader for the expedition. They selected two co-commanders: Duarte Barbosa, Magellan's brother-in-law, and Juan Serrano. Magellan's will called for the liberation of his slave, Enrique, but Barbosa and Serrano demanded that he continue his duties as an interpreter for them, and follow their orders. Enrique had some secret communication with Humabon which caused him to betray the Spaniards.

On May 1, Humabon invited the men ashore for a great feast. It was attended by around thirty men, mostly officers, including Serrano and Barbosa. Towards the end of the meal, armed Cebuanos entered the hall and murdered the Europeans. Twenty-seven men were killed. Juan Serrano, one of the newly-elected co-commanders, was left alive and brought to the shore facing the Spanish ships. Serrano begged the men on board to

Following Magellan's death, the remaining men held an election to select a new leader for the expedition. They selected two co-commanders: Duarte Barbosa, Magellan's brother-in-law, and Juan Serrano. Magellan's will called for the liberation of his slave, Enrique, but Barbosa and Serrano demanded that he continue his duties as an interpreter for them, and follow their orders. Enrique had some secret communication with Humabon which caused him to betray the Spaniards.

On May 1, Humabon invited the men ashore for a great feast. It was attended by around thirty men, mostly officers, including Serrano and Barbosa. Towards the end of the meal, armed Cebuanos entered the hall and murdered the Europeans. Twenty-seven men were killed. Juan Serrano, one of the newly-elected co-commanders, was left alive an

On May 1, Humabon invited the men ashore for a great feast. It was attended by around thirty men, mostly officers, including Serrano and Barbosa. Towards the end of the meal, armed Cebuanos entered the hall and murdered the Europeans. Twenty-seven men were killed. Juan Serrano, one of the newly-elected co-commanders, was left alive and brought to the shore facing the Spanish ships. Serrano begged the men on board to pay a ransom to the Cebuanos. The Spanish ships left port, and Serrano was (presumably) killed. In his account, Pigafetta speculates that João Carvalho, who became first in command in the absence of Barbosa and Serrano, abandoned Serrano (his one-time friend) so that he could remain in command of the fleet.[90]

With just 115 surviving men, out of the 277 who had sailed from Seville, it was decided the fleet did not have enough men to continue operating three ships. On May 2, the Concepcion was emptied and set on fire.[90] With Carvalho as the new captain-general, the remaining two ships, the Trinidad and Victoria, spent the next six months meandering through Southeast Asia in search of the Moluccas. On the way, they stopped at several islands including Mindanao and Brunei. During this time, they engaged in acts of piracy, including robbing a junk bound for China from the Moluccas.[91]

On September 21, Carvalho was made to step down as captain-general. He was replaced by Martin Mendez, with Gonzalo de Espinosa and Juan Sebastián Elcano as captains of the Trinidad and Victoria, respectively.[92]

The ships finally reached the Moluccas on November 8, when they reached the island of Tidore. They were greeted by the island's leader, al-Mansur (known to the officers by the Spanish name Almanzor).[93] Almanzor was a friendly host to the men, and readily claimed loyalty to the king of Spain. A trading post was established in Tidore and the men set about purchasing massive quantities of cloves in exchange for goods such as cloth, knives, and glassware.[94]

Around December 15, the ships attempted to set sail from Tidore, laden with cloves. But the Trinidad, which had fallen into disrepair, was found to be taking on water. The departure was postponed while the men, aided by the locals, attempted to find and repair the leak. When these attempts were unsuccessful, it was decided that the Victoria would leave for Spain via a western route, and that the Trinidad would remain behind for some time to be refitted, before heading back to Spain by an eastern route, involving an overland passage across the American continent.[95] Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and attempted to return to Spain via the Pacific route. This attempt failed. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese, and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control.[citation needed]

The Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December 1521, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano. By 6 May 1522 the Victoria rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation by 9 July 1522, when Elcano put into Portuguese Cape Verde for provisions. The crew was surprised to learn that the date was actually 10 July 1522,[96] as they had recorded every day of the three-year journey without omission. They had no trouble making purchases at first, using the cover story that they were returning to Spain from the Americas. However, the Portuguese detained 13 crew members after discovering that Victoria was carrying spices from the East Indies.[97][98] The Victoria managed to escape with its cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon).

On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain aboard Victoria, almost exactly three years after they departed.

SurvivorsOn 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain aboard Victoria, almost exactly three years after they departed.

