MADURA is an
Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of
* 1 History * 2 Demography * 3 Administrative divisions * 4 Economy
* 5 Culture
* 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
In 1624, Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura and the island's government was brought under the Cakraningrats , a single princely line. The Cakrangingrat family opposed Central Javanese rule and often conquered large parts of Mataram.
Following the First Javanese War of Succession between Amangkurat III
and his uncle,
Pangeran Puger , the Dutch gained control of the
eastern half of Madura in 1705. Dutch recognition of Puger was
influenced by the lord of West Madura, Cakraningrat II who is thought
to have supported Puger's claims in the hope that a new war in central
The Cakraningrats agreed to help the Dutch quash the 1740 rebellion
The Dutch continued Madura's administrative divisions of four states each with their own regent. The island was initially important as a source of colonial troops and in the second half of the nineteenth century it became the main source of salt for Dutch-controlled territories in the archipelago.
Madura has a population of about 3.65 million, most of whom are
ethnically Madurese . The main language of Madura is Madurese , one of
a family of
The Madurese are a large ethnic population in Indonesia, numbering
around 7 million inhabitants. They come from the island of Madura as
well as surrounding islands, such as Gili Raja ,
Sapudi , Raas , and
Kangean Islands . In addition, many Madurese live in the eastern
Madura has a
NAME CAPITAL AREA (KM²) Population 2000 Census Population 2005 estimate Population 2010 Census Population 2014 Estimate
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,233.1 750,046 835,122 877,772 902,439
5,025.2 3,230,300 3,492,346 3,622,763 3,724,545
Sumenep Regency includes many offshore islands - notably the
Kangean Islands (487 km2) to the east of Madura, the smaller Sapudi
Islands lying between Madura and the Kangean Islands, and the small
Masalembu Islands (40.85 km2) to the north (between Madura and
On the whole, Madura is one of the poorest regions of the East Java
Subsistence agriculture is a mainstay of the economy.
Among export industries, tobacco farming is a major contributor to the island's economy. Madura's soil, while unable to support many food crops, helps make the island an important producer of tobacco and cloves for the domestic kretek (clove cigarette) industry. Since the Dutch era, the island has also been a major producer and exporter of salt .
Bangkalan , on the western end of the island, has industrialized
substantially since the 1980s. This region is within a short ferry
The Surabaya-Madura (Suramadu) Bridge , opened 2009, is expected to further increase the Bangkalan area's interaction with the regional economy.
Madura is famous for its bull-racing competition (called karapan sapi ) where a jockey , usually a young boy, rides a simple wooden sled pulled by a pair of bulls over a course of about 100 meters in ten to fifteen seconds.
MUSIC AND THEATER
Several forms of music and theater are popular on Madura,
particularly among poorer people for whom they provide an inexpensive
form of entertainment and community-building. The topeng theater,
which involves masked performances of classical stories such as the
The gamelan orchestra, best known as a classical Javanese instrument, is also played on Madura, where several of the former royal courts, such as at Bangkalan and Sumenep, possess elaborate gamelans. Tongtong music, more exclusive to Madura, is played on several wooden or bamboo drums, and often accompanies bull-racing competitions.
The Madurese are considered to be excellent sailors. Madurese vessels
loaded with cargoes of wood from other islands, like
* ^ BPS Kabupaten Sumenep * ^ 2010 Population Census - Jawa Timur Province * ^ http://www.depkes.go.id/downloads/Penduduk%20Kab%20Kota%20Umur%20Tunggal%202014.pdf Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan * ^ Clifford W. Hawkins, Praus of Indonesia ISBN 0-333-31810-2 / 0-333-31810-2
* Bouvier, Hélène (1994) La matière des émotions. Les arts du temps et du spectacle dans la société madouraise (Indonésie). Publications de l'École Française d'Extrême-Orient, vol. 172. Paris : EFEO. ISBN 2-85539-772-3 . * Farjon, I.(1980) Madura and surrounding islands : an annotated bibliography, 1860-1942 The Hague: M. Nijhoff. Bibliographical series (Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands)) ; 9. * Kees van Dijk, Huub de Jonge, and Elly Touwen-Bouswsma, eds. (1995). Across Madura Strait: the dynamics of an insular society. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 90-6718-091-2 . * Smith, Glenn (1995) Time Allocation Among the Madurese of Gedang-Gedang. Cross-Cultural Studies in Time Allocation, Volume XIII. New Haven, Connecticut: Human Relations Area Files Press. * Smith, Glenn (2002) Bibliography of Madura (including Bawean, Sapudi and Kangean).