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MADRID (/məˈdrɪd/ , Spanish: , locally ) is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain
Spain
as a whole. The city has almost 3.2 million inhabitants with a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union
European Union
(EU) after London
London
and Berlin
Berlin
, and its metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU after those of London
London
and Paris
Paris
. The municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

Madrid
Madrid
lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha . As the capital city of Spain, seat of government , and residence of the Spanish monarch , Madrid
Madrid
is also the political, economic and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid .

The Madrid
Madrid
urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP
GDP
in the European Union
European Union
and its influences in politics , education , entertainment , environment , media , fashion , science , culture , and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities . Madrid
Madrid
is home to two world-famous football clubs, Real Madrid
Real Madrid
and Atlético de Madrid . Due to its economic output , high standard of living , and market size, Madrid
Madrid
is considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula ; it hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica , Iberia , and Repsol . Madrid
Madrid
is the 17th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2014 index.

Madrid
Madrid
houses the headquarters of the World Tourism
Tourism
Organization (UNWTO), belonging to the United Nations Organization (UN), the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), and the Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB). It also hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundéu BBVA). Madrid
Madrid
organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Cibeles Madrid
Madrid
Fashion
Fashion
Week .

While Madrid
Madrid
possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid ; the Royal Theatre with its restored 1850 Opera House; the Buen Retiro Park , founded in 1631; the 19th-century National Library building (founded in 1712) containing some of Spain's historical archives; a large number of national museums, and the Golden Triangle of Art , located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums: Prado Museum
Prado Museum
, the Reina Sofía Museum
Museum
, a museum of modern art , and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum
, which completes the shortcomings of the other two museums. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.2 Modern Age * 2.3 From the 19th century to present day

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Water supply

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Immigration
Immigration
* 4.2 Religion

* 5 Government

* 5.1 Districts

* 6 Metropolitan area
Metropolitan area

* 7 Cityscape

* 7.1 Architecture * 7.2 Urban sculpture * 7.3 Environment

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Economic history

* 8.2 Present-day economy

* 8.2.1 Standard of living * 8.2.2 Employment * 8.2.3 Services * 8.2.4 Industry
Industry
* 8.2.5 Construction
Construction
* 8.2.6 International rankings

* 9 Art and culture

* 9.1 Museums and art centres * 9.2 Landmarks * 9.3 Churches * 9.4 Literature * 9.5 Nightlife
Nightlife
* 9.6 Bohemian culture * 9.7 Classical music and opera * 9.8 Local festivities * 9.9 LGBTQ culture

* 10 Sport

* 10.1 Football * 10.2 Basketball
Basketball
* 10.3 Sports clubs * 10.4 Annual international events * 10.5 Bullfighting

* 11 Education
Education

* 11.1 Universities * 11.2 Business
Business
schools

* 12 Transport

* 12.1 Roads * 12.2 Local transport * 12.3 Long-distance transport

* 13 International relations

* 13.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 13.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities * 13.3 Other partnerships

* 14 Notable people * 15 Historic buildings * 16 Honours * 17 See also * 18 References * 19 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط _Majrīṭ_ (AFI ), which was retained in Medieval Spanish as _Magerit_ (). A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins.

According to legend, Madrid
Madrid
was founded by Ocno Bianor (son of King Tyrrhenius of Tuscany and Mantua
Mantua
) and was named "Metragirta" or " Mantua
Mantua
Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria" ("land of bears " in Latin
Latin
), because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, which, together with the strawberry tree (Spanish _madroño_), have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
.

The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" (for _*Materit_ or _*Mageterit_?) comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD , and means "Place of abundant water". If the form is correct, it could be a Celtic place-name from _ritu-_ 'ford' (Old Welsh _rit_, Welsh _rhyd_, Old Breton _rit_, Old Northern French _roy_) and a first element, that is not clearly identified _*mageto_ derivation of _magos_ 'field, plain' (Old Irish _mag_ 'field', Breton _ma_ 'place'), or _matu_ 'bear', that could explain the Latin
Latin
translation _Ursalia_.

Nevertheless, it is also speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river. The name of this first village was "Matrice" (a reference to the river that crossed the settlement). Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals
Vandals
, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, and as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals
Vandals
, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths , who then ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor, also taking control of "Matrice". In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا _Mayra_ (referencing water as a 'tree' or 'giver of life') and the Ibero-Roman suffix _it_ that means 'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic .

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Madrid and Timeline of Madrid

MIDDLE AGES

Although the site of modern-day Madrid
Madrid
has been occupied since prehistoric times, and there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas , a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares , as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile , with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and also as a starting point for Muslim offensives. After the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba , Madrid
Madrid
was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo .

With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile , the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, and it was integrated into the kingdom of Castile as a property of the Crown. Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of _Villa_, whose administrative district extended from the Jarama
Jarama
in the east to the river Guadarrama in the west. The government of the town was vested to the neighbouring of Madrid
Madrid
since 1346, when king Alfonso XI of Castile implements the regiment, for which only the local oligarchy was taking sides in city decisions. Since 1188, Madrid
Madrid
won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid
Madrid
its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile .

In 1309, the Courts of Castile were joined in Madrid
Madrid
for the first time under Ferdinand IV of Castile , and later in 1329, 1339, 1391, 1393, 1419 and twice in 1435. Since the unification of the kingdoms of Spain
Spain
under a common Crown , the Courts were convened in Madrid
Madrid
more often.

MODERN AGE

During the revolt of the Comuneros , led by Juan de Padilla , Madrid joined the revolt against Emperor Charles V of Germany
Germany
and I of Spain, but after defeat at the Battle of Villalar , Madrid
Madrid
was besieged and occupied by the royal troops. However, Charles I was generous to the town and gave it the titles of _Coronada_ (Crowned) and _Imperial_. When Francis I of France was captured at the battle of Pavia , he was imprisoned in Madrid. And in the village is dated the Treaty of Madrid of 1526 (later denounced by the French) that resolved their situation. _ View of Madrid
Madrid
from the west, facing the Puerta de la Vega (1562), by Anton van den Wyngaerde (called in Spain
Spain
Antonio de las Viñas), commissioned by Philip II to collect views of his cities. Is seen in the foreground the banks of the Manzana, crossed by the predecessors to the Segovia
Segovia
Bridge (in the first third), and the Toledo Bridge (further south, right), which was built in a monumental form years later. The most prominent building in the north (left) is the Alcázar , which was part of the walled circuit and which would undergo several fires until the fatal one in 1734 that almost completely destroyed it and was replaced by the current Palacio Real
Palacio Real
. The following churches are seen in the village (from left to right: San Gil, San Juan, Santiago, San Salvador, Iglesia de San Miguel de los Octoes, San Nicolás, Santa María, San Justo, San Pedro, Capilla del Obispo, San Andrés and, outside the walls, San Francisco), that do not yet have even the profile of domes and chapiters by which they would be characterised in the following centuries. Outside the walls and on the river, there is a craft facility dedicated to the treatment of hides: the Pozacho Tanneries. The recent installation of the court imposed a regalía de aposento _ tax on private houses, which produced all kinds of resistance including, most notably, the construction of _ Casas a la malicia _. Ministry of Agriculture

The number of urban inhabitants grew from 4,060 in the year 1530 to 37,500 in the year 1594. The poor population of the court was composed of ex-soldiers, foreigners, rogues and Ruanes, dissatisfied with the lack of food and high prices. In June 1561, when the town had 30,000 inhabitants, Philip II of Spain
Spain
moved his court from Valladolid to Madrid, installing it in the old castle . Thanks to this, the city of Madrid
Madrid
became the political centre of the monarchy, being the capital of Spain
Spain
except for a short period between 1601 and 1606 (Philip III of Spain
Spain
's government), in which the Court returned to Valladolid. This fact was decisive for the evolution of the city and influenced its fate.

During the reign of Philip III and Philip IV of Spain
Spain
, Madrid
Madrid
saw a period of exceptional cultural brilliance, with the presence of geniuses such as Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
, Diego Velázquez , Francisco de Quevedo and Lope de Vega . Puerta de Alcalá

The death of Charles II of Spain
Spain
resulted in the War of the Spanish succession . The city supported the claim of Philip of Anjou as Philip V . While the city was occupied in 1706 by a Portuguese army, who proclaimed king the Archduke Charles of Austria
Austria
under the name of Charles III, and again in 1710, remained loyal to Philip V.

Philip V built the Royal Palace, the Royal Tapestry Factory and the main Royal Academies. But the most important Bourbon was King Charles III of Spain
Spain
, who was known as "the best mayor of Madrid". Charles III took upon himself the feat of transforming Madrid
Madrid
into a capital worthy of this category. He ordered the construction of sewers, street lighting, cemeteries outside the city, and many monuments (Puerta de Alcalá , Cibeles Fountain), and cultural institutions (El Prado Museum, Royal Botanic Gardens , Royal Observatory, etc.). Despite being known as one of the greatest benefactors of Madrid, his beginnings were not entirely peaceful, as in 1766 he had to overcome the Esquilache Riots , a traditionalist revolt instigated by the nobility and clergy against his reformist intentions, demanding the repeal of the clothing decree ordering the shortening of the layers and the prohibition of the use of hats that hide the face, with the aim of reducing crime in the city.

The reign of Charles IV of Spain
Spain
is not very meaningful to Madrid, except for the presence of Goya
Goya
in the Court, who portrayed the popular and courtly life of the city.

FROM THE 19TH CENTURY TO PRESENT DAY

Alcalá street

On 27 October 1807, Charles IV and Napoleon I signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau , which allowed the passage of French troops through Spanish territory to join the Spanish troops and invade Portugal
Portugal
, which had refused to obey the order of international blockade against England
England
. As this was happening, there was the Mutiny of Aranjuez (17 March 1808), by which the crown prince, Ferdinand VII , replaced his father as king. However, when Ferdinand VII returned to Madrid, the city was already occupied by Joachim-Napoléon Murat , so that both the king and his father were virtually prisoners of the French army. Napoleon, taking advantage of the weakness of the Spanish Bourbons, forced both, first the father then the son, to join him in Bayonne , where Ferdinand arrived on 20 April.

In the absence of the two kings, the situation became more and more tense in the capital. On 2 May, a crowd began to gather at the Royal Palace . The crowd saw the French soldiers pulled out of the palace to the royal family members who were still in the palace. Immediately, the crowd launched an assault on the floats. The fight lasted hours and spread throughout Madrid. Subsequent repression was brutal. In the Paseo del Prado and in the fields of La Moncloa hundreds of patriots were shot due to Murat's order against "Spanish all carrying arms". Paintings such as _ The Third of May 1808 _ by Goya
Goya
reflect the repression that ended the popular uprising on 2 May.

The Peninsular War against Napoleon, despite the last absolutist claims during the reign of Ferdinand VII , gave birth to a new country with a liberal and bourgeois character, open to influences coming from the rest of Europe. Madrid, the capital of Spain, experienced like no other city the changes caused by this opening and filled with theatres, cafés and newspapers. Madrid
Madrid
was frequently altered by revolutionary outbreaks and pronouncements, such as Vicálvaro 1854, led by General Leopoldo O\'Donnell and initiating the progressive biennium. However, in the early 20th century Madrid
Madrid
looked more like a small town than a modern city. During the first third of the 20th century the population nearly doubled, reaching more than 950,000 inhabitants. New suburbs such as Las Ventas, Tetuán and El Carmen became the homes of the influx of workers, while Ensanche
Ensanche
became a middle-class neighbourhood of Madrid. Cuatro Torres Business Area Skyline

The Spanish Constitution of 1931 was the first legislated on the state capital, setting it explicitly in Madrid.

Madrid
Madrid
was one of the most heavily affected cities of Spain
Spain
in the Civil War (1936–1939). The city was a stronghold of the Republicans from July 1936. Its western suburbs were the scene of an all-out battle in November 1936 and it was during the Civil War that Madrid became the first European city to be bombed by aeroplanes (Japan was the first to bomb civilians in world history, at Shanghai in 1932) specifically targeting civilians in the history of warfare . (See Siege of Madrid (1936–39) ).

During the economic boom in Spain
Spain
from 1959 to 1973, the city experienced unprecedented, extraordinary development in terms of population and wealth, becoming the largest GDP
GDP
city in Spain, and ranking third in Western Europe
Western Europe
. The municipality was extended, annexing neighbouring council districts, to achieve the present extension of 607 km2 (234.36 sq mi). The south of Madrid
Madrid
became very industrialised, and there were massive migrations from rural areas of Spain
Spain
into the city. Madrid's newly built north-western districts became the home of the new thriving middle class that appeared as result of the 1960s Spanish economic boom , while the south-eastern periphery became an extensive working-class settlement, which was the base for an active cultural and political reform.

