MADURAI is a major city in the Indian state of
Tamil Nadu . It is the
administrative headquarters of
Madurai District .
Madurai is the third
largest city by population in
Tamil Nadu , and is the 25th populated
city in India. Located on the banks of
River Vaigai ,
been a major settlement for two millennia.
Madurai has been selected
as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city
under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
Madurai is closely associated with the
Tamil language , and the third
Tamil Sangam , a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have
been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to
the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by
Megasthenes , the Greek
ambassador to the
Maurya empire , and
Kautilya , a minister of the
Chandragupta Maurya . Signs of human settlements and
Roman trade links dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by
Archeological Survey of
India in Manalur. The city is believed to
be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by
the Pandyas ,
Madurai Sultanate ,
Vijayanagar Empire ,
Madurai Nayaks , Carnatic kingdom , and the British .
The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi
Amman Temple and
Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent.
Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil
Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and
granite manufacturing industries. It has developed as a second-tier
city for information technology (IT), and some software companies have
opened offices in Madurai.
Madurai has important government educational institutes like the
Madurai Medical College , Homeopathic Medical College,
College , Agricultural College and Research Institute.
Madurai city is
administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the
Municipal Corporation Act.
Madurai is the second corporation in Tamil
Nadu next to
Chennai corporation. The city covers an area of 147.97
km2 and had a population of 1,017,865 in 2011. The city is also the
seat of a bench of the
Madras High Court .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Architecture
* 4 Geography and climate
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Administration and politics
* 7 Transport
* 7.1 Road
* 7.2 Rail
* 7.3 Air
* 8 Education
* 9 Economy
* 10 Religious sites
* 11 Culture, tourism and entertainment
* 12 Media and utility services
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 References
* 16 External links
The city is referred by various names including "Madurai", "Koodal",
"Malligai Maanagar", "Naanmadakoodal" and "Thirualavai". The word
_Madurai_ may be derived from Madhura (sweetness) arising out of the
divine nectar showered on the city by the Hindu god
Shiva from his
matted hair. Another theory is that _Madurai_ is the derivative of
the word _Marutham_, which refers to the type of landscape of the
Sangam age . A town in the neighbouring
Dindigul district is called
Madurai (_North Madurai_) and another in
Sivagangai district is
Manamadurai . The different names by which the city has been
referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem
_Thiruvilayaadal puraanam_ written by Paranjothi Munivar.
_Koodal_ means an assembly or congregation of scholarly people,
referring to the three Tamil Sangams held at Madurai. Naanmadakoodal,
meaning the junction of four towers, refers to the four major temples
Madurai was known for. _Tevaram _, the 7th- or 8th-century
Tamil compositions on
Shiva by the three prominent
_), namely Appar, Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar, address the
city as _Thirualavai_. As per
Iravatham Mahadevan , a 2nd-century
Tamil-Brahmi inscription refers to the city as _matiray_, an Old
Tamil word meaning a "walled city" derived from an older Dravidian
Hand coloured antique wood engraving drawn by W. Purser (1858)
Madurai city as seen from the north bank of the
Madurai has been inhabited since at least the 3rd century BCE.
Megasthenes may have visited
Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with
the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. The view is contested
by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city
Mathura , as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan
Madurai is also mentioned in
Kautilya 's (370–283 BCE)
Sangam literature like _
Maturaikkāñci _ records
the importance of
Madurai as a capital city of the Pandyan dynasty.
Madurai is mentioned in the works of Roman historians Pliny the
Younger (61 – c. 112 CE),
Ptolemy (c. 90 – c. CE 168), those of
the Greek geographer
Strabo (64/63 BCE – c. 24 CE), and also in
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea . Pandyan dynasty Map at its
greatest extent Coin of
Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan , first ruler of
the Sultanate of
Madurai , 1335–1339 CE
After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including
Madurai, came under the rule of the
Kalabhra dynasty , which was
ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE. The Pandyas were outsted from
Madurai by the
Chola dynasty during the early 9th century. The city
remained under the control of the
Cholas until the early 13th century,
when the second Pandyan empire was established with
Madurai as its
capital. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308 CE),
Madurai came under the rule of the
Delhi Sultanate . The Madurai
Sultanate then seceded from
Delhi and functioned as an independent
kingdom until its gradual annexation by the
Vijayanagar Empire in 1378
Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 CE under the
Nayaks . Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and
Madurai was repeatedly
captured several times by
Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab
Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th
Madurai came under the direct control of the British East
India Company and was annexed to the
Madras Presidency . The British
government made donations to the
Meenakshi temple and participated in
the Hindu festivals during the early part of their rule. The city
evolved as a political and industrial complex through the 19th and
20th centuries to become a district headquarters of a larger Madurai
district. In 1837, the fortifications around the temple were
demolished by the British. The moat was drained and the debris was
used to construct new streets – Veli, Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri
streets. The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866 CE. The
British government faced initial hiccups during the earlier period of
the establishment of municipality in land ceiling and tax collection
Dindigul districts under the direct administration of
the officers of the government. The city, along with the district,
was resurveyed between 1880 and 1885 CE and subsequently, five
municipalities were constituted in the two districts and six taluk
boards were set up for local administration. Police stations were
Madurai city, housing the headquarters of the District
It was in Madurai, in 1921, that
Mahatma Gandhi , pre-eminent leader
Indian nationalism in British-ruled India, first adopted the loin
cloth as his mode of dress after seeing agricultural labourers wearing
it. Leaders of the independence movement in
Madurai included N.M.R.
