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The Madras
Madras
Presidency in 1919

Historical era New Imperialism

 •  Established 1652

 •  Disestablished 1947

Colonial India

Imperial entities of India

Dutch India 1605–1825

Danish India 1620–1869

French India 1668–1954

Portuguese India (1505–1961)

Casa da Índia 1434–1833

Portuguese East India Company 1628–1633

British India (1612–1947)

East India Company 1612–1757

Company rule in India 1757–1858

British Raj 1858–1947

British rule in Burma 1824–1948

Princely states 1721–1949

Partition of India

1947

v t e

The Madras
Madras
Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras
Madras
Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India. At its greatest extent, the presidency included most of southern India, including the whole of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh, and parts of Odisha, Kerala, Karnataka
Karnataka
and the union territory of Lakshadweep. The city of Madras was the winter capital of the Presidency and Ootacamund
Ootacamund
or Ooty, the summer capital. The island of Ceylon
Ceylon
was a part of Madras
Madras
Presidency from 1793 to 1798 when it was created a Crown colony. Madras Presidency was neighboured by the Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
on the northwest, Kingdom of Travancore
Kingdom of Travancore
on the southwest, and the Kingdom of Hyderabad on the north. Some parts of the presidency were also flanked by Bombay Presidency. In 1639, the English East India Company
East India Company
purchased the village of Madraspatnam and one year later it established the Agency of Fort St George, precursor of the Madras
Madras
Presidency, although there had been Company factories at Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
and Armagon since the very early 1600s. The agency was upgraded to a Presidency in 1652 before once more reverting to its previous status in 1655. In 1684, it was re-elevated to a Presidency and Elihu Yale
Elihu Yale
was appointed as president. In 1785, under the provisions of Pitt's India Act, Madras
Madras
became one of three provinces established by the East India Company. Thereafter, the head of the area was styled "Governor" rather than "President" and became subordinate to the Governor-General in Calcutta, a title that would persist until 1947. Judicial, legislative and executive powers rested with the Governor who was assisted by a Council whose constitution was modified by reforms enacted in 1861, 1909, 1919 and 1935. Regular elections were conducted in Madras
Madras
up to the outbreak of the Second World War
Second World War
in 1939. By 1908, the province comprised twenty-two districts, each under a District Collector, and it was further sub-divided into taluks and firqas with villages making up the smallest unit of administration. Following the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
of 1919, Madras
Madras
was the first province of British India
British India
to implement a system of dyarchy, and thereafter its Governor ruled alongside a prime minister. In the early decades of the 20th century, many significant contributors to the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
came from Madras. With the advent of Indian independence on 15 August 1947, the Presidency became the Madras
Madras
Province. Madras
Madras
was later admitted as Madras
Madras
State, a state of the Indian Union at the inauguration of the Republic of India on 26 January 1950, and was reorganised in 1953 & 1956.

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Before the arrival of the English 1.2 Early English trading posts 1.3 Agency of Fort St George

2 History

2.1 Expansion 2.2 During the Company Raj 2.3 The Victorian era 2.4 Indian Independence Movement 2.5 Dyarchy
Dyarchy
(1920–37) 2.6 Last days of British rule

3 Geography 4 Demographics

4.1 Languages 4.2 Religion

5 Administration 6 Army 7 Land tenure 8 Agriculture and irrigation 9 Trade, industry and commerce 10 Transport and communication 11 Education 12 Culture and society 13 See also 14 Notes 15 Bibliography 16 External links