After the death of Franco and the start of the democratic regime, the 1978 constitution confirmed Madrid
Madrid
as the capital of Spain
Spain
. In 1979, the first municipal elections brought Madrid's first democratically elected mayor since the Second Republic. Madrid
Madrid
was the scene of some of the most important events of the time, such as the mass demonstrations of support for democracy after the foiled coup, 23-F
23-F
, on 23 February 1981. The first democratic mayors belonged to the leftist parties ( Enrique Tierno Galván , Juan Barranco Gallardo ), turning the city after more conservative positions (Agustín Rodríguez Sahagún , José María Álvarez del Manzano , Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón and Ana Botella ). Benefiting from increasing prosperity in the 1980s and 1990s, the capital city of Spain
Spain
has consolidated its position as an important economic, cultural, industrial, educational, and technological centre on the European continent. Madrid
Madrid
seen from Buenavista Hill

GEOGRAPHY

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Madrid

The Madrid
Madrid
region has an inland Mediterranean climate (Köppen _Csa_) bordering on a semi-arid climate (_BSk_), with cool winters due to its altitude of 667 m (2,188 ft) above sea level , including sporadic snowfalls and minimum temperatures sometimes below freezing. Summers are hot, in the warmest month – July -average temperatures during the day ranging from 32 to 33 °C (90 to 91 °F) depending on location, with maximums commonly climbing over 35 °C (95 °F) during heat waves. Due to Madrid's altitude and dry climate, diurnal ranges are often significant during the summer. The highest recorded temperature was on 24 July 1995, at 42.2 °C (108.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature was on 16 January 1945 at −10.1 °C (13.8 °F). Although these records were registered at the airport, not at the city. Precipitation
Precipitation
is concentrated in the autumn and spring, and, together with Athens
Athens
which has similar annual precipitation, is the driest capital in Europe. It is particularly sparse during the summer, taking the form of about two showers and/or thunderstorms a month.

CLIMATE DATA FOR MADRID (667 M), BUEN RETIRO PARK IN THE CITY CENTRE (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 9.8 (49.6) 12.0 (53.6) 16.3 (61.3) 18.2 (64.8) 22.2 (72) 28.2 (82.8) 32.1 (89.8) 31.3 (88.3) 26.4 (79.5) 19.4 (66.9) 13.5 (56.3) 10.0 (50) 19.9 (67.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.3 (43.3) 7.9 (46.2) 11.2 (52.2) 12.9 (55.2) 16.7 (62.1) 22.2 (72) 25.6 (78.1) 25.1 (77.2) 20.9 (69.6) 15.1 (59.2) 9.9 (49.8) 6.9 (44.4) 15.0 (59)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 3.7 (38.7) 6.2 (43.2) 7.7 (45.9) 11.3 (52.3) 16.1 (61) 19.0 (66.2) 18.8 (65.8) 15.4 (59.7) 10.7 (51.3) 6.3 (43.3) 3.6 (38.5) 10.1 (50.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 33 (1.3) 35 (1.38) 25 (0.98) 45 (1.77) 51 (2.01) 21 (0.83) 12 (0.47) 10 (0.39) 22 (0.87) 60 (2.36) 58 (2.28) 51 (2.01) 421 (16.57)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 6 5 4 7 7 3 2 2 3 7 7 7 59

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 148 157 214 231 272 310 359 335 261 198 157 124 2,769

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología

CLIMATE DATA FOR MADRID-BARAJAS AIRPORT (609 M), IN NORTH EAST MADRID (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 10.7 (51.3) 13.0 (55.4) 17.0 (62.6) 18.7 (65.7) 23.1 (73.6) 29.5 (85.1) 33.5 (92.3) 32.8 (91) 27.9 (82.2) 21.0 (69.8) 14.8 (58.6) 10.9 (51.6) 21.1 (70)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 5.5 (41.9) 7.1 (44.8) 10.2 (50.4) 12.2 (54) 16.2 (61.2) 21.7 (71.1) 25.2 (77.4) 24.7 (76.5) 20.5 (68.9) 14.8 (58.6) 9.4 (48.9) 6.2 (43.2) 14.5 (58.1)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.2 (32.4) 1.2 (34.2) 3.5 (38.3) 5.7 (42.3) 9.3 (48.7) 13.9 (57) 16.8 (62.2) 16.5 (61.7) 13.1 (55.6) 8.7 (47.7) 4.1 (39.4) 1.4 (34.5) 7.9 (46.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 29 (1.14) 32 (1.26) 22 (0.87) 38 (1.5) 44 (1.73) 22 (0.87) 9 (0.35) 10 (0.39) 24 (0.94) 51 (2.01) 49 (1.93) 42 (1.65) 371 (14.61)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 5 5 4 6 7 4 2 2 3 7 6 6 55

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 144 168 224 226 258 310 354 329 258 199 151 128 2,749

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología

CLIMATE DATA FOR MADRID-CUATRO VIENTOS AIRPORT , 8 KM (4.97 MI) FROM THE CITY CENTRE (ALTITUDE: 690 METRES (2,260 FEET), SATELLITE VIEW) (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 10.4 (50.7) 12.5 (54.5) 16.5 (61.7) 18.3 (64.9) 22.6 (72.7) 28.9 (84) 32.8 (91) 32.2 (90) 27.3 (81.1) 20.4 (68.7) 14.3 (57.7) 10.7 (51.3) 20.6 (69.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 7.6 (45.7) 10.8 (51.4) 12.6 (54.7) 16.5 (61.7) 22.2 (72) 25.6 (78.1) 25.1 (77.2) 21.0 (69.8) 15.2 (59.4) 9.8 (49.6) 6.7 (44.1) 14.9 (58.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 2.7 (36.9) 5.1 (41.2) 6.8 (44.2) 10.4 (50.7) 15.4 (59.7) 18.3 (64.9) 18.1 (64.6) 14.6 (58.3) 9.9 (49.8) 5.4 (41.7) 2.7 (36.9) 9.3 (48.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 34 (1.34) 35 (1.38) 25 (0.98) 43 (1.69) 50 (1.97) 25 (0.98) 12 (0.47) 11 (0.43) 24 (0.94) 60 (2.36) 57 (2.24) 53 (2.09) 428 (16.85)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM) 6 5 4 7 7 3 2 1 3 7 7 7 59

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 158 173 221 238 280 316 364 335 250 203 161 135 2,840

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología

WATER SUPPLY

Madrid
Madrid
derives almost 73.5 percent of its water supply from dams and reservoirs built on the Lozoya River , such as the El Atazar Dam , which was built in 1972 and inaugurated by Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
. This water supply is managed by Canal de Isabel II, a public entity created in 1851. It is responsible for the supply, depurating waste water and the conservation of all the Comunidad de Madrid
Madrid
region natural water resources.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1897 510,616 —

1900 540,109 +5.8%

1910 556,958 +3.1%

1920 728,937 +30.9%

1930 863,958 +18.5%

1940 1,096,466 +26.9%

1950 1,527,894 +39.3%

1960 2,177,123 +42.5%

1970 3,120,941 +43.4%

1980 3,158,818 +1.2%

1991 2,909,792 −7.9%

2001 2,938,723 +1.0%

2011 3,198,645 +8.8%

2014 3,165,235 −1.0%

2015 3,141,991 −0.7%

Source: Alterations to the municipalities in the Population Censuses since 1842, Instituto Nacional de Estadistica

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Romania
Romania
46,410

China
China
32,174

Ecuador
Ecuador
29,867

Morocco
Morocco
21,137

Bolivia
Bolivia
19,654

Dominican Republic 18,606

Colombia
Colombia
17,617

Paraguay
Paraguay
16,802

Peru
Peru
16,523

Italy
Italy
14,134

Philippines
Philippines
10,522

Uruguay
Uruguay
9,534

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
8,420

Greece
Greece
5,658

Turkey
Turkey
3,393

The population of Madrid
Madrid
has overall increased since the city became the capital of Spain
Spain
in the mid-16th century, and has stabilised at approximately 3 million since the 1970s.

From 1970 until the mid-1990s, the population dropped. This phenomenon, which also affected other European cities, was caused in part by the growth of satellite suburbs at the expense of the downtown region within the city proper. This also occurred during a period of slowed growth in the European economy.

The demographic boom accelerated in the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century due to immigration in parallel with a surge in Spanish economic growth . According to census data, the population of the city grew by 271,856 between 2001 and 2005.

IMMIGRATION

As the capital city of Spain, the city has attracted many immigrants from around the world. In 2015, about 89.8% of the inhabitants were Spanish, while people of other origins, including immigrants from Latin
Latin
America, Europe, Asia, North Africa and West Africa, represented 11.2% of the population.

The ten largest immigrant groups include: Ecuadorian : 104,184, Romanian : 52,875, Bolivian : 44,044, Colombian : 35,971, Peruvian : 35,083, Chinese : 34,666, Moroccan : 32,498, Dominican : 19,602, Brazilian : 14,583, and Paraguayan : 14,308. There were 2,476 Japanese citizens registered with the Japanese embassy in Madrid
Madrid
in 1993. There are also important communities of Filipinos , Equatorial Guineans , Uruguayans , Bulgarians , Greeks , Indians , Italians , Argentines , Senegalese and Poles .

Districts that host the largest number of immigrants are Usera (28.37%), Centro (16.87%), Carabanchel (22.72%) and Tetuán (21.54%). Districts that host the smallest number are Fuencarral-El Pardo (9.27%), Retiro (9.64%) and Chamartín (11.74%). Many members of Madrid's Japanese community, particularly those with children, live in Majadahonda , Mirasierra , The Vaguada, and other areas in northwest Madrid, in proximity to the Japanese international school . Central Madrid
Madrid
attracted many Japanese company employees without children due to its proximity to places of employment.

RELIGION

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2017)_

The traditional religion in Madrid
Madrid
is Roman Catholic
Catholic
. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madrid . In a 2011 survey conducted by InfoCatólica, 57.1% of Madrid
Madrid
residents of all ages identified themselves as Catholic
Catholic
.

GOVERNMENT

See also: List of mayors of Madrid Cybele Palace : City Hall of Madrid
Madrid
and iconic monument of the city

The City Council consists of 57 members, one of them being the mayor. The mayor presides over the RKO.

The Plenary of the Council is the body of political representation of the citizens in the municipal government . Some of its attributions are: fiscal matters, the election and deposition of the mayor, the approval and modification of decrees and regulations, the approval of budgets, the agreements related to the limits and alteration of the municipal term, the services management, the participation in supramunicipal organisations, etc. Nowadays, mayoral team consists of the mayor, the deputy mayor and 8 delegates; all of them form The Board of Delegates (the Municipal Executive Committee).

Madrid
Madrid
has tended to be a stronghold of the People\'s Party (PP, right-wing political party), which has controlled the city's mayoralty since 1989. In the 2007 regional and local elections, the People's Party obtained 34 seats, the Spanish Socialist Workers\' Party (PSOE, left political party) obtained 18 and United Left (IU, left political party) obtained 5. In the 2015 elections, however, the PP was the party with the most votes but failed to gain a majority with Ahora Madrid
Madrid
the runner-up. Manuela Carmena, mayoral candidate for Ahora Madrid, was proclaimed mayor after a coalition pact between her party and the PSOE.