Subbaraman and Mohammad Ismail Sahib. The Temple Entry
Authorization and Indemnity Act passed by the government of Madras
C. Rajagopalachari in 1939 removed restrictions
Dalits from entering Hindu temples. The temple
entry movement was first led in
Meenakshi temple by
A. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939.
Madurai showing centre of the city and some important
Madurai is built around the
Meenakshi Amman Temple, which acted as
the geographic and ritual centre of the ancient city of Madurai. The
city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets
around the temple.
Vishwanatha Nayak (1529–64 CE), the first
Madurai Nayak king, redesigned the city in accordance with the
principles laid out by _
Shilpa Shastras _ (Sanskrit: _śilpa
śāstra_, also anglicised as _silpa sastra_ meaning rules of
architecture) related to urban planning. These squares retain their
traditional names of Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets,
corresponding to the Tamil month names and also to the festivals
associated. The temple _prakarams _ (outer precincts of a temple) and
streets accommodate an elobrate festival calendar in which dramatic
processions circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the
centre. The temple chariots used in processions are progressively
larger in size based on the size of the concentric streets. Ancient
Tamil classics record the temple as the centre of the city and the
surrounding streets appearing liken a lotus and its petals. The
city's axes were aligned with the four quarters of the compass, and
the four gateways of the temple provided access to it. The wealthy
and higher echelons of the society were placed in streets close to the
temple, while the poorest were placed in the fringe streets. With the
advent of British rule during the 19th century,
Madurai became the
headquarters of a large colonial political complex and an industrial
town; with urbanisation, the social hierarchical classes became
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Vaigai river in
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
20 30 20
14 32 21
18 35 23
55 37 25
70 38 26
40 38 26
50 36 25
104 35 25
119 34 24
188 32 24
145 30 23
51 29 21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
0.8 86 68
0.5 90 70
0.7 95 73
2.2 99 77
2.8 100 79
1.6 100 79
1.9 96 77
4.1 95 77
4.7 93 75
7.4 90 75
5.7 86 73
2 84 70
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Madurai is located at 9°56′N 78°07′E / 9.93°N
78.12°E / 9.93; 78.12 . It has an average elevation of 101
metres. The city of
Madurai lies on the flat and fertile plain of the
Vaigai , which runs in the northwest-southeast direction through
the city, dividing it into two almost equal halves. The Sirumalai and
Nagamalai hills lie to the north and west of Madurai. The land in and
Madurai is utilised largely for agricultural activity, which is
fostered by the
Periyar Dam .
Madurai lies southeast of the western
ghats, and the surrounding region occupies the plains of South India
and contains several mountain spurs. The soil type in central Madurai
is predominantly clay loam, while red loam and black cotton types are
widely prevalent in the outer fringes of the city. Paddy is the major
crop, followed by pulses, millet, oil seed, cotton and sugarcane.
The municipal corporation of
Madurai has an area of 147.977 km2.
Madurai is hot and dry for eight months of the year. Cold winds are
experienced during February and March as in the neighbouring Dindigul
. The hottest months are from March to July. The city experiences a
moderate climate from August to October, tempered by heavy rain and
thundershowers, and a slightly cooler climate from November to
February. Fog and dew are rare, occurring only during the winter
season. Being equidistant from mountains and the sea, it experiences
similar monsoon pattern with
Northeast monsoon and
Southwest monsoon ,
with the former providing more rain during October to December. The
average annual rainfall for the
Madurai district is about 85.76 cm.