Origins[edit] Before the arrival of the English[edit] The discovery of dolmens from this portion of the subcontinent shows inhabitation as early as the Stone Age. The first prominent rulers of the northern part of the future Presidency were the Tamil Pandya dynasty (230 BC – AD 102). Following the decline of the Pandyas and the Cholas, the country was conquered by a little known race of people called the Kalabhras.[1] The country recovered under the subsequent Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
and its civilisation attained a peak when the later Telugu kings started acquiring vast places in Tamil Nadu. Following the conquest of Madurai
Madurai
by Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
in 1311, there was a brief lull when both culture and civilisation began to deteriorate. The Tamil and Telugu territories recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire, founded in 1336. Following the empire's demise, the country was split amongst numerous sultans, polygars and European trading companies.[2] Between 1685 and 1947, a number of kings ruled the areas that became part of the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[3] Early English trading posts[edit] On 31 December 1600, Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
(1533–1603) granted a group of English merchants a charter to establish a joint-stock company which became known as the East India Company.[4][5][6][7] Subsequently, during the reign of King James I (1567–1625), Sir William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe
Thomas Roe
were sent to negotiate with the Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
(1569–1627) to permit the establishment of trading factories in India on behalf of the Company. The first of these were built at Surat
Surat
on the west coast[8] and at Masulipatam on the country's eastern seaboard.[9] Masulipatam is thus the oldest English trading post on India's east coast, dating back to 1611. In 1625, another factory was established at Armagon, a few miles to the south, whereupon both the factories came under the supervision of an agency based at Machilipatam.[9] The English authorities decided to relocate these factories further south, due to a shortage of cotton cloth, the main trade item of the east coast at the time. The problem was compounded when the Sultan of Golconda
Golconda
started harassing the local officers.[9] The East India Company's administrator Francis Day (1605–73) was sent south, and after negotiations with the Raja of Chandragiri
Chandragiri
he obtained a land grant to set up a factory in the village of Madraspatnam,[9] where the new Fort St George was built. An agency was created to govern the new settlement, and the factor Andrew Cogan of Masulipatnam
Masulipatnam
was appointed as its first Agent.[10] All the agencies along India's east coast were subordinated to the East India Company presidency of Bantam in Java.[11] By 1641, Fort St George became the Company's headquarters on the Coromandel Coast.[12] Agency of Fort St George[edit] Andrew Cogan was succeeded by Francis Day (1643–1644), Thomas Ivie (1644–1648) and Thomas Greenhill (1648–52 and 1655–58). At the end of Greenhill's term in 1652, Fort St George was elevated to a Presidency, independent of Bantam[9] and under the leadership of the first president, Aaron Baker
Aaron Baker
(1652–1655).[9] However, in 1655 the status of the fort was downgraded to an Agency and made subject to the factory at Surat,[13] until 1684. In 1658, control of all the factories in Bengal was given to Madras, when the English occupied the nearby village of Triplicane.[14][15] History[edit] Main article: History of Madras
Madras
Presidency

Stringer Lawrence
Stringer Lawrence
who established the Madras
Madras
Army with Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, the Nawab
Nawab
of Carnatic