DISTRICTS

Main article: Districts of Madrid

Madrid
Madrid
is administratively divided into 21 districts, which are further subdivided into 128 wards (_barrios_)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Madrid
Madrid
districts. The numbers correspond with the list in the left

* CENTRO : Palacio, Embajadores, Cortes, Justicia, Universidad , Sol. * ARGANZUELA : Imperial, Acacias , La Chopera, Legazpi, Delicias, Palos de Moguer, Atocha. * RETIRO : Pacífico, Adelfas, Estrella, Ibiza, Jerónimos, Niño Jesús. * SALAMANCA : Recoletos, Goya, Fuente del Berro, Guindalera, Lista, Castellana. * CHAMARTíN : El Viso, Prosperidad, Ciudad Jardín, Hispanoamérica, Nueva España, Castilla. * TETUáN : Bellas Vistas, Cuatro Caminos, Castillejos, Almenara , Valdeacederas, Berruguete. * CHAMBERí : Gaztambide, Arapiles, Trafalgar, Almagro, Vallehermoso, Ríos Rosas. * FUENCARRAL-EL PARDO : El Pardo
El Pardo
, Fuentelarreina, Peñagrande , Barrio del Pilar, La Paz, Valverde, Mirasierra, El Goloso. * MONCLOA-ARAVACA : Casa de Campo , Argüelles, Ciudad Universitaria, Valdezarza, Valdemarín, El Plantío, Aravaca . * LATINA : Los Cármenes, Puerta del Ángel, Lucero, Aluche , Las Águilas, Campamento, Cuatro Vientos . * CARABANCHEL : Comillas, Opañel, San Isidro, Vista Alegre, Puerta Bonita, Buenavista, Abrantes. * USERA : Orcasitas, Orcasur, San Fermín, Almendrales, Moscardó, Zofío, Pradolongo. * PUENTE DE VALLECAS : Entrevías , San Diego, Palomeras Bajas, Palomeras Sureste, Portazgo, Numancia. * MORATALAZ : Pavones, Horcajo, Marroquina, Media Legua, Fontarrón, Vinateros. * CIUDAD LINEAL : Ventas, Pueblo Nuevo, Quintana, La Concepción, San Pascual, San Juan Bautista, Colina, Atalaya, Costillares. * HORTALEZA : Palomas, Valdefuentes, Canillas, Pinar del Rey, Apóstol Santiago, Piovera. * VILLAVERDE : San Andrés, San Cristóbal , Butarque, Los Rosales, Los Ángeles. * VILLA DE VALLECAS : Casco Histórico de Vallecas, Santa Eugenia. * VICáLVARO : Casco Histórico de Vicálvaro, Ambroz. * SAN BLAS : Simancas, Hellín, Amposta, Arcos, Rosas, Rejas, Canillejas , Salvador. * BARAJAS : Alameda de Osuna, Aeropuerto, Casco Histórico de Barajas, Timón, Corralejos.

METROPOLITAN AREA

Main article: Madrid metropolitan area

The Madrid metropolitan area comprises the city of Madrid
Madrid
and forty surrounding municipalities. It has a population of slightly more than 6.271 million people and covers an area of 4,609.7 square kilometres (1,780 sq mi). It is the largest metropolitan area in Spain
Spain
and the third largest in the European Union
European Union
.

As with many metropolitan areas of similar size, two distinct zones of urbanisation can be distinguished:

* Inner ring (_primera corona_): Alcorcón , Leganés , Getafe , Móstoles , Fuenlabrada , Coslada , Alcobendas
Alcobendas
, Pozuelo de Alarcón , San Fernando de Henares * Outer ring (_segunda corona_): Villaviciosa de Odón , Parla , Pinto , Valdemoro , Rivas-Vaciamadrid , Torrejón de Ardoz , Alcalá de Henares , San Sebastián de los Reyes , Tres Cantos , Las Rozas de Madrid
Madrid
, Majadahonda , Boadilla del Monte

The largest suburbs are to the South, and in general along the main routes leading out of Madrid.

_Submetropolitan areas_ inside Madrid metropolitan area : Madrid submetropolitan areas

SUBMETROPOLITAN AREA Area (km²) Population (pop.) Density (pop./km²)

MADRID – MAJADAHONDA 996.1 3,580,828 3,595.0

MóSTOLES – ALCORCóN 315.1 430,349 1,365.6

FUENLABRADA – LEGANéS – GETAFE – PARLA – PINTO – VALDEMORO 931.7 822,806 883.1

ALCOBENDAS 266.4 205,905 772.9

ARGANDA DEL REY – RIVAS-VACIAMADRID 343.6 115,344 335.7

ALCALá DE HENARES – TORREJóN DE ARDOZ 514.6 360,380 700.3

COLMENAR VIEJO – TRES CANTOS 419.1 104,650 249.7

COLLADO VILLALBA 823.1 222,769 270.6

MADRID METROPOLITAN AREA 4,609.7 5,843,031 1,267.6

CITYSCAPE

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: Architecture of Madrid

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Very little medieval architecture is preserved in Madrid, mostly in the Almendra central , including the San Nicolás and San Pedro el Viejo church towers, the church of St. Jerome , and the Bishop\'s Chapel . Nor has Madrid
Madrid
retained much Renaissance architecture, other than the Bridge of Segovia
Segovia
and the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales . Canalejas Square

Many of the historic buildings of Madrid
Madrid
date from the Spanish Golden Age , which coincided with the Habsburgs reign (1516–1700). Philip II moved his court to Madrid
Madrid
in 1561 and transformed the town into a capital city. These reforms were embodied in the Plaza Mayor , characterised by its symmetry and austerity, as well as the new Alcázar , which would become the second most impressive royal palace of the kingdom. The material used during the Habsburg era was mostly brick, and the humble façades contrast with the elaborate interiors. Notable buildings include the Prison of the Court , the Palace of the Councils , the Royal Convent of La Encarnación , and the Buen Retiro Palace . The Imperial College church model dome was imitated in all of Spain. Pedro de Ribera introduced Churrigueresque architecture to Madrid; the Cuartel del Conde-Duque , the church of Montserrat , and the Bridge of Toledo are among the best examples.

The reign of the Bourbons during the eighteenth century marked a new era in the city. Philip V tried to complete King Philip II's vision of urbanisation of Madrid. Philip V built a palace in line with French taste, as well as other buildings such as St. Michael\'s Basilica and the Church of Santa Bárbara . King Charles III beautified the city and endeavoured to convert Madrid
Madrid
into one of the great European capitals. He pushed forward the construction of the Prado Museum (originally intended as a Natural Science
Science
Museum), the Puerta de Alcalá , the Royal Observatory , the Basilica of San Francisco el Grande , the Casa de Correos in Puerta del Sol , the Real Casa de la Aduana , and the General Hospital (which now houses the Reina Sofia Museum
Museum
and Royal Conservatory of Music). The Paseo del Prado , surrounded by gardens and decorated with neoclassical statues, is an example of urban planning. The Duke of Berwick ordered the construction of the Liria Palace . The Gran Vía has styles ranging from Vienna
Vienna
Secession, Plateresque, Neo-Mudéjar, and Art Deco.

During the early 19th century, the Peninsular War , the loss of viceroyalties in the Americas, and continuing coups limited the city's architectural development (Royal Theatre , the National Library of Spain
Spain
, the Palace of the Senate, and the Congress ). The Segovia Viaduct linked the Royal Alcázar to the southern part of town.

From the mid-19th century until the Civil War, Madrid
Madrid
modernised and built new neighbourhoods and monuments. The expansion of Madrid developed under the Plan Castro , resulting in the neighbourhoods of Salamanca
Salamanca
, Argüelles , and Chamberí . Arturo Soria conceived the linear city and built the first few kilometres of the road that bears his name, which embodies the idea. The Gran Vía was built using different styles that evolved over time: French style, eclectic, art deco, and expressionist. Antonio Palacios built a series of buildings inspired by the Viennese Secession , such as the Palace of Communication , the Fine Arts
Arts
Circle of Madrid
Madrid
(_Círculo de Bellas Artes_), and the Río de La Plata Bank (Instituto Cervantes). Other notable buildings include the Bank
Bank
of Spain
Spain
, the neo-Gothic Almudena Cathedral , Atocha Station , and the Catalan art-nouveau Palace of Longoria . Las Ventas Bullring was built, as the Market of San Miguel (Cast-Iron style). Gate of Europe , built during the 1990s.

The Civil War severely damaged the city. Subsequently, the old town and the Ensanche
Ensanche
were destroyed, and numerous blocks of flats were built. Examples of post-war architecture include the Spanish Air Force headquarters and the skyscrapers of Plaza de España , at the time (the 1950s) the highest in Europe.

With the advent of Spanish economic development, skyscrapers, such as Torre Picasso , Torres Blancas and Torre BBVA, and the Gate of Europe , appeared in the late 20th century in the city. During the decade of the 2000s, the four tallest skyscrapers in Spain
Spain
were built and together form the Cuatro Torres Business Area
Cuatro Torres Business Area
. Madrid-Barajas Airport Terminal 4 was inaugurated in 2006 and won several architectural awards. Terminal 4 is one of the world's largest terminal areas and features glass panes and domes in the roof, which allow natural light to pass through.

URBAN SCULPTURE

The streets of Madrid
Madrid
are a veritable museum of outdoor sculpture. The Museum
Museum
of Outdoor Sculpture, located in the Paseo de la Castellana , is dedicated to abstract works, among which is the _Sirena Varada_ (Strander Mermaid) by Eduardo Chillida .

Since the 18th century, the Paseo del Prado has been decorated with an iconographic program with classical monumental fountains: the _Fuente de la Alcachofa_ (Fountain of the Artichoke), the _Cuatro Fuentes_ (Four Fountains), the _Fuente de Neptuno_ (Fountain of Neptune ), the _Fuente de Apolo_ (Fountain of Apollo
Apollo
), and the _Fuente de Cibeles_ (Fountain of Cybele
Cybele
, also known as Fountain of Cibeles), all designed by Ventura Rodríguez .

The equestrian sculptures are particularly important, starting chronologically with two designed in the 17th century: the statue of Philip III, in the Plaza Mayor by Giambologna , and the statue of Philip IV, in the Plaza de Oriente (undoubtedly the most important statue of Madrid, projected by Velázquez and built by Pietro Tacca with scientific advice of Galileo Galilei ).

Many areas of the Buen Retiro Park (_Parque del Retiro_) are really sculptural scenography: among them are _The Fallen Angel _ by Ricardo Bellver and the _ Monument to Alfonso XII _, designed by José Grases Riera .

In another vein are the neon advertising signs, some of which have acquired a historic range and are legally protected, such as Schweppes in Plaza de Callao or Tío Pepe in the Puerta del Sol , recently retired from its location for the restoration of the building.

*

Fountain of Neptune ( Ventura Rodríguez ) *

Fountain of Cybele
Cybele
(Ventura Rodríguez) *

Monument to Alfonso XII (José Grasés Riera ) *

Strander Mermaid ( Eduardo Chillida ) *

Bronze sculptures of Don Quixote
Don Quixote
and Sancho Panza at the Plaza de España (Madrid)

*

Philip IV ( Pietro Tacca ) *

Fuente del Ángel Caído ( Ricardo Bellver ) *

Cervantes
Cervantes
Monument at Plaza de España (Madrid) *

The Statue of the Bear
Bear
and the Strawberry Tree *

Monument to Christopher Columbus (Arturo Mélida , Jerónimo Suñol )

ENVIRONMENT

Buen Retiro Park

Madrid
Madrid
is the European city with the highest number of trees and green surface per inhabitant and it has the second highest number of aligned trees in the world, with 248,000 units, only exceeded by Tokyo. Madrid's citizens have access to a green area within a 15-minute walk. Since 1997, green areas have increased by 16%. At present, 8.2% of Madrid's grounds are green areas, meaning that there are 16 m2 (172 sq ft) of green area per inhabitant, far exceeding the 10 m2 (108 sq ft) per inhabitant recommended by the World Health Organization. Buen Retiro Park, gardens

Buen Retiro Park (_Parque del Buen Retiro_, or simply _Parque del Retiro_), formerly the grounds of the palace built for Philip IV of Spain
Spain
, is Madrid's most popular park and the largest park in central Madrid. Its area is more than 1.4 km2 (0.5 sq mi) (350 acres) and it is located very close to the Puerta de Alcalá and not far from the Prado Museum
Prado Museum
. The park is entirely surrounded by the present-day city. Its lake in the middle once staged mini naval sham battles to amuse royalty; these days the more tranquil pastime of pleasure boating is popular. Inspired by London's Crystal Palace, the Palacio de Cristal can be found at the south-eastern end of the park.

In the Buen Retiro Park is also the Forest of the Departed (_Bosque de los Ausentes_), a memorial monument to commemorate the 191 victims of the 11 March 2004 Madrid
Madrid
attacks .