Temperatures during summer generally reach a maximum of 40 °C and a
minimum of 26.3 °C, although temperatures up to 42 °C are not
uncommon. Winter temperatures range between 29.6 °C and 18 °C. A
study based on the data available with the Indian Meteorological
Madurai over a period of 62 years indicate rising trend
in atmospheric temperature over
Madurai city, attributed to
urbanisation, growth of vehicles and industrial activity. The maximum
temperature of 42 °C for the decade of 2001 – 2010 was recorded in
2004 and in 2010.
CLIMATE DATA FOR MADURAI, INDIA (1971–2000)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
Source: Indian Meteorological Department Mean data from 1971–2000
* 1951 – 1981:
According to 2011 census based on per-expansion limits, the area
covered under the
Madurai Municipal Corporation had a population of
1,017,865 with a sex-ratio of 999 females for every 1,000 males, much
above the national average of 929. A total of 100,324 were under the
age of six, constituting 51,485 males and 48,839 females. Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 6.27% and .31% of the
population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 81.95%,
compared to the national average of 72.99%. The urban agglomeration
Madurai had a population of 1,465,625, and is the third largest in
Tamil Nadu and the 31st in India.
RELIGION IN MADURAI (2011)
According to the religious census of 2011,
Madurai had 85.8%
Muslims , 5.2%
Christians and 0.5% others. Tamil is spoken by
most, and the standard dialect is the
Madurai Tamil dialect.
Saurashtrian is the mother tongue of the Patnūlkarars who migrated
from Gujarat in the 16th century CE. Roman Catholics in
affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Madurai, while
Protestants are affiliated with the Madurai-Ramnad Diocese of the
Church of South
In 2001, Slum-dwellers comprise 32.6 per cent of the total
population, much higher than the national average of 15.05 per cent.
The increase in growth rate to 50 per cent from 1971 to 1981 is due to
the city's upgrade to a municipal corporation in 1974 and the
subsequent inclusion of 13 Panchayats into the corporation limits.
The decline in the population growth rate between 1981 and 2001 is due
to the bifurcation of
Madurai district into two,
Madurai and Dindigul
in 1984, and the subsequently of part of the city into the Theni
district in 1997. The compounded annual growth rate dropped from 4.10
per cent during 1971–81 to 1.27 per cent during 1991–2004.
ADMINISTRATION AND POLITICS
MUNICIPAL CORPORATION OFFICIALS
Dr Aneesh Sekhar
MEMBERS OF LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
P.T.R. Palanivel Thiagarajan
V. V. Rajan Chellappa
Sellur K. Raju
MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT
Building of the
Madurai Bench of Madras High court
The municipality of
Madurai was constituted on 1 November 1866 as per
the Town Improvement Act of 1865. The municipality was headed by a
chairperson and elections were regularly conducted for the post except
during the period 1891 to 1896, when no elections were held due to
violent factionalism. During the early years of independent India, the
Madurai municipality was dominated by reformists of the Indian
Madurai was upgraded to a municipal corporation on
1 May 1971 as per the
Madurai City Municipal Corporation Act, 1971.
It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu, after
Chennai. The functions of the municipality are devolved into six
departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town
planning and the Computer Wing. All these departments are under the
control of a Municipal Commissioner, who is the supreme executive
head. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 100 members, one
each from the 100 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected
Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor. The corporation received several
awards in 2008 for implementing development works. Front view of
the corporation office
The city of
Madurai is represented in the
Tamil Nadu Legislative
Assembly by six elected members, one each for the
Madurai South and
Madurai is also a part of the
Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the
Lok Sabha ,
the lower house of the Parliament of
India , once every five years.
From 1957, the
Madurai parliament seat was held by the Indian National
Congress seven times in the 1962–67, 1971–77, 1977–80,
1980–84, 1984–89, 1989–91 and 1991 elections. The Communist
India (Marxist) won the seat three times during 1967–71,
1999–2004 and 2004–09 general elections. The Communist Party of
India (1957–61 ),
Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) (1996–98 ),
Janata Party (1998 ),
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2009–2014 ) and All
India Anna Dravida Munnertra Kazhagam (2014–2019) have each won
Law and order is enforced by the
Tamil Nadu Police , which, for
administrative purposes, has constituted
Madurai city as a separate
district. The district is divided into four sub-divisions, namely
Thallakulam, Anna Nagar, Thilagar Thidal and Town, with a total of 27
police stations. The
Madurai city police force is headed by a
Commissioner of police , assisted by Deputy Commissioners. Enforcement
of law and order in the suburban areas are handled by the Madurai
district police. In 2008, the crime rate in the city was 283.2 per
100,000 people, accounting for 1.1 per cent of all crimes reported in
major cities in India, and it was ranked 19th among 35 major cities in
India. As of 2008,
Madurai recorded the second highest SLL (Special
and Local Laws) crimes, at 22,728, among cities in Tamil Nadu.