When Victoria, the one surviving ship and the smallest carrack in the fleet, returned to the harbor of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 270 men were on board.[n 4] In addition to the returning Europeans, the Victoria had aboard three Moluccans who came aboard at Tidore.[100]

18 men returned to Seville aboard Victoria in 1522[100]
Name Origin Final rank
A few weeks later, another 13 men (12 Europeans and one Moluccan), who were held captive in Cape Verde, returned to Seville, thereby completing the circumnavigation as well.[101][102] They were the following:[103]

  • Martín Méndez, scrivener
  • Pedro de Tolosa, pantry
  • Richard de Normandía, carpenter
  • Roldán de Argote, gunner
  • Pedro de Tenerife, gunner
  • Juan Martín, supernumerary
  • Simón de Burgos, supernumerary
  • Felipe de Rodas, able seaman
  • Gómez Hernández, able seaman
  • Socacio Alonso, able seaman
  • Pedro de Chindurza, able seaman
  • Vasquito Gallego, cabin boy
  • "Manuel", a Moluccan without known role

Between 1525 and 1526, the survivors of the Trinidad, who had been captured by the Portuguese in the Moluccas, were transported to a prison in Portugal and eventually released after a seven-month negotiation. Only five survived:[103]

  • Juan Rodríguez
  • Gaspar de Espinosa, alguacil
  • Leone Pancaldo, pilot
  • Ginés de Mafra, able seaman
  • Hans Vargue, gunner (who died in Portugal)

There were thus 35 circumnavigators overall.[101][102]

Accounts of voyage

Antonio Pigafetta's journal, later published as Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo, is the main primary source for much of what is known about Magellan's expedition.[104][105] The first printed report (secondary source) of the circumnavigation was a letter written by Maximilianus Transylvanus, a relative of sponsor Christopher de Haro, who interviewed survivors in 1522 and published his account in 1523.[103]

  • Juan Rodríguez
  • Gaspar de Espinosa, alguacil
  • Leone Pancaldo, pilot
  • Ginés de Mafra, able seaman
  • Hans Vargue, gunner (who died in Portugal)

There were thus 35 circumnavigators overall.[101][101][102]

Accounts of voyage

Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan's name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans.

Magellan's crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a "camel without humps", which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The llama, vicuña and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black "goose" that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin.[citation needed]

The full extent of the globe was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi). The global expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon arrival at Cape Verde, the crew was surprised to learn that the ship's date of 9 July 1522 was one day behind the local date of 10 July 1522, even though they had recorded every day of the three-year journey without omission. They lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, in the same direction as the apparent motion of the sun across the sky.[140] Although the Arab geographer Abu'l-Fida (1273–1331) had predicted that circumnavigators would accumulate a one-day offset,[141] Cardinal Gasparo Contarini was the first European to give a correct explanation of the discrepancy.[142]

Quincentenary

In 2017, Portugal submitted an application to UNESCO to honor the circumnavigation route; the proposal was for a World Heritage Site called "Route of Magellan".[143] In 2019 this was replaced by a joint application on the part of Portugal and Spain.

In 2019, there have been a number of events to mark the 500th anniversary of the voyage including exhibitions in various Spanish cities.[144]

In line with the 500th celebration of Magellan’s arrival in the Philippines on 2021, the National Quincentennial Committee will put up shrine markers to the points where the fleet anchored.[145]

Marker Site in the Philippines
Landing Homonhon, Limasawa, Mactan, Cebu, Quipit, Tagusao, Buliluyan, Mapun and Sarangani
Anchorage Guiuan, Suluan, Gigatigan, Bohol, Balabac, Kawit and Balut
Landmark Hibuson, Hinunangan, García Jofre de Loaísa to occupy the Moluccas, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas. This expedition included the most notable Spanish navigators, including Juan Sebastián Elcano, who, along with many other sailors, died during the voyage, and the young Andrés de Urdaneta. They had difficulty reaching the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. The Portuguese were already established in nearby Ternate and the two nations had nearly a decade of skirmishing over the "possession." (occupied by indigenous peoples.)[citation needed] In 1565, Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the Manila-Acapulco route.

The course that Magellan charted was later followed by other navigators, such as Sir Francis Drake during his circumnavigation in 1578.[139]

Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan's name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans.

Magellan's crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a "camel without humps", which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The llama, vi

Magellan's crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a "camel without humps", which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The llama, vicuña and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black "goose" that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin.[citation needed]

The full extent of the globe was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi). The global expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon arrival at Cape Verde, the crew was surprised to learn that the ship's date of 9 July 1522 was one day behind the local date of 10 July 1522, even though they had recorded every day of the three-year journey without omission. They lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, in the same direction as the apparent motion of the sun across the sky.[140] Although the Arab geographer Abu'l-Fida (1273–1331) had predicted that circumnavigators would accumulate a one-day offset,[141] Cardinal Gasparo Contarini was the first European to give a correct explanation of the discrepancy.[142]

In 2017, Portugal submitted an application to UNESCO to honor the circumnavigation route; the proposal was for a World Heritage Site called "Route of Magellan".[143] In 2019 this was replaced by a joint application on the part of Portugal and Spain.

In 2019, there have been a number of events to mark the 500th anniversary of the voyage including exhibitions in various Spanish cities.[144]

In line with the 500th celebration of Magellan’s arrival in the Philippines on 2021, the N

In 2019, there have been a number of events to mark the 500th anniversary of the voyage including exhibitions in various Spanish cities.[144]

In line with the 500th celebration of Magellan’s arrival in the Philippines on 2021, the National Quincentennial Committee will put up shrine markers to the points where the fleet anchored.[145]