Atocha Railway Station (_Estación de Atocha_) is the city's first and most central station , and is also home to a 4,000-square-metre (43,056-square-foot) indoor garden, with more than 500 species of plant life and ponds with turtles and goldfish in. Casa de Campo , lake

Casa de Campo is an enormous urban parkland to the west of the city, the largest in Spain
Spain
and Madrid's main green lung. Its area is more than 1,700 hectares (6.6 sq mi). It is home to a fairground, the Madrid
Madrid
Zoo , an amusement park, the Parque de Atracciones de Madrid , and an outdoor municipal pool, to enjoy a bird's eye view of the park and city take a cable car trip above the tree tops. Casa de Campo's vegetation is one of its most important features. There are, in fact, three different ecosystems: oak, pine and river groves. The oak is the dominant tree species in the area and, although many of them are over 100 years old and reach a great height, they are also present in the form of chaparral and bushes. The pine-forest ecosystem boasts a large number of trees that have adapted perfectly to the light, dry conditions in the park. In addition, mushrooms often emerge after the first rains of autumn. Finally, the river groves, or riparian forests, are made up of various, mainly deciduous, species that grow in wetter areas. Examples include poplars, willows and alder trees. As regards fauna, this green space is home to approximately 133 vertebrate species.

The Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid
Madrid
(_Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid_) is an 8-hectare botanical garden located in the Plaza de Murillo, next to the Prado Museum
Prado Museum
. It was an 18th-century creation by Carlos III and it was used as a base for the plant species being collected across the globe. There is an important research facility that started life as a base to develop herbal remedies and to house the species collected from the new-world trips, today it is dedicated to maintaining Europe's ecosystem. Campo del Moro Gardens

The Royal Palace (_Palacio Real_) is surrounded by three green areas. In front of the palace, are the gardens of the Plaza de Oriente; to the north, the gardens of Sabatini and to the west up to the Manzanares River, the famous Campo del Moro. Campo del Moro gardens has a surface area of 20 hectares and is a scenic garden with an unusual layout filled with foliage and an air of English romanticism. The Sabatini Gardens have a formal Neoclassic style, consisting of well-trimmed hedges, in symmetric geometrical patterns, adorned with a pool, statues and fountains, with trees also planted in a symmetrical geometric shape. Plaza de Oriente can distinguish three main plots: the Central Gardens, the Cabo Noval Gardens and the Lepanto Gardens. The Central Gardens are arranged around the central monument to Philip IV, in a grid, following the barroque model garden. They consist of seven flowerbeds, each packed with box hedges, forms of cypress, yew and magnolia of small size, and flower plantations, temporary. These are bounded on either side by rows of statues paths, popularly known as the Gothic kings, and mark the dividing line between the main body of the plaza and the Cabo Noval Gardens at north, and the Lepanto Gardens at south. Mount of El Pardo
El Pardo

Mount of El Pardo
El Pardo
(_Monte de El Pardo_) is a mediterranean forest inside the city of Madrid. It is one of the best preserved Mediterranean Forests in Europe. The European Union
European Union
has designated the Monte de El Pardo
El Pardo
as a Special Protection Area for bird-life. This meadow, which has been used as hunting grounds by the royalty given the variety of game animals that have inhabited it since the Middle Ages, is home to 120 flora species and 200 vertebrae species. Rabbits, red partridges, wild cats, stags, deer and wild boars live among ilexes, cork oaks, ash trees, black poplars, oaks, junipers and rockroses. Monte del Pardo is part of the Regional Park of the High Basin of the Manzanares, spreading out from the Guadarrama Mountains range to the centre of Madrid, and protected by strong legal regulations. Just before crossing the city, the River Manzanares forms a valley composed by sandy elements and detritus from the mountain range. Mount of El Pardo
El Pardo
and Soto de Viñuelas inside the city of Madrid
Madrid

Soto de Viñuelas , also known as Mount Viñuelas, is a meadow-oak forest north of the city of Madrid
Madrid
and east of the Monte de El Pardo. It is a fenced property of about 3,000 hectares, which includes important ecological values, landscape and art. Soto de Viñuelas is part of the Regional Park of the High Basin of the Manzanares, a nature reserve which is recognised as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO
UNESCO
, where it has been classified as Area B, the legal instrument that allows agricultural land use. Soto de Viñuelas has also received the statement of Special Protection Area for Birds. Manzanares River

El Capricho is a 14-hectare garden located in the area of Barajas district. It dates back to 1784. The art of landscaping in El Capricho is displayed in three different styles of classical gardenscapes: the "parterre" or French garden, English landscaping and the Italian giardino.

Madrid
Madrid
Río ( Madrid
Madrid
River) is a linear park that runs along the bank of the Manzanares River, in the middle of Madrid. It is an area of parkland 10 kilometres (6 miles) long and covers 649 hectares in six districts: Moncloa-Aravaca , Centro , Arganzuela , Latina
Latina
, Carabanchel and Usera . It is a large area of environmental, sporting, leisure and cultural interest. Madrid
Madrid
Río provides a link with other green spaces in the city such as Casa de Campo and the Linear Park of the Manzanares River. The main landscaped area in Madrid
Madrid
Río is the Arganzuela Park, covering 23 hectares where pedestrian and cycling routes cover the whole park. The Madrid
Madrid
Río cycling network covers some 30 km (19 mi) and is linked to other bike routes. To the north, Madrid
Madrid
Rio connects to the Senda Real, the Green Ring for Cyclists and the E 7 (GR 10) trail, which goes as far as the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range. To the south, Madrid
Madrid
Río provides access to the Enrique Tierno Galván Park and the Linear Park of the Manzanares River, an extensive green zone running parallel to the river as far as Getafe. As well as the cycle routes there are 42 km (26 mi) of paths for walkers and runners. In the Salón de Pinos, a 6-kilometre long tree-lined promenade, there are circuits for aerobic and anaerobic exercise, while near the Puente de Praga bridge there is a tennis court and seven tennis courts.

The theme park Faunia is a natural history museum and zoo combined, aimed at being fun and educational for children. It comprises eight eco-systems from tropical rain forests to polar regions , and contains over 1,500 animals, some of which roam freely within.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Madrid _ Plaza Mayor (17th "> Headquarters of the Banco de España _, Madrid
Madrid

After it became the capital of Spain
Spain
in the 16th century, Madrid
Madrid
was more a centre of consumption than of production or trade. Economic activity was largely devoted to supplying the city’s own rapidly growing population, including the royal household and national government, and to such trades as banking and publishing .

A large industrial sector did not develop until the 20th century, but thereafter industry greatly expanded and diversified, making Madrid the second industrial city in Spain. However, the economy of the city is now becoming more and more dominated by the service sector .

Madrid
Madrid
is the 5th most important leading Center of Commerce in Europe (after London, Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam) and ranks 11th in the world.

ECONOMIC HISTORY

As the capital city of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
from 1561, Madrid's population grew rapidly. Administration, banking, and small-scale manufacturing centred on the royal court were among the main activities, but the city was more a locus of consumption than production or trade, geographically isolated as it was before the coming of the railways.

Industry
Industry
started to develop on a large scale only in the 20th century, but then grew rapidly, especially during the "Spanish miracle " period around the 1960s. The economy of the city was then centred on diverse manufacturing industries such as those related to motor vehicles , aircraft, chemicals, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals, processed food , printed materials, and leather goods. Since the restoration of democracy in the late 1970s, the city has continued to expand. Its economy is now among the most dynamic and diverse in the European Union
European Union
.

PRESENT-DAY ECONOMY

As the national capital, Madrid
Madrid
concentrates activities directly connected with power (central and regional government, headquarters of Spanish companies, regional HQ of multinationals , financial institutions ) and with knowledge and technological innovation (research centres and universities). It is one of Europe's largest financial centres and the largest in Spain. The city has 17 universities and over 30 research centres. :52 It is the third metropolis in the EU by population, and the fourth by gross internal product. :69 Leading employers include Telefónica , Iberia , Prosegur , BBVA
BBVA
, Urbaser, Dragados , and FCC . :569

The _comunidad de Madrid_ , containing the city and surrounding areas, had a GDP
GDP
of 203,626M in 2015, equating to a GDP
GDP
per capita of €31,812. In 2011 the city itself had a GDP
GDP
per capita 74% above the national average and 70% above that of the 27 European Union member states, although 11% behind the average of the top 10 cities of the EU. :237–239 Although housing just over 50% of the region\'s 's population, the city generates 65.9% of its GDP. :51 Following the recession commencing 2007/8, recovery was under way by 2014, with forecast growth rates for the city of 1.4% in 2014, 2.7% in 2015 and 2.8% in 2016. :10

The economy of Madrid
Madrid
has become based increasingly on the service sector . In 2011 services accounted for 85.9% of value added, while industry contributed 7.9% and construction 6.1%. :51 Nevertheless, Madrid
Madrid
continues to hold the position of Spain's second industrial centre after Barcelona, specialising particularly in high-technology production. Following the recession, services and industry were forecast to return to growth in 2014, and construction in 2015. :32

Standard Of Living

Mean household income and spending are 12% above the Spanish average. :537, 553 The proportion classified as "at risk of poverty" in 2010 was 15.6%, up from 13.0% in 2006 but less than the average for Spain of 21.8%. The proportion classified as affluent was 43.3%, much higher than Spain
Spain
overall (28.6%). :540–3

Consumption by Madrid
Madrid
residents has been affected by job losses and by austerity measures, including a rise in sales tax from 8% to 21% in 2012.

Although residential property prices have fallen by 39% since 2007, the average price of dwelling space was €2,375.6 per sq. m. in early 2014, :70 and is shown as second only to London
London
in a list of 22 European cities.

Employment

AZCA
AZCA
Business
Business
park in northern Madrid
Madrid
Telefónica district in Madrid
Madrid

Participation in the labour force was 1,638,200 in 2011, or 79.0%. The employed workforce comprised 49% women in 2011 (Spain, 45%). :98 41% of economically active people are university graduates, against 24% for Spain
Spain
as a whole. :103 Cristal Tower ">:97, 100 Unemployment reached a peak of 19.1% in 2013, :17 but with the start of an economic recovery in 2014, employment started to increase. Employment continues to shift further towards the service sector, with 86% of all jobs in this sector by 2011, against 74% in all of Spain. :117

Services

The share of services in the city’s economy is 86%. Services to business, transport & communications, property ">:51 The types of services that are now expanding are mainly those that facilitate movement of capital, information, goods and persons, and "advanced business services" such as research and development (R">:242–3

Banks based in Madrid
Madrid
carry out 72% of the banking activity in Spain. :474 The Spanish central bank , Bank
Bank
of Spain
Spain
, has existed in Madrid since 1782. Stocks ">:351–2 The public sector employs 18.1% of all employees. :630 Madrid
Madrid
attracts about 8M tourists annually from other parts of Spain
Spain
and from all over the world, exceeding even Barcelona
Barcelona
. :81 :362, 374 :44 Spending by tourists in Madrid
Madrid
was estimated (2011) at €9,546.5M, or 7.7% of the city’s GDP. :375

The construction of transport infrastructure has been vital to maintain the economic position of Madrid. Travel to work and other local journeys use a high-capacity metropolitan road network and a well-used public transport system. :62–4 In terms of longer-distance transport, Madrid
Madrid
is the central node of the system of _autovías _ and of the high-speed rail network ( AVE
AVE
), which has brought major cities such as Seville
Seville
and Barcelona
Barcelona
within 2.5 hours travel time. :72–75 Also important to the city's economy is Madrid-Barajas Airport , the fourth largest airport in Europe. :76–78 Madrid’s central location makes it a major logistical base. :79–80

Industry

As an industrial centre Madrid
Madrid
retains its advantages in infrastructure, as a transport hub, and as the location of headquarters of many companies. Industries based on advanced technology are acquiring much more importance here than in the rest of Spain. :271 Industry
Industry
contributed 7.5% to Madrid's value-added in 2010. :265 However, industry has slowly declined within the city boundaries as more industry has moved outward to the periphery. Industrial Gross Value Added grew by 4.3% in the period 2003–2005, but decreased by 10% during 2008–2010. :271, 274 The leading industries were: paper, printing energy vehicles electrical and electronic, 10.3%; foodstuffs, 9.6%; clothing, footwear chemical, 7.9%; industrial machinery, 7.3%. :266

Construction

The construction sector, contributing 6.5% to the city’s economy in 2010, :265 was a growing sector before the recession, aided by a large transport and infrastructure program. More recently the construction sector has fallen away and earned 8% less in 2009 than it had been in 2000. :242–3 The decrease was particularly marked in the residential sector, where prices dropped by 25%–27% from 2007 to 2012/13 :202, 212 and the number of sales fell by 57%. :216

International Rankings

A recent study placed Madrid
Madrid
7th among 36 cities as an attractive base for business. It was placed third in terms of availability of office space, and fifth for easy of access to markets, availability of qualified staff, mobility within the city, and quality of life. Its less favourable characteristics were seen as pollution, languages spoken, and political environment. Another ranking of European cities placed Madrid
Madrid
5th among 25 cities (behind Berlin, London, Paris
Paris
and Frankfurt), being rated favourably on economic factors and the labour market, and on transport and communication.