Madurai had the second lowest crime rate at 169.1 of all the
cities in Tamil Nadu. The city is also the seat of a bench of the
Madras High Court , one of only a few outside the state capitals of
India. It started functioning in July 2004.
Transport in Madurai
Mattuthavani Bus Stand
Madurai Railway junction, the main railway station of
The National Highways NH 7 ,
NH 45B ,
NH 208 and NH 49 pass through
Madurai. The state highways passing through the city are SH-33,
SH-72, SH-72A, SH-73 and SH-73A which connect various parts of Madurai
Madurai is one of the seven circles of the
Tamil Nadu State
Madurai is the headquarters of the
Tamil Nadu State
Transport Corporation (Madurai) and provides local and inter-city bus
transport across the districts of
Madurai has three bus terminals, namely,
Mattuthavani Bus Terminus (MIBT) and
Arappalayam (for inter city
buses) and Periyar Bus stand (for intra city buses). There are 12,754
registered three-wheeled vehicles called auto rickshaws, which are
commercially available for renting within the city. In addition to
the government operated city buses, there are 236 registered private
mini-buses that support local transportation.
Madurai Junction is the major railway station serving the city. It is
an important railway junction in southern
Tamil Nadu and is one of the
top 100 booking stations in Indian Railways. It is the headquarters
Madurai division of the Southern Railway . There are direct
trains from connecting
Madurai with major cities and towns across
India. The state government announced a
Mono rail project for Madurai
in 2011, which is in planning stages. There are ten other sub urban
railway stations serving the city.
Madurai airfield was first used by the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force in World War
II in 1942. The first passenger flight was a Fokker Friendship
aircraft from Madras in 1956.
Madurai Airport was established in 1957
and is located at at Avaniyapuram, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from
the city. The airport was declared a customs airport in 2012
allowing limited number of international flights. It offers domestic
flights to some cities in
India and international services to Colombo
Dubai . It is the fourth -busiest airport in the state of Tamil
Tiruchirappalli . The carriers
operating from the airport are Air
Jet Airways ,
Srilankan Airlines . The airport handled 842,300
passengers between April 2015 and March 2016. The airport was
identified as one of 35 non-metro airports for modernisation and a new
integrated terminal building was inaugurated on 12 September 2010.
The American college in Madurai
The American college in Madurai , started in 1881 CE – the
oldest college in
Madurai has been an academic centre of learning for Tamil culture,
literature, art, music and dance for centuries. All three assemblies
of the Tamil language, the
Tamil Sangam (about the 3rd century BCE to
the 3rd century CE), were held at Madurai. Tamil poets of different
epochs participated in these assemblies, and their compositions are
referred to as
Sangam literature . During the third Tamil _sangam_,
the comparative merit of the poets was decided by letting the works
float in the lotus tank of the temple. It was believed that a divine
force would cause the work of superior merit to float on the surface,
while the inferior ones would sink.
The American College is the oldest college in Madurai, and was
established in 1881 by American Christian missionaries. The Lady Doak
college , established in 1948, is the oldest women's college in
Thiagarajar College (established in 1949), Madura College
(established in 1889),
Fatima College (established in 1953), and
M.S.S.Wakf Board College (established in 1964) are among the oldest
educational institutions of the city.
Madurai Kamaraj University
Madurai University), established in 1966, is a
state-run university which has 109 affiliated arts and science
Madurai and neighbouring districts. There are 47 approved
institutions of the university in and around the city, consisting of
autonomous colleges, aided colleges, self-financing colleges,
constituent colleges, evening colleges and other approved
institutions. There are seven polytechnical schools and five
Industrial training institutes (ITIs) in Madurai, with the Government
ITI and the Government Polytechnic for Women being the most prominent
of them all. There are two government medical institutes in Madurai,
Madurai Medical College and Homoeopathic Medical College,
Thirumangalam and 11 paramedical institutes. There are fifteen
engineering colleges in
Madurai affiliated to Anna University , with
Thiagarajar College of Engineering being the oldest. The Madurai
Law College , established in 1979, is one of the seven government law
colleges in the state. It is administered by the
Tamil Nadu Government
Department of Legal Studies, and affiliated with the
Tamil Nadu Dr.
Ambedkar Law University . There are three teacher training
institutes, two music colleges, three management institutes and 30
arts and sciences colleges in Madurai. The agricultural college and
research institute in Madurai, started in 1965 by the state
government, provides agricultural education to aspirants in the
southern districts of Tamil Nadu. There are a total of 369 primary,
secondary and higher secondary schools in the city.
Harvey Mills, circa 1914 A software company at
Madurai was traditionally an agrarian society, with rice paddies as
the main crop. Cotton crop cultivation in the regions with black soil
Madurai district was introduced during the Nayaka rule during the
16th century to increase the revenue from agriculture. The paddy
fields cultivated in the
Vaigai delta across
Madurai North, Melur,
Nilakottai and Uthamapalayam are known as "double-crop paddy belts".
Farmers in the district supplement their income with subsidiary
occupations like dairy farming, poultry-farming, pottery, brick
making, mat-weaving and carpentry.
Madurai is famed for its jasmine
plantations, called "
Madurai Malli", primarily carried out at the
Kodaikanal hills and traded at the
Madurai morning flower
market. An average of 2,000 farmers sell flowers daily at the flower
With the advent of Small Scale Industries (SSI) after 1991, the
Madurai increased employment in the sector across
the district from 63,271 in 1992–93 to 166,121 persons in 2001–02.
Madurai is one of the few rubber growing areas in South India, and
there are rubber-based industries in Madurai. Gloves, sporting goods,
mats, other utility products and automobile rubber components are the
most produced items by these industries. Automobile manufacturers are
the major consumers of rubber components produced in the city. There
are numerous textile, granite and chemical industries operating in
Madurai is promoted as a second-tier city for IT and some software
companies have opened their offices in Madurai. Software Technology
India , an agency of the Government of India, has authorised
several such companies to receive benefits under its national
information technology development program. The state government
proposed two IT-based
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in Madurai, and
these have been fully occupied by various IT companies.
Meenakshi Amman Temple North Tower - Street Kazimar Big
Mosque, the oldest Muslim place of worship in the city
Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic
Hindu temple located on the
south side of the
Vaigai River in
Madurai and is one of the most
prominent landmarks of the city. It is dedicated to
Meenakshi and her
consort, Sundareswarar . The complex houses 14 _gopuram _s (gateway
towers) ranging from 45–50 metres (148–164 ft) in height, the
tallest being the southern tower, 51.9 metres (170 ft) high. There are
also two golden sculptured _vimana _ (shrines) over the sanctum of the
main deities. The temple is a significant symbol for
Tamils and has
been mentioned since antiquity in
Tamil literature , though the
present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE. The temple
attracts on average 15,000 visitors a day, which grows to around
25,000 on Fridays. There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in the
temple, and it was in the list of top 30 nominees for the
New7Wonders of the World ".
Koodal Azhagar Temple is a Vishnu temple located in the city. It has
idols of the
Navagraha (nine planet deities), which are otherwise
found only in
Alagar Koyil is a celebrated Vishnu
temple 21 kilometres (13 mi) northeast of
Madurai situated on the
foothills of Solaimalai. The deity, Azhagar, is believed to be the
brother of Meenakshi, the presiding deity at the
The festival calendars of these two temples overlap during the
Meenakshi Thirukalyanam festival.
Pazhamudircholai , one of the other six abodes of the Hindu god
Murugan , is located atop the Solaimalai hill.
Tirupparankunram is a
hill 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) away from
Madurai where the Hindu god
Murugan is said to have married
Deivanai . The temple is the first
Six Abodes of Murugan and is one of the most visited tourist
spots in Madurai, next only to the
Meenakshi Amman Temple. The
temple has a wide range of Hindu gods carved on the walls.
Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest Islamic place of worship in the
city. It was constructed under the supervision of Kazi Syed Tajuddin,
who is a descendant of Islamic Prophet
Muhammad and the Madurai
Maqbara is located inside the mosque. Kazi Syed Tajuddin came from
Oman and received the piece of land as a gift from the Pandyan ruler
Kulasekara Pandyan I , during the 13th century for the construction of
Goripalayam Mosque is located in Gorippalayam, the name
of which is derived from the Persian word _gor_ ("grave") and the
graves of erstwhile Sultanate rulers Alauddin, Shamsuddeen and
Habibuddin are found here.