ART AND CULTURE

MUSEUMS AND ART CENTRES

Prado Museum
Prado Museum
See also: List of museums in Madrid

Madrid
Madrid
is considered one of the top European destinations concerning art museums. Best known is the Golden Triangle of Art , located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three museums. The most famous one is the Prado Museum, known for such highlights as Diego Velázquez's _ Las Meninas _ and Francisco de Goya's _ La maja vestida _ and _La maja desnuda _. The other two museums are the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum, established from a mixed private collection, and the Reina Sofía Museum, where Pablo Picasso's _Guernica _ hangs, returned to Spain from New York after more than two decades.

The Prado Museum
Prado Museum
(_Museo del Prado_) is a museum and art gallery that features one of the world's finest collections of European art, from the 12th century to the early 19th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection. The collection currently comprises around 7,600 paintings, 1,000 sculptures, 4,800 prints and 8,200 drawings, in addition to a large number of works of art and historic documents. El Prado is one of the most visited museums in the world, and it is considered to be among the greatest museums of art. It has the best collection of artworks by Goya
Goya
, Velázquez , El Greco
El Greco
, Rubens
Rubens
, Titian
Titian
, Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
, José de Ribera , and Patinir
Patinir
as well as works by Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden
, Raphael Sanzio , Tintoretto
Tintoretto
, Veronese , Caravaggio
Caravaggio
, Van Dyck
Van Dyck
, Albrecht Dürer , Claude Lorrain , Murillo , and Zurbarán , among others. Among the most famous paintings in this museum are _Las Meninas','_ The Immaculate Conception _, and_ The Judgement of Paris
Paris
_._ Reina Sofía Museum

The Reina Sofía National Art Museum
Museum
(_Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía_, abbreviated as MNCARS) is Spain
Spain
's national museum of 20th-century art . The museum is mainly dedicated to Spanish art. Highlights of the museum include excellent collections of Spain's greatest 20th-century masters, Pablo Picasso , Salvador Dalí , Joan Miró , Juan Gris
Juan Gris
, and Julio González . Certainly the most famous masterpiece in the museum is Picasso's painting _Guernica _. The Reina Sofía also hosts a free-access library specialising in art, with a collection of over 100,000 books, over 3,500 sound recordings, and almost 1,000 videos. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum

The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum
(_Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza_) is an art museum that fills the historical gaps in its counterparts' collections: in the Prado's case, this includes Italian primitives and works from the English , Dutch , and German schools, while in the case of the Reina Sofía, the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection, once the second largest private collection in the world after the British Royal Collection , includes Impressionists , Expressionists , and European and American paintings from the second half of the 20th century, with over 1,600 paintings.

The Royal Academy of Fine Arts
Arts
of San Fernando (_Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando_) currently functions as a museum and gallery that houses a fine art collection of paintings from the 15th to 20th centuries, including works by Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
, Correggio
Correggio
, Rubens
Rubens
, Zurbarán , Murillo , Goya
Goya
, Juan Gris
Juan Gris
, and Pablo Serrano . The academy is also the headquarters of the Madrid
Madrid
Academy of Art. Francisco Goya
Goya
was once one of the academy's directors, and its alumni include Pablo Picasso , Salvador Dalí , Antonio López García , Juan Luna , and Fernando Botero . Royal Armoury of Madrid , located in the Royal Palace of Madrid

The Royal Palace of Madrid (_ Palacio Real
Palacio Real
de Madrid_) is the official residence of Felipe VI of Spain
Spain
, but he uses it only for official acts. It is a baroque palace full of artworks and is one of the largest European royal palaces, characterised by its luxurious rooms and its rich collections of armours and weapons, pharmaceuticals, silverware, watches, paintings, tapestries, and the most comprehensive collection of Stradivarius in the world

The National Archaeological Museum
Museum
(_Museo Arqueológico Nacional_) collection includes, among others, Pre-historic , Celtic , Iberian , Greek and Roman antiquities, and medieval (Visigothic , Muslim and Christian) objects. Highlights include a replica of the Altamira cave (the first cave in which prehistoric cave paintings were discovered), _ Lady of Elx _ (an enigmatic polychrome stone bust), _ Lady of Baza _ (a famous example of Iberian sculpture), _ Biche of Balazote _ (an Iberian sculpture), and _ Treasure of Guarrazar _ (a treasure that represents the best surviving group of early medieval Christian votive offerings and the high point of Visigothic goldsmith's work).

The Museum
Museum
of the Americas (_Museo de América_) is a national museum that holds artistic, archaeological, and ethnographic collections from the American continent , ranging from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period to the present day. The permanent exhibit is divided into five major themed areas: an awareness of America, the reality of America, society, religion, and communication. National Museum
Museum
of Natural Sciences

The National Museum
Museum
of Natural Sciences (_Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales_) is Spain's national museum of natural history . The research departments of the museum are biodiversity and evolutionary biology , evolutionary ecology , paleobiology , vulcanology , and geology .

The Naval Museum
Museum
(_Museo Naval_) is managed by the Ministry of Defense. The museum's mission is to acquire, preserve, investigate, report, and display for study, education, and contemplation parts, sets, and collections of historical, artistic, scientific, and technical works related to naval activity in order to disseminate Spanish maritime history; to help illustrate, highlight, and preserve their traditions; and promote national maritime awareness. _ El Aquelarre _, Francisco de Goya. Lázaro Galdiano Museum
Museum

The Convent of Las Descalzas Reales (_Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales_) resides in the former palace of King Charles I of Spain
Spain
and Isabella of Portugal
Portugal
. Their daughter, Joan of Austria
Austria
, founded this convent of nuns of the Poor Clare order in 1559. Throughout the remainder of the 16th century and into the 17th century, the convent attracted young widowed or spinster noblewomen. Each woman brought with her a dowry. The riches quickly piled up, and the convent became one of the richest convents in all of Europe. It has many works of Renaissance and Baroque art, including a recumbent Christ by Gaspar Becerra, a staircase whose paintings were painted by an unknown artist (perhaps Velázquez) and that are considered masterpieces of Spanish Illusionistic painting, and Brussels
Brussels
tapestries inspired by paintings of Rubens.

The Museum
Museum
of Lázaro Galdiano (_Museo de Lázaro Galdiano_) houses an encyclopaedic collection specialising in decorative arts. Apart from paintings and sculptures, it displays 10th-century Byzantine enamel; Arab and Byzantine ivory chests; Hellenistic, Roman, medieval, renaissance, baroque, and romantic jewellery; Pisanello and Pompeo Leoni medals; Spanish and Italian ceramics; Italian and Arab clothes; and a collection of weapons; including the sword of Pope Innocent VIII .

The National Museum
Museum
of Decorative Arts
Arts
(_Museo Nacional de Artes Decorativas_) is one of the oldest museums in the city and illustrates the evolution of the so-called "minor arts" (furniture, ceramics and glass, textile, etc.). Its 60 rooms display 15,000 of the institute's approximately 40,000 total.

The National Museum
Museum
of Romanticism (_Museo Nacional de Romanticismo_) contains a large collection of artefacts and art, focusing on daily life and customs of the 19th century, with special attention to the aesthetics of Romanticism.

The Museum
Museum
Cerralbo (_Museo Cerralbo_) houses a private collection of ancient works of art, artefact,s and other antiquities collected by Enrique de Aguilera y Gamboa , 17th Marquis of Cerralbo.

The National Museum
Museum
of Anthropology (_Museo Nacional de Antropología_) provides an overview of different cultures, with objects and human remains from around the world, highlighting a Guanche mummy from Tenerife
Tenerife
.

The Sorolla Museum
Museum
(_Museo Sorolla_) is located in the building in which the Valencian Impressionist painter had his home and workshop. The collection includes, in addition to numerous works by Joaquín Sorolla , a large number of objects that the artist possessed, including sculptures by Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
. CaixaForum Madrid

CaixaForum Madrid is a post-modern art gallery in the centre of Madrid. It is sponsored by the Catalan-Balearic bank La Caixa and located next to the Salón del Prado. Although the CaixaForum is a modern building, it also exhibits retrospectives of artists from earlier time periods and has evolved into one of the most-visited museums in Madrid. It was constructed by the Swiss architects Herzog "> Fine arts circle

Centrocentro is an exhibition space in Cibeles Palace, formerly the Palace of Communications and now the City Hall. Two social areas have been set up and offer catalogues and publications about current exhibitions and cultural events along the Art Walk. Near these social areas are two large street maps showing the 59 institutions, monuments and buildings of special interest that make the Art Walk such a diverse experience.

The Fine Arts
Arts
Circle (_Círculo de Bellas Artes_), built by Antonio Palacios, is one of Madrid's oldest arts centres and one of the most important private cultural centres in Europe. It is a multidisciplinary centre with activities ranging from visual art to literature, science to philosophy, film and to the performing arts. Nowadays it hosts exhibitions, shows, film screenings, conferences and workshops; its radio programming and magazine _Minerva_ play an important part in the country's cultural life.

Matadero Madrid, literally " Madrid
Madrid
Abattoir", is a complex situated by the river Manzanares whose buildings are an architectural ensemble devoted to performance arts, managed and programmed by the Teatro Español (Madrid) . Matadero is a flexible area that allows the autonomous operation of three interconnected spaces: a theatre café, which accommodates small-scale shows; a large stage, for all sorts of genres and more experimental options; and a third building for dressing rooms and areas for training, debate, analysis and rehearsing new productions.

Conde Duque cultural centre has expanded the amount of space dedicated to culture and art. The new installations now accommodate a theatre, an exhibition hall and an auditorium with a year-round program.

Other art galleries and museums in Madrid
Madrid
include:

* Liria Palace * Spanish Air Force Museum
Museum
* Royal Palace of El Pardo
El Pardo
* Railway Museum
Museum

*

Royal Palace of Madrid *

Lady of Elche
Lady of Elche
(National Archaeological Museum) *

Museum
Museum
of the Americas *

National Museum
Museum
of Natural Sciences *

Royal Palace of El Pardo
El Pardo
*

Museum
Museum
of Madrid
Madrid
History *

National Archaeological Museum
Museum
of Spain
Spain

LANDMARKS

Alcalá Street and the Metropolis Building

In the year 2006, Madrid
Madrid
was the fourth most-visited city in Europe and the first in Spain, with almost seven million tourists. It is also the seat of the World Tourism Organization and the International Tourism
Tourism
Fair – FITUR.

Most of the tourist attractions of Madrid
Madrid
are in the old town and the Ensanche, corresponding with the districts of Centro, Salamanca, Chamberí, Retiro, and Arganzuela. The nerve centre of the city is the Puerta del Sol , the starting point for the numbering of all city streets and all the country's highways.

The Calle de Alcalá or Alcalá Street leads from the Puerta del Sol from the NE of the city. From the street you get from Plaza de Cibeles . Subsequently, the street reaches the "Plaza de la Independencia", which includes the Puerta de Alcalá and an entrance to the Buen Retiro Park.

The Calle Mayor leads to Plaza Mayor continuing for the so-called Madrid
Madrid
de los Austrias , in reference to the Dynasty of Habsburg – finally reaching Calle de Bailén, near the Cathedral of the Almudena and the church of San Francisco el Grande .

The Calle del Arenal comes to Royal Theatre in Plaza de la Ópera, continuing through Plaza de Oriente , where the Royal Palace is. From there, the Calle Bailen leads to the Plaza de España and the Temple of Debod , an Egyptian temple moved stone by stone to Spain
Spain
in gratitude for their help in the construction of the Aswan Dam . Also in this square is the start of the Gran Vía street.

CHURCHES

Almudena Cathedral Royal Convent of La Encarnación (façade) San Francisco el Grande

Madrid
Madrid
has a considerable number of Catholic
Catholic
churches, some of which are among the most important Spanish religious artworks.

The oldest church that survives today is San Nicolás de los Servitas , whose oldest item is the bell tower (12th century), in Mudéjar style. The next oldest temple is San Pedro el Real , with its high brick tower.

St. Jerome Church is a gothic church next to El Prado Museum
Prado Museum
. The Catholic
Catholic
Monarchs ordered its construction in the 15th century, as part of a vanished monastery. The monastery's cloister is preserved. It has recently been renovated by Rafael Moneo , with the goal to house the neoclassical collection of El Prado Museum, and also sculptures by Leone Leoni and Pompeo Leoni .