Tirupparankunram Dargah is located at the
top of the
Thiruparankundram hill where the cemetery of Sultan
Sikandhar Badushah the then ruler of
Madurai who travelled
India along with Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed of Ervadi during 12th
century is located. St. Mary's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman
Catholic Archdiocese of
CULTURE, TOURISM AND ENTERTAINMENT
Pillared halls of Thirumalai Nayakar Palace, built during 1636
CE and a national monument
Madurai is popularly called _Thoonga Nagaram_ meaning the city that
never sleeps, on account of the active night life. The city attracts
a large number of tourists from within the country and abroad. About
9,100,000 tourists visited
Madurai in 2010, including 524,000
Madurai is now attracting medical tourism also. The
palace complex of Thirumalai Nayak Palace was constructed in the
Indo-Saracenic style by Thirumalai Nayakar in 1636 CE. It is a
national monument maintained by the
Tamil Nadu Archaeological
Department. The daily sound and light show organised by the department
explains the virtues of King Thirumalai and the features of the
palace. The palace of Rani Mangamma has been renovated to house one
of the five Gandhi Sanghralayas (
Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai ) in
the country. It includes apart of the blood-stained garment worn by
Mahatma Gandhi when he was assassinated by
Nathuram Godse . A visit
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr. to the museum inspired him to lead
peaceful protests against discrimination. The Eco park, situated in
Tallakulam, features fountains and lighting in trees using optical
fibres. Rajaji children's park, maintained by the
Corporation, is situated between the Gandhi museum and the Tamukkam
grounds. It has a visitor average of 5000 per day during holidays and
2000–3000 on working days.
Madurai also has Theme Park, Athisayam
which is situated in Paravai,
Madurai – Dindugal main road. MGR
Race Course Stadium is an athletic stadium which has a synthetic track
and a swimming pool. Several national meets are held here. It also
hosts several international and national level kabbadi championships.
Gandhi Memorial Museum, one of the five Gandhi Sanghralayas in
The people of
Madurai celebrate numerous festivals, including
Meenakshi Tirukkalyanam, the Chittirai Festival and the
Car Festival .
The annual 10-day
Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, also called
Chittirai festival, is celebrated during April–May every year and
attracts one million visitors. Legend has it that the Hindu god
Vishnu, as Alagar, rode on a golden horse to
Madurai to attend the
celestial wedding of
Meenakshi (Parvati) and Sundareswarar (Shiva).
During the Cradle festival, the festive idols of
Sundareswarar are taken in procession to a mirror chamber and set on a
rocking swing for nine days. Avanimoolam festival is celebrated during
September when the 64 sacred games of Shiva, _thiruvilayadal_, are
Thepporchavam festival, or float festival, is celebrated
on the full moon day of the Tamil month _Thai_, which falls around
January – February, to celebrate the birth anniversary of King
Thirumalai Nayak. The decorated icons of
Meenakshi and her consort are
taken out in a procession from the
Meenakshi Temple to the Mariamman
Teppakulam. The icons are floated in the tank on a raft decked with
flowers and flickering lamps.
Jallikattu is one of the most popular
historical sport in Tamil Nadu, and is a part of the
(harvest festival) Mattu
Pongal celebrated during January. The bull
taming event is held in the villages surrounding Madurai, and people
from the neighbouring villages throng to the open grounds to watch man
and bull pitting their strength against each other. The event was
banned in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016 following an order by Supreme
court of India.
Santhanakoodu festivals in Madurai are celebrated on
various days during the Islamic calendar year to commemorate Islamic
MEDIA AND UTILITY SERVICES
The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All
India Radio and private channels like
Hello FM ,
Radio Mirchi ,
Suryan FM and Radio City . _
The Hindu _, _
The New Indian Express _
and _The Times of
India _ are the three principal English language
daily newspapers which have
Madurai editions. _
Deccan Chronicle _,
though not printed in the city, is another English language daily
newspaper available in the city. The most read
Tamil language daily
morning newspapers include _
Dina Malar _, _
Dina Thanthi _, _Dina
Mani _ and _
Dinakaran _ – all these newspapers have editions from
Madurai. There are also daily Tamil evening newspapers like _Tamil
Murasu _, _
Malai Murasu _ and _
Malai Malar _ published in Madurai.
Television broadcasting from
Chennai for whole of
Tamil Nadu was
started on 15 August 1975. Direct-to-home cable television services
are provided by
DD Direct Plus and other private service providers.
Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The city is the headquarters of
Madurai region of TNEB and along with its suburbs, forms the
Madurai Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is further
divided into six divisions. Water supply is provided by the Madurai
City Corporation with overhead tanks and power pumps. In the period
2010–2011, a total of 950.6 lakh litres of water was supplied to
87,091 connections for households in Madurai.
About 400 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city
every day by door-to-door collection, and the subsequent source
segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of
Municipal corporation All the major channels in Madurai
are linked by the corporation to receive the flood water from primary,
secondary and tertiary drains constructed along the roadsides to
dispose of rain water. The sewer system was first established by the
Madurai in 1924 to cover the core city area, which covers
30 per cent of the present city area. It was further expanded in 1959
and 1983 by a corporation plan. The 2011 Jawaharlal Nehru National
Urban Renewal Mission covered 90 per cent of households with
underground drainage system.
Madurai comes under the
Madurai telecom district of the Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet
services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (
Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are
available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet
service and Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service
A regional passport office was opened on 17 December 2007 and caters
to the needs of nine districts. The city is served by the Government
Rajaji Hospital .
People from Madurai
* ^ _A_ _B_ Largest metropolitan areas .
* ^ _The Hindu_ ">(XLS) on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October
* ^ Tamil Nādu – City Population – Cities, Towns & Provinces
– Statistics & Map 2011 .
* ^ _The Times of India_ & 13 October 2015 .
* ^ _The Times of India_ & 12 October 2015 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 12 October 2015 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _The Hindu_ & 25 October 2007 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ List of Colleges in
Madurai 2011 census data .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Harman 1992 , pp. 30–36.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Reynolds & Bardwell 1987 , pp. 12–25.
* ^ Thirunavukkarasar 2004 , pp. 44–47.
* ^ Campantar Tirumurai 1 2004 , p. 61.
* ^ Campantar Tirumurai 3 2004 , pp. 56–58.
* ^ Prentiss 1999 , p. 43.
* ^ Mahadevan .
* ^ Zvelebil 1992 , p. 27.
* ^ Quintanilla 2007 , p. 2.
* ^ Agarwal 2008 , p. 17.
* ^ Mangudi Marudanar 2004 .
* ^ Gopal 1990 , p. 181.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bandopadhyay 2010 , pp. 93–96.
* ^ Dalal 1997 , p. 128.
* ^ Kersenboom Story 1987 , p. 16.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Salma Ahmed 2011 , p. 26.
* ^ _A_ _B_ V. 1995 , p. 115.
* ^ Markovits 2004 , p. 253.
* ^ B.S., S. & C. 2011 , p. 582.
* ^ _A_ _B_ King 2005 , pp. 73–75.
* ^ Reynolds & Bardwell 1987 , p. 18.
* ^ Narasaiah 2009 , p. 85.
* ^ _A_ _B_
Madurai Corporation – citizen charter .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Imperial gazetteer of India: Provincial series,
Volume 18 1908 , pp. 229–230.
Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai .
* ^ Kamat Research Database, Biography: N.M.R.Subbaraman .
* ^ David Arnold 1977 , p. 128.
* ^ More J. B. P 1977 , p. 106.
* ^ Press Information Bureau archives, Government of
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 26 February 2011 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ King 2005 , p. 72.
* ^ Selby & Peterson 2008 , p. 149.
* ^ _A_ _B_ King 2005 , p. 73.
* ^ King 2005 , p. l 73.
* ^ Maps, Weather, and Airports for Madurai,
* ^ _A_ _B_
Madurai Corporation – General information .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 16 1908 , p. 404.
* ^ Pletcher 2011 , p. 192.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Department of Agriculture .
* ^ TN Govt GO #220 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Annesley 1841 , p. 68.
* ^ Water year – District ground water brochure,
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _The Hindu_ & 21 April 2010 .
* ^ Climatology of
Madurai 2011 .
* ^ Record highs and lows of
Madurai 2015 .
* ^ Singh, Dube ">(PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 29 June
* ^ National Sex Ratio 2011 .
Madurai 2011 census .
Madurai UA 2011 census data .
* ^ "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office
of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home
Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
* ^ _Deccan Chronicle_ & 25 March 2011 .
* ^ Primary Census data – religion .
* ^ Thurston 1913 , p. 123.
* ^ Catholic Diocese of
Madurai Ramnad Diocese .
* ^ Stanley 2004 , p. 631.
* ^ City Development Plan of
Madurai 2004 , p. 31.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ City Development Plan of
Madurai 2004 , p. 43.