The Bishop Chapel is a gothic chapel built in the 16th century by order of the Bishop of Plasencia, Gutierre de Vargas. It was originally built to house the remains of Saint Isidore Laborer (Madrid's patron saint), but it was used as the Vargas family mausoleum. Inside are the altarpiece and the tombs of the Vargas family, which were the work of Francisco Giralte, a disciple of Alonso Berruguete . They are considered masterpieces of Spanish Renaissance sculpture. St. Isidore Church from the Plaza Mayor

St. Isidore Church was built between 1620 and 1664 by order of Empress Maria of Austria
Austria
, daughter of Charles V of Germany
Germany
and I of Spain
Spain
, to become part of a school run by the Jesuits, which still exists today. Its dome is the first example of a dome drawing on a wooden frame covered with plaster, which, given its lightness, makes it easy to support the walls. It was the cathedral of Madrid
Madrid
between 1885 and 1993, which is the time it took to build the Almudena. The artworks inside were mostly burned during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, but it retained the tomb that holds the incorrupt body of Saint Isidore Laborer and the urn containing the ashes of his wife, Maria Torribia .

The Royal Convent of La Encarnación is an Augustinian Recollect convent. The institution, which belonged to ladies of the nobility, was founded by Queen Margaret of Austria
Austria
, wife of Philip III of Spain , in the early 17th century. Due to the frescoes and sculptures it houses, it is one of the most prominent temples in the city. The building's architect was Fray Alberto de la Madre de Dios, who built it between 1611 and 1616. The façade responds to an inspiring Herrerian style, with great austerity, and it was imitated by other Spanish churches. The church's interior is a sumptuous work by the great Baroque architect Ventura Rodriguez .

In the church are preserved shrines containing the blood of St. Januarius and St. Pantaleon , the second (according to tradition) liquefies every year on the saint's day on 27 July.

San Antonio de los Alemanes (St. Anthony Church) is a pretty 17th-century church that was originally part of a Portuguese hospital. Subsequently, it was donated to the Germans living in the city.

The interior of the church has been recently restored. It has some beautiful frescoes painted by Luca Giordano, Francisco Carreño, and Francisco Rizi . The frescoes represent some kings of Spain, Hungary, France, Germany, and Bohemia. They all sit looking at the paintings in the vault, which represent the life of Saint Anthony of Padua .

The Royal Chapel of St. Anthony of La Florida is sometimes named the "Goya's Sistine Chapel". The chapel was built on orders of King Charles IV of Spain
Spain
, who also commissioned the frescoes by Goya
Goya
. These were completed over a six-month period in 1798. The frescoes portray miracles by Saint Anthony of Padua, including one that occurred in Lisbon
Lisbon
but that the painter has relocated to Madrid. Every year on 13 June, the chapel becomes the site of a lively pilgrimage in which young unwed women come to pray to St. Anthony and ask for a partner.

San Francisco el Grande Basilica was built in neoclassical style in the second half of the 18th century by Francesco Sabatini . It has the fifth largest diameter dome to Christianity. (33 metres (108 feet) in diameter: it's smaller than the dome of Rome\'s Pantheon (43.4 metres or 142.4 feet), St. Peter\'s Basilica (42.4 metres or 139.1 feet), the Florence Cathedral (42 metres or 138 feet), and the Rotunda of Mosta (37.2 metres or 122.0 feet) in Malta, but it's larger than St. Paul\'s Cathedral (30.8 metres or 101 feet) in London
London
and Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
(31.8 metres or 104 feet) in Istanbul).

The church is dedicated to St. Francis of Assisi , who according to legend was established in Madrid
Madrid
during his pilgrimage to Santiago
Santiago
de Compostela . Its sumptuous interior features many artworks, including paintings by Goya
Goya
and Zurbarán .

The Cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena is the episcopal seat of the Archdiocese of Madrid. It is a temple 102 metres (335 feet) long and 73 metres (240 feet) high, built during the 19th and 20th centuries in a mixture of different styles: neoclassical exterior, neo-Gothic interior, neo-Romanesque crypt, and neo-Byzantine apse's paints.

The cathedral was built in the same place as the Moorish citadel (_Al-Mudayna_). It was consecrated by Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
on his fourth trip to Spain
Spain
on 15 June 1993, thus becoming the only Spanish cathedral dedicated by a pope.

LITERATURE

Cervantes Institute headquarters

Madrid
Madrid
has been one of the great centres of Spanish literature. Some of the best writers of the Spanish Golden Century were born in Madrid, including: Lope de Vega _( Fuenteovejuna _, _The Dog in the Manger _, _The Knight of Olmedo_), who reformed the Spanish theatre, a work continued by Calderon de la Barca (_ Life is a Dream _), Francisco de Quevedo , Spanish nobleman and writer famous for his satires, which criticised the Spanish society of his time, and author of _El Buscón _. And finally, Tirso de Molina , who created the famous character Don Juan . Cervantes
Cervantes
and Góngora also lived in the city, although they were not born there. The homes of Lope de Vega, Quevedo, Gongora and Cervantes
Cervantes
are still preserved, and they are all in the Barrio de las Letras (District of Letters).

Other writers born in Madrid
Madrid
in later centuries have been Leandro Fernandez de Moratín , Mariano José de Larra , Jose de Echegaray (Nobel Prize in Literature), Ramón Gómez de la Serna , Dámaso Alonso , Enrique Jardiel Poncela and Pedro Salinas .

The "Barrio de las Letras" (District of Letters) owes its name to the intense literary activity developed over the 16th and 17th centuries. Some of the most prominent writers of the Spanish Golden Age settled here, as Lope de Vega , Quevedo or Góngora , and the theatres of Cruz and Príncipe, two of the major comedy theatres of that time. At 87 Calle de Atocha, one of the roads that limit the neighbourhood, was the printing house of Juan Cuesta, where the first edition of the first part of Don Quixote
Don Quixote
(1604) was published, one of the greatest works of Spanish literature. Most of the literary routes are articulated along the Barrio de las Letras, where you can find scenes from novels of the Siglo de Oro and more recent works like "Bohemian Lights ".

Madrid
Madrid
is home to the Royal Academy of Spanish Language , an internationally important cultural institution dedicated to language planning by enacting legislation aimed at promoting linguistic unity within the Hispanic states; this ensures a common linguistic standard, in accordance with its founding statutes "to ensure that the changes undergone not break the essential unity that keeps all the Hispanic".

Madrid
Madrid
is also home to another international cultural institution, the Instituto Cervantes , whose task is the promotion and teaching of the Spanish language as well as the dissemination of the culture of Spain
Spain
and Hispanic America .

The National Library of Spain
Spain
is the largest major public library in Spain. The library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 30,000 manuscripts, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 510,000 music scores, 500,000 maps, 600,000 sound recording, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, more than 500,000 microforms, etc.

*

Commemorative plaque of the 1st edition of Don Quixote
Don Quixote
*

Plaza de Santa Ana , Barrio de las Letras *

National Library of Spain
Spain

NIGHTLIFE

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The nightlife in Madrid
Madrid
is one of the city's main attractions. Tapas bars, cocktail bars, clubs, jazz lounges, live music venues, flamenco theatres, and establishments of all kinds cater to all. Every night, venues pertaining to the Live Music Venues Association La Noche en Vivo host a wide range of live music shows. Everything from acclaimed to up-and-coming artists, singer-songwriters to rock bands, jazz concerts or electronic music sessions to showcase music at its best.

Nightlife
Nightlife
and young cultural awakening flourished after the death of Franco , especially during the 80s while Madrid's mayor Enrique Tierno Galván (PSOE ) was in office. At this time, the cultural movement called _La Movida _ flourished, and it initially gathered around Plaza del Dos de Mayo . Nowadays, the Malasaña area is known for its alternative scene.

Some of the most popular night destinations include the neighbourhoods of Bilbao, Tribunal, Atocha, Alonso Martínez or Moncloa, together with the Puerta del Sol area (including Ópera and Gran Vía, both adjacent to the popular square) and Huertas (_Barrio de las Letras_), destinations which are also filled with tourists day and night. The district of Chueca
Chueca
has also become a hot spot in the Madrilenian nightlife, especially for the gay population. Chueca
Chueca
is popularly known as the gay quarter, comparable to The Castro district in San Francisco.

What is also popular is the practice of meeting in parks or streets with friends and drinking alcohol together (this is called _botellón _, from _botella_, 'bottle'), but in recent years, drinking in the street is punished with a fine of €600.

Usually in Madrid
Madrid
people do not go out until later in the evening and do not return home until early in the morning. A typical evening out could start after 12:00 AM and end at 6:30 AM.

BOHEMIAN CULTURE

The city has venues for performing alternative art and expressive art. They are mostly located in the centre of the city, including in Ópera, Antón Martín, Chueca
Chueca
and Malasaña . There are also several festivals in Madrid, including the Festival of Alternative Art, the Festival of the Alternative Scene.

The neighbourhood of Malasaña , as well as Antón Martín and Lavapiés , hosts several bohemian cafés/galleries. These cafés are typified with period or retro furniture or furniture found on the street, a colourful, nontraditional atmosphere inside, and usually art displayed each month by a new artist, often for sale. Cafés include the retro café _Lolina_ and bohemian cafés _La Ida_, _La Paca_ and _Café de la Luz_ in Malasaña, _La Piola_ in Huertas and _Café Olmo_ and _Aguardiente_ in Lavapiés.

In the neighbourhood of Lavapiés, there are also "hidden houses", which are illegal bars or abandoned spaces where concerts, poetry readings and the famous Spanish _botellón _ (a street party or gathering that is now illegal but rarely stopped).

CLASSICAL MUSIC AND OPERA

National Auditorium of Music

The Auditorio Nacional de Música is the main venue for classical music concerts in Madrid. It is home to the Spanish National Orchestra , the Chamartín Symphony Orchestra and the venue for the symphonic concerts of the Community of Madrid Orchestra and the Madrid
Madrid
Symphony Orchestra . It is also the principal venue for orchestras on tour playing in Madrid.

The Teatro Real
Teatro Real
is the main opera house in Madrid, located just in front of the Royal Palace , and its resident orchestra is the Madrid Symphony Orchestra . The theatre stages around seventeen opera titles (both own productions and co-productions with other major European opera houses) per year, as well as two or three major ballets and several recitals.

The Teatro de la Zarzuela is mainly devoted to Zarzuela (the Spanish traditional musical theatre genre), as well as operetta and recitals . The resident orchestra of the theatre is the Community of Madrid Orchestra .

The Teatro Monumental is the concert venue of the RTVE Symphony Orchestra .

Other concert venues for classical music are the Fundación Joan March and the Auditorio 400 , devoted to contemporary music.

LOCAL FESTIVITIES

* 2 May, Fiesta de la Communidad (Madrid's Community Day). * 15 May, San Isidro Labrador (Madrid's patron saint). * 13 June, San Antonio de la Florida (Moncloa neighbourhood's patron saint). * 16–25 July, Virgen del Carmen festivities (Vallecas neighbourhood's patron saint). * 6–14 August, Virgen de la Paloma festivities (Madrid's popular patron saint). * 7 August, San Cayetano (Cascorro neighbourhood's patron saint). * 10 August, San Lorenzo ( Lavapiés neighbourhood's patron saint). * 9 November, Feast of the Virgin of Almudena (Madrid's patron saint).

LGBTQ CULTURE

Since Spain
Spain
legalised gay marriage in July 2005, Madrid
Madrid
has become one of the largest hot spots for LGBT culture. With about 500 businesses aimed toward the LGBT community, Madrid
Madrid
has become a “Gateway of Diversity”.

Madrid’s Pride Parade began in 1977, in the Chueca
Chueca
neighbourhood, which also marked the beginning of the gay, lesbian, transgendered, and bisexual rights movement after being repressed for forty years in a dictatorship. This claiming of LGBT rights has allowed the Pride Parade in Madrid
Madrid
to grow year after year, becoming one of the best in the world. In 2007, this was recognised by the European Pride Owners Association (EPOA) when Madrid
Madrid
hosted Europride, the Official European Pride Parade. It was hailed by the President of the EPOA as “the best Europride in history”. In 2017, Madrid
Madrid
plans on celebrating the 40th anniversary of their first Pride Parade with WorldPride Madrid
Madrid
2017. This festival will be the host of many conferences, seminars, workshops, cultural and sports activities, and a “kids and family pride” that will be a source of education. The hope for this event is that its legacy will show the world a multicultural, diverse, and tolerant society.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Madrid

FOOTBALL

Santiago
Santiago
Bernabéu Palacio de Deportes

Madrid
Madrid
is home to La Liga football club giant Real Madrid
Real Madrid
, who play their home games at the Santiago
Santiago
Bernabéu . Their supporters are referred to as _Madridistas or Merengues_ (Meringues). Real Madrid
Real Madrid
was selected as the best club of the 20th century (FIFA Club of the Century ), being the current leader of the European teams ranking and the most valuable sports team in the world. Real are the current holders of the European Cup having won the competition a record 12 times. They are also the current holders of La Liga with their 2017 title being their 33rd.

Their successful hometown rivals, Atlético Madrid
Atlético Madrid
, are also well-supported in the city and play their home games at the Wanda Metropolitano . Their supporters are referred to as _Atléticos or Colchoneros_ (The Mattressers), in reference to the team's red and white jersey colours. Atlético is considered a European elite team , having reached in the last five seasons, two UEFA Champions League finals . Historically, Atletico has won 10 national league titles and 10 national cup titles.

The final matches for the UEFA Euro 1964 and the 1982 FIFA World Cup , were held at Bernabéu , thus making Madrid
Madrid
the first city in Europe to host both a UEFA European Championship and a FIFA World Cup final . Some of Spain's top footballers are Madrilenians (born in Madrid), including Real Madrid
Real Madrid
former captains Emilio Butragueño (and co-teammate of La Quinta del Buitre , "The Vulture's Cohort"), Raúl or Iker Casillas and Atlético Madrid
Atlético Madrid
player Fernando Torres .

BASKETBALL

Madrid
Madrid
boasts a prominent place in Spanish basketball, with two clubs in the country's top-level Liga ACB . Real Madrid\'s basketball section has won a record 9 Euroleague Championships , 33 Spanish Leagues and 27 Spanish Cups , having achieved 3 Triple Crowns . Madrid's other professional basketball club is Estudiantes that have won 3 Spanish Cup championships. Both teams play their home games at the Palacio de Deportes .

SPORTS CLUBS

CLUB ESTABLISHED SPORT LEAGUE VENUE CAPACITY

REAL MADRID C.F. 1902 Football La Liga SANTIAGO BERNABéU 85,454

ATLéTICO MADRID 1903 Football La Liga ] 54,851

REAL MADRID BALONCESTO 1932 Basketball
Basketball
ACB PALACIO DE DEPORTES 16,000

CB ESTUDIANTES 1948 Basketball
Basketball
ACB PALACIO DE DEPORTES 16,000

ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EVENTS

* Cycling
Cycling
: The city serves as the final stage of the Vuelta a España , one of the prestigious three-week-long Grand Tours . * Tennis
Tennis
: Madrid
Madrid
Open , a male and female professional tennis tournament, held during the first week of May. The event is classified as an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event on the ATP Tour and a WTA Premier Mandatory event on the WTA Tour .

BULLFIGHTING

Las Ventas bullring

Madrid
Madrid
hosts the largest _plaza de toros_ (bullring) in Spain, Las Ventas , established in 1929. Las Ventas is considered by many to be the world centre of bullfighting and has a seating capacity of almost 25,000. Madrid's bullfighting season begins in March and ends in October. Bullfights are held every day during the festivities of San Isidro (Madrid's patron saint ) from mid May to early June, and every Sunday, and public holiday , the rest of the season. The style of the plaza is Neo-Mudéjar . Las Ventas also hosts music concerts and other events outside of the bullfighting season.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education
Education
in Spain
Spain

State Education
Education
in Spain
Spain
is free, and compulsory from 6 to 16 years. The current education system is called LOE (_Ley Orgánica de Educación_).

UNIVERSITIES

Madrid
Madrid
is home to a large number of public and private universities . Some of them are among the oldest in the world, and many of them are the most prestigious universities in Spain.

The "National Distance Education
Education
University", in Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) has as its mission the public service of higher education through the modality of distance education. Facts and data about UNED: At more than 205,000 students (2015), UNED has the largest student population in Spain
Spain
and is one of the largest universities in Europe. Since 1972, UNED has sought to translate into action the principle of equal opportunity in access to higher education through a methodology based on the principles of distance learning and focused on the needs of the student. UNED is the leader in the implementation of cutting edge technologies applied to learning, with the largest offer of virtual courses in Spain. Complutense University of Madrid , founded 1293

The Complutense University of Madrid (_Universidad Complutense de Madrid_) is the second largest university in Spain
Spain
after UNED Spanish open University and one of the oldest universities in the world. It has 10,000 staff members and a student population of 117,000. Nearly all academic staff are Spanish. It is located on two campuses, in the university quarter Ciudad Universitaria at Moncloa in Madrid, and in Somosaguas. The Complutense University of Madrid was founded in Alcalá de Henares , old Complutum, by Cardinal Cisneros in 1499. Nevertherless, its real origin dates back to 1293, when King Sancho IV of Castile built the General Schools of Alcalá, which would give rise to Cisnero's Complutense University. During the course of 1509–1510 five schools were already operative: _Artes y Filosofía_ ( Arts
Arts
and Philosophy), _Teología_ (Theology), _Derecho Canónico_ (Canonical Laws), _Letras_ (Liberal Arts) and _Medicina_ (Medicine). In 1836, during the reign of Isabel II , the University was moved to Madrid, where it took the name of Central University and was located at San Bernardo Street. Subsequently, in 1927, a new University City (Ciudad Universitaria) was planned to be built in the district of Moncloa-Aravaca, in lands handed over by the King Alfonso XIII to this purpose. The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
turned the University City into a war zone, causing the destruction of several schools in the area, as well as the loss of part of its rich scientific, artistic and bibliographic heritage. In 1970 the Government reformed the High Education, and the Central University became the Complutense University of Madrid. It was then when the new campus at Somosaguas was created to house the new School of Social Sciences. The old Alcalá campus was reopened as the independent UAH, University of Alcalá , in 1977. Complutense also serves to the population of students who select Madrid
Madrid
as their residency during their study abroad period. Students from the United States for example, might go to Madrid
Madrid
on a program like API (Academic Programs International) and study at Complutense for an intense immersion into the Spanish Language. The beautiful setting of the campus allows students living temporarily in Madrid
Madrid
to have access to all of the city's public features including Retiro Park, El Prado Museum, and much more. After studying at the University, students return home with a fluent sense of Spanish as well as culture and diversity. School of Mines, Technical University of Madrid

The Technical University of Madrid (_Universidad Politécnica de Madrid_), is the top technical university in Spain. It is the result of the merge of different Technical Schools of Engineering.

The Autonomous University of Madrid (_Universidad Autónoma de Madrid_) was instituted under the leadership of the famous physicist, Nicolás Cabrera . The Autonomous University is widely recognised for its research strengths in theoretical physics . Known simply as _La Autónoma_ in Madrid, its main site is the Cantoblanco Campus, situated 10 miles (16 km) to the northeast of the capital (M-607) and close to the municipal areas of Madrid, namely Alcobendas
Alcobendas
, San Sebastián de los Reyes , Tres Cantos and Colmenar Viejo . Located on the main site are the Rectorate building and the Faculties of Science, Philosophy and Fine Arts
Arts
, Law, Economic Science
Science
and Business
Business
Studies , Psychology, Higher School of Computing Science
Science
and Engineering, and the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education. La Autónoma is considered the institution to study Law in Spain, even is ranked in first place over private and public universities such as Comillas Pontifical University or Charles III University. The Medical School is sited outside the main site and beside the Hospital Universitario La Paz.

The Charles III University of Madrid (_Universidad Carlos III de Madrid_), whose philosophy is to create responsible free-thinking people with a sensitivity to social problems and an involvement in the concept of progress based on freedom, justice and tolerance. The undergraduate degrees in Business
Business
Administration , Economics
Economics
is ranked first among those offered by public and private universities in Spain, and its Master and PhD programs also rank top in the country. The Department of Economics
Economics
is among the 50 best worldwide, and in the top 10 in Econometrics .

Some other prestigious universities include University of Alcalá (_Universidad de Alcalá_) (public), rebuilt at Alcalá de Henares in 1975; King Juan Carlos University
King Juan Carlos University
(_Universidad Rey Juan Carlos_) (public), which is the second largest university in Madrid
Madrid
(by enrolment); and the Comillas Pontifical University (_Universidad Pontificia Comillas_) (private), involved in a number of academic exchange programmes, work practice schemes and international projects with over 200 Higher Education
Education
Institutions in Europe, Latin
Latin
America, North America and Asia.

Other universities in Madrid
Madrid
are: Alfonso X University, Antonio de Nebrija University, Camilo José Cela University , Francisco de Vitoria University , European University of Madrid , Pontifical University of Salamanca– Madrid
Madrid
Campus, Saint Louis University Madrid Campus and San Pablo CEU University (all of them private).

Madrid
Madrid
is also home to the Queen Sofía College of Music (_Escuela Superior de Música Reina Sofía_), the Madrid
Madrid
Royal Conservatory (_Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid_)

BUSINESS SCHOOLS

IE Business
Business
School (formerly Instituto de Empresa) has its main campus on the border of the Chamartín and Salamanca
Salamanca
districts of Madrid. IE Business
Business
School recently ranked #1 in WSJ's 2009 rankings for Best MBA Programs under 2 years. It scored ahead of usual stalwarts, INSEAD and IMD , giving it top billing among International MBA programs. Although based in Barcelona
Barcelona
, both IESE Business
Business
School and ESADE Business
Business
School also have Madrid
Madrid
campuses. These three schools are the top-ranked business schools in Spain, consistently rank among the top 20 business schools globally, and offer MBA programs (in English or Spanish) as well as other business degrees. Other Madrid
Madrid
business schools and universities that have MBA programs include:

* EAE Business
Business
School (in English and Spanish). * Charles III University of Madrid through the _Centro de Ampliación de Estudios_ (in English or Spanish). * Comillas Pontifical University (in Spanish only). * Technical University of Madrid (in Spanish only).

TRANSPORT

_ Autovía _ A4, Spain
Spain
A type 2000 Metro train AVE S-112 at Madrid
Madrid
Atocha Station Main article: Transport in Madrid

Madrid
Madrid
is served by several roads and three modes of public surface transport, and one airport. A great many important road, rail and air links converge on the capital, providing effective connections with other parts of the metropolitan region and with the rest of Spain
Spain
and other parts of Europe.

ROADS

Commuters and other local travellers have available a high-capacity metropolitan road network, Madrid
Madrid
is the centre of the most important roads of Spain. The road network within the Madrid
Madrid
region includes nine radial _autovías _ (fast dualled highways). In 2016 it was announced that Madrid
Madrid
will stop the use of all diesel powered cars and trucks within the next decade.

ID ITINERARY

AUTOVíA A-1 Madrid– Aranda de Duero Burgos
Burgos
Miranda de Ebro –Vitoria – San Sebastián Irún –French border

AUTOVíA A-2 Madrid– Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Lleida
Lleida
Barcelona
Barcelona
Girona –French border

AUTOVíA A-3 Madrid– Valencia
Valencia

AUTOVíA A-4 Madrid–Córdoba – Sevilla
Sevilla
Cádiz

AUTOVíA A-5 Madrid– Talavera de la Reina
Talavera de la Reina
–Trujillo –Mérida –Badajoz –Portuguese border

AUTOVíA A-6 Madrid– Medina del Campo –Benavente – Ponferrada Lugo
Lugo
–A Coruña

AUTOVíA A-31 Madrid– Albacete
Albacete
Alicante
Alicante

AUTOVíA A-42 Madrid–Illescas –Toledo

AUTOVíA M-607 Madrid– Tres Cantos Colmenar Viejo

A bypass in the north of Madrid
Madrid

Also Madrid
Madrid
road network includes four orbital ones at different distances from the centre.

* AUTOPISTA DE CIRCUNVALACIóN M-30 , Ring road
Ring road
around Madrid
Madrid
City Center. It is the busiest Spanish road, famous for its traffic jams. A significant portion of the southern part runs underground, with tunnel sections of more than 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) in length and 3 to 6 lanes in each direction. * AUTOPISTA DE CIRCUNVALACIóN M-40 , Ring road
Ring road
around the outer city districts and closest metropolitan municipalities. * AUTOPISTA DE CIRCUNVALACIóN M-45 , road built between the M-40 and M-50, passes by neighbourhoods like Villaverde and Vallecas * AUTOPISTA DE CIRCUNVALACIóN M-50 , Madrid's outer ring road, connecting municipalities and cities in the metropolitan area, like the ones in the south industrial belt ( Fuenlabrada , Móstoles , Getafe , Leganés ) and the more residential suburbs to the West, like Boadilla del Monte and Las Rozas .