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 22 October 2011 .
* ^ New Commissioner for Corporation .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 19 May 2014 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ List of Members Constituency name wise 2011
* ^ "
Madurai South Assembly Constituency". _elections.in_.
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* ^ _A_ _B_ MP of
Madurai 2014 .
* ^ Lal 1972 , p. 151.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Civic affairs 1970 , p. 80.
* ^ Palanithurai 2007 , p. 80.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Commissionerate of Municipal Administration .
* ^ Economic and political weekly, Volume 30 1995 , p. 2396.
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 9 December 2008 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Map showing the new assembly constituencies .
* ^ List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies .
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth
Lok Sabha .
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth
Lok Sabha .
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh
Lok Sabha .
* ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok
* ^ Notification No. 308/2009/EPS .
* ^ _A_ _B_
Madurai City Police district .
Madurai – List of Police Stations .
Madurai District Police .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Crimes in cities of
Tamil Nadu .
Madras High Court .
* ^ National Highways passing through
* ^ _A_ _B_ Highways Circle of Highways Department, Tamilnadu .
Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) Limited 2011 .
Madurai bus stand .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Regional Transport Office – Registered commercial
Tamil Nadu .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Train Running Information .
* ^ Southern Railway
Madurai division .
* ^ _ibnlive_ & 6 June 2011 .
* ^ _Dinamalar_ & 4 July 2015 .
* ^ airport history .
* ^ customs airport .
Madurai Airport .
* ^ _TOI_ & 9 August 2011 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 29 August 2012 .
* ^ Airports Authority of
Madurai Airport .
* ^ Air traffic statistics .
* ^ International Air traffic movement .
* ^ International Air freight movement .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 4 July 2015 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ National Geographic 2008 , p. 155.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Soundara Rajan 2001 , p. 51.
* ^ Ramaswamy 2007 , p. 271.
* ^ _The Times of India_ & 1 September 2011 .
* ^ The
Lady Doak College .
* ^ The
Madura College .
Fatima College .
Madurai Kamarajar University .
* ^ List of Colleges affiliated to
Madurai Kamarajar University .
* ^ The
Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University – Affiliated
Government law colleges .
* ^ Agricultural College and Research Institute,
* ^ Schools in
* ^ Parthasarathi 2007 , p. 53.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ganapathy 1987 , pp. 14–16.
* ^ Soundarapandian 2009 , pp. 151–152.
* ^ Bansal 2005 , p. 47.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Industries in
* ^ 36 cities that will shape India\'s future .
* ^ ELCOT,
* ^ ELCOT website .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 7 December 2008 .
* ^ Brockman 2011 , pp. 326–327.
* ^ Abram et al. 2011 , pp. 996–1002.
* ^ Ayyar 1991 , p. 490.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tourist places in
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Tourism in
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Welcome to
Madurai – Festivals .
* ^ _The Times of India_ & 28 November 2012 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shokoohy 2003 , p. 52.
* ^ Maqbara .
* ^ _The Times of
India & 27 April 2014_ .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shokoohy 2003 , p. 57.
* ^ Catholic hierarchy .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 3 September 2013 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 5 November 2007 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 6 November 2013 .
* ^ _Tha Indian_ & 5 March 2009 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 1 July 2006 .
* ^ _The Times of India_ & 11 June 2012 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 15 May 2005 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 29 May 2004 .
* ^ _The Times of India_ & 22 June 2012 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 1 March 2010 .
* ^ "SC refuses to review ban". _
The Hindu _. Retrieved 20 May
* ^ Shokoohy 2003 , p. 54.
* ^ Shokoohy 2003 , p. 34.
* ^ All
India Radio Stations .
* ^ Suriyan FM
* ^ _A_ _B_ The Indian Express Group .
* ^ The Times of
* ^ Deccan 2013 .
* ^ Dinamalar e-paper
* ^ Dinathanthi e-paper
* ^ _A_ _B_ Malaimalar
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 9 October 2009 .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 19 December 2004 .
* ^ DD News .
* ^ _The Hindu_ & 24 September 2007 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Important Address of TNEB .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Water Supply Details .
* ^ _A_ _B_
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission .
* ^ List of cities where Calling Line Identification (CLI) Based
Internet Service is available .
* ^ List of cities where BSNL broadband service is available (As on
1 January 2007) .
* ^ Regional passport office .
* ^ _The Hindu_ -webkit-column-width: 35em; column-width: 35em;">
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