Madrid
Madrid
M-30 bypass

Due to the large amount of traffic, new toll highways were built parallel to the main national freeways (A1...A6). Their names are R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 and provide a paid alternative to the often overcrowded free radials. Madrid
Madrid
public transport system map (Metro, cercanias and light metro)

LOCAL TRANSPORT

There are four major components of public transport, with many intermodal interchanges . Madrid Metro Train Madrid
Madrid
Metro Map

One is the Metro , the second longest metro system in Europe at 294 kilometres (183 miles). Logo Metro

LINE ROUTE LENGTH STATIONS

PINAR DE CHAMARTíN – VALDECARROS 23.873 km 31

LAS ROSAS – CUATRO CAMINOS 14 km 20

VILLAVERDE ALTO – MONCLOA 16.4 km 18

ARGüELLES – PINAR DE CHAMARTíN 16 km 23

ALAMEDA DE OSUNA – CASA DE CAMPO 23.2 km 32

CIRCULAR 23.5 km 28

HOSPITAL DE HENARES – PITIS 31.2 km 29

NUEVOS MINISTERIOS – AEROPUERTO T4 16.5 km 8

PACO DE LUCíA – ARGANDA DEL REY 39.5 km 27

HOSPITAL INFANTA SOFíA – PUERTA DEL SUR 39.9 km 31

PLAZA ELíPTICA – LA FORTUNA 5.3 km 7

METROSUR 40.7 km 28

ÓPERA – PRíNCIPE PíO 1.1 km 2

294 KILOMETRES (183 MILES)

Another is the _Cercanías _ local railways, used for long distances inside Madrid, is faster than the Metro and has less stops inside the centre of the city, this system has several connections with Metro and Light Metro, consisting of nine lines totalling 382 kilometres (237 miles) and 98 stations. Cercanias Train Madrid
Madrid
Cercanías Map

LINE ROUTE KM STATIONS

PRíNCIPE PíO – ATOCHA – RECOLETOS – CHAMARTíN – FUENTE DE LA MORA – AEROPUERTO T4 24 10

GUADALAJARA – ALCALá DE HENARES – ATOCHA – RECOLETOS – CHAMARTíN 65 18

Aranjuez – Villaverde Bajo – Atocha – Sol – Chamartín – Pinar – Villalba – El Escorial 106 23

ALCOBENDAS-S. S. DE LOS REYES – CANTOBLANCO UNIVERSIDAD – CHAMARTíN – SOL – ATOCHA – VILLAVERDE BAJO – GETAFE CENTRO – PARLA 48 15

COLMENAR VIEJO – CANTOBLANCO UNIVERSIDAD – CHAMARTíN – SOL – ATOCHA – VILLAVERDE BAJO – GETAFE CENTRO – PARLA 59 15

MóSTOLES–EL SOTO – ATOCHA – FUENLABRADA – HUMANES 45 23

ALCALá DE HENARES – ATOCHA – RECOLETOS – CHAMARTíN – LAS ROZAS – PRíNCIPE PíO – ATOCHA – RECOLETOS – CHAMARTíN – FUENTE DE LA MORA 98 30

VICáLVARO – ATOCHA – RECOLETOS – CHAMARTíN – VILLALBA – CERCEDILLA 78 16

EL ESCORIAL – SANTA MARíA DE LA ALAMEDA – ÁVILA 71 9

CERCEDILLA – COTOS 18 3

VILLALBA – PRíNCIPE PíO – ATOCHA – RECOLETOS – CHAMARTíN – FUENTE DE LA MORA 55 19

Madrid
Madrid
has four lines of Light Metro with several connection with Metro and also with Cercanias. Light Metro

LINE ROUTE LENGTH STATIONS

Pinar de Chamartín-Las Tablas 5.395 km 9

Colonia Jardín-Estación de Aravaca 8.680 km 13

Colonia Jardín-Puerta de Boadilla 13.699 km 16

Parla Circular Line 8.3 km 15

36 km 53

Finally there is a dense network of bus routes, run by the municipal body _Empresa Municipal de Transportes_, or EMT, which operate 24 hours a day, in the night are special lines called "N lines". There are two types, the red and blue buses inside the city (with more than 200 bus lines), the green buses which has route with the neighbourhoods outside the centre of the city (with 459 suburban bus lines), and the (yellow) Airport Express bus. Also several neighbourhoods has its own bus lines for the mobility inside them

*

Blue Urban Bus
Bus
*

Suburban bus *

Express Airport Bus
Bus

Almost half of all journeys in the metropolitan area are made on public transport, a very high proportion compared with most European cities. :62–4 Taxis of Madrid
Madrid

Madrid
Madrid
has 15723 taxis around all the city.

LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORT

In terms of longer-distance transport, Madrid
Madrid
is the central node of the system of _autovías _, giving the city direct fast road links with most parts of Spain
Spain
and with France
France
and Portugal. It is also the focal point of one of the world's three largest high-speed rail systems, _Alta Velocidad Española_ ( AVE
AVE
), which has brought major cities such as Seville
Seville
and Barcelona
Barcelona
within 2.5 hours travel time. There are now 2,900 kilometres (1,800 miles) of AVE
AVE
track, connecting Madrid
Madrid
with 17 provincial capitals, and further lines are under construction. :72–75

Also Spain
Spain
business are designing new high speed trains which will be the new generation AVE
AVE
104 like Talgo AVRIL
Talgo AVRIL
.

Madrid
Madrid
is also home to Madrid-Barajas Airport , the sixth-largest airport in Europe, handling over 40M passengers annually, of whom 70% are international travellers, in addition to the majority of Spain’s air freight movements. :76–78 Madrid’s location at the centre of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a major logistical base. :79–80 Madrid-Barajas Airport has 4 Terminals and also the terminal 4S, called Satellite terminal, this terminal is 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) from the terminal 4 and connected by an Automated People Mover System (AMP) train.

A second commercial airport for Madrid, the Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real
Central Airport is under the process of reopening after years of closure due to financial difficulties of the airport's former parent company.

*

Spain
Spain
High Speed Services map *

APM Madrid
Madrid
airport (Train Terminal 4 -> 4S) *

European high speed railways map *

Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport , Terminal 4 *

AVE
AVE
103 in Atocha

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain
Spain

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

List of Madrid's twin towns, sister cities:

* Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany
* Bordeaux , France
France
* Malabo , Equatorial Guinea * Miami
Miami
, United States
United States
* New York City
New York City
, United States
United States
* Nouakchott
Nouakchott
, Mauritania
Mauritania
* Rabat , Morocco
Morocco
* Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Tripoli
Tripoli
, Libya
Libya
* Warsaw
Warsaw
, Poland
Poland

UNION OF IBERO-AMERICAN CAPITAL CITIES

Madrid
Madrid
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

* Andorra
Andorra
la Vella , Andorra * Asunción , Paraguay * Bogotá , Colombia * Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Argentina * Caracas
Caracas
, Venezuela * Guatemala
Guatemala
City , Guatemala * Havana
Havana
, Cuba * Quito , Ecuador * La Paz
La Paz
, Bolivia * Lima
Lima
, Peru * Lisbon
Lisbon
, Portugal * Managua , Nicaragua * Mexico
Mexico
City , Mexico * Montevideo
Montevideo
, Uruguay * Panama
Panama
City , Panama * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * San Jose , Costa Rica * San Juan , Puerto Rico * San Salvador , El Salvador * Santiago
Santiago
, Chile * Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
, Dominican Republic * Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
, Honduras

OTHER PARTNERSHIPS

* Athens
Athens
, Greece
Greece
* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
* Brussels
Brussels
, Belgium
Belgium
* Manila
Manila
, Philippines
Philippines
* Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia
* Paris
Paris
, France
France
* Prague
Prague
, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Madrid

*

Andrés Manuel del Río *

Federico Chueca
Chueca
*

Félix Lope de Vega *

Fernando Trueba *

Fernando Verdasco *

Francisco de Quevedo *

Francisco J. Ayala *

Gregorio Marañón *

José Ortega y Gasset *

Juan Caramuel *

Juan Gris
Juan Gris
*

Julio Iglesias *

María Guerrero *

Penélope Cruz *

Plácido Domingo *

Raúl *

Tirso de Molina

HISTORIC BUILDINGS

*

Royal Palace of Madrid *

Plaza de la Villa *

Bridge of Toledo *

St. Michael\'s Basilica *

St. Barbara\'s Church . *

Royal Observatory *

Gate of Toledo *

Congress of Deputies *

Spanish Ministry of Agriculture *

Bank
Bank
of Spain
Spain
*

Delicias Train Station *

Hospital of Maudes *

San Manuel ">

SGAE Seat *

Telefónica Building *

Palacio de la Prensa *

Carrión Building *

Spanish Air Force Headquarters *

Edificio Girasol *

Torres Blancas *

Caja Mágica

HONOURS

* Madrid Dome in Aristotle Mountains , Graham Land in Antarctica
Antarctica
is named after the city.

SEE ALSO

* C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group * Madrid Conference of 1991 * Mayor of Madrid * List of tallest buildings in Madrid * OPENCities

REFERENCES

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Madrid
Traveller. Retrieved 27 August 2014. * ^ Population on 1 January by age groups and sex – functional urban areas – Eurostat , 2014 * ^ Demographia World Urban Areas, 12th Annual Edition: 2016:04. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero, Instituto Nacional de Estadística , 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "World Urban Areas: Population ">(PDF). Demographia . Retrieved 10 August 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Eurostat , UrbanAudit.org Archived 6 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved 12 March 2009. Data for 2004. * ^ _A_ _B_ Brinkoff, Thomas "Principal Agglomerations of the World". Retrieved 12 March 2009. Data for 1 January 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision), (United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007. * ^ "Member of the Governing Council. Delegate for Economy, Employment and Citizen Involvement" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved 3 September 2012. * ^ "Madrid". _ Encyclopædia Britannica _. * ^ " Global city GDP
GDP
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Madrid
Fashion
Fashion
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Madrid
Medieval (Medieval Madrid). Includes Pre-historic, Roman and medieval up to the Catholic
Catholic
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Madrid
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Jarama
(Arganda, Madrid);Santonja, Manuel; López Martínez, Nieves y Pérez-González, Alfredo;1980;Diputación provincial de Madrid;ISBN 84-500-3554-6 * ^ "Las villas romanas de Madrid. Madrid
Madrid
en época romana." (PDF).

* ^ El Madrid
Madrid
antiguo en época romana;Fernández Palacios, Fernando;Estudios de Prehistoria y Arqueología Madrileñas;Number 13; year 2004 * ^ "824 tumbas visigodas en Vicalvaro.". * ^ " Madrid
Madrid
Islámico". Nova.es. Retrieved 7 August 2012. * ^ It was recorded in the 15th century by the Arab geographer al-Himyari, who his book "The Perfurmed Garden book about the news of the countrie"s (Kitab al Rawd to mi'tar) describes: "Madrid, remarkable city of Al-Andalus, which was built by Amir Muhammad ibn Abd ar-Rahman..." * ^ "Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Madrid
– Alfonso VI en Madrid" (in Spanish). Madrid.es. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2012. * ^ "E L M A D R I D M E D I E V A L = José Manuel Castellanos Oñate". Elmadridmedieval.jmcastellanos.com. Retrieved 7 August 2012. * ^ "Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Madrid
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Madrid
(from Frederic de Witt and Pedro Texeira )can be seen at this website * ^ "Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Madrid
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Madrid
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Madrid
– El Madrid
Madrid
del Siglo de Oro" (in Spanish). Madrid.es. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2012. * ^ Royal Academies * ^ "Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
bajo el signo del reformismo ilustrado" (in Spanish). Madrid.es. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2012. * ^ "Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
y la Guerra de la Independencia" (in Spanish). Madrid.es. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2012. * ^ "Ayuntamiento de Madrid
Madrid
– El Madrid
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liberal" (in Spanish). Madrid.es. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Madrid, de territorio fronterizo a región metropolitana. Madrid, from being the "frontier" to become a Metropole.". _History of Madrid._ (in Spanish). Luis Enrique Otero Carvajal (Profesor Titular de Historia Contemporánea. Universidad Complutense. Madrid). Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007. * ^ "Climate: Madrid
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