Expansion[edit] In 1684, Fort St George was again elevated in rank to become the Madras
Madras
Presidency, with William Gyfford
William Gyfford
as its first president.[16] During this period, the Presidency was significantly expanded and reached an extent which continued into the early 19th century. During the early years of the Madras
Madras
Presidency, the English were repeatedly attacked by the Mughals, the Marathas and the Nawabs of Golkonda
Golkonda
and the Carnatic region.[17] In September 1774, by Pitt's India Act, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain
Parliament of Great Britain
to unify and regulate the administration of the territories of the East India Company, the President of Madras
Madras
was made subordinate to the Governor-General of India based in Calcutta.[18] In September 1746, Fort St George was captured by the French, who ruled Madras
Madras
as a part of French India until 1749, when Madras
Madras
was handed back to the British under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle of the previous year.[19] During the Company Raj[edit] See also: Company rule in India From 1774 until 1858, Madras
Madras
was a part of British India
British India
and was ruled by the British East India Company. The last quarter of the 18th century was a period of rapid expansion. Successful wars against Tipu Sultan (1782–99), Velu Thambi, Polygars and Ceylon
Ceylon
added vast areas of land and contributed to the exponential growth of the Presidency. Newly conquered Ceylon
Ceylon
formed part of the Madras
Madras
Presidency between 1793 and 1798.[20] The system of subsidiary alliances originated by Lord Wellesley as Governor-General of India
Governor-General of India
(1798–1805) also brought many princely states into the area militarily subordinate to the Governor of Fort St George.[21] The hill tracts of Ganjam
Ganjam
and Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
were the last places to be annexed by the British.[22] The period also witnessed a number of rebellions starting with the 1806 Vellore Mutiny.[23] The rebellion of Velu Thambi and Paliath Achan and the Poligar Wars were other notable insurrections against the British rule, but the Madras
Madras
Presidency remained relatively undisturbed by the Sepoy Mutiny
Sepoy Mutiny
of 1857.[24] The Madras
Madras
Presidency annexed the kingdom of Mysore
Mysore
in 1831 on allegations of maladministration[25] and restored it to Chamaraja Wodeyar (1881–94), the grandson and heir of the deposed Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar (1799–1868) in 1881. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
was annexed in 1855, following the death of Shivaji II (1832–1855) who left no male heir.[26] The Victorian era[edit] See also: British Raj In 1858, under the terms of Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Madras
Madras
Presidency, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown.[27] During the period of governor Lord Harris (1854–1859), measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers were given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act 1861.[28] The council was reformed and expanded under the Indian Councils Act 1892,[29] the Indian Councils Act 1909,[30][31] the Government of India Act 1919, and the Government of India Act 1935. V. Sadagopacharlu (1861–63) was the first Indian to be appointed to the council.[32] The legal profession was specially prized by the newly emerging corpus of educated Indians.[33] In 1877, T. Muthuswamy Iyer
T. Muthuswamy Iyer
became the first Indian judge of the Madras
Madras
High Court despite strong opposition from the Anglo-Indian
Anglo-Indian
media.[34][35][36] He also acted as the Chief Justice of the Madras
Madras
High Court for a few months in 1893, thereby becoming the first Indian to hold the post.[37] In 1906, C. Sankaran Nair became the first Indian to be appointed Advocate-General of the Madras Presidency. A number of roads, railways, dams and canals were constructed during this period.[35] Two large famines occurred in Madras
Madras
during this period, the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Indian famine of 1896–97.[38] As a result, the population of the Presidency fell for the first time from 31.2 million in 1871 to 30.8 million in 1881. These famines and alleged partiality shown by the government in handling the Chingleput Ryots' Case and the Salem riots trial caused discontent among the population.[39] Indian Independence Movement[edit] See also: Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
in Tamil Nadu

Annie Besant
Annie Besant
in 1922

A strong sense of national awakening emerged in the Madras
Madras
Presidency in the later half of the 19th century. The first political organisation in the province, the Madras
Madras
Native Association, was established by Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty
Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty
on 26 February 1852.[40] However, the organisation did not last long.[41] The Madras
Madras
Native Association was followed by the Madras
Madras
Mahajana Sabha which was started on 16 May 1884. Of the 72 delegates who participated in the first session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
at Bombay in December 1885, 22 hailed from the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[42][43] Most of the delegates were members of the Madras
Madras
Mahajana Sabha. The third session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
was held in Madras
Madras
in December 1887[44] and was a huge success attended by 362 delegates from the province.[45] Subsequent sessions of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
took place in Madras
Madras
in 1894, 1898, 1903 1908, 1914 and 1927.[46] Madam Blavatsky and Colonel H. S. Olcott moved the headquarters of the Theosophical Society
Theosophical Society
to Adyar in 1882.[47] The society's most prominent figure was Annie Besant, who founded the Home Rule League
Home Rule League
in 1916.[48] The Home Rule Movement was organised from Madras
Madras
and found extensive support in the Province. Nationalistic newspapers such as The Hindu, the Swadesamitran
Swadesamitran
and the Mathrubhumi
Mathrubhumi
actively endorsed the campaign for independence.[49] India's first trade union was established in Madras
Madras
in 1918 by V. Kalyanasundaram and B. P. Wadia.[50] Dyarchy
Dyarchy
(1920–37)[edit] Main article: Diarchy in Madras
Madras
Presidency

The non-Brahmin movement was started by C. Natesa Mudaliar
C. Natesa Mudaliar
(left) who founded the Justice Party in 1916 and Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy
Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy
(right), who founded the Self-Respect Movement
Self-Respect Movement
and took over the Justice party in 1944

A dyarchy was created in Madras
Madras
Presidency in 1920 as per the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
with provisions made for elections in the presidency.[51] Democratically elected governments would henceforth share power with the Governor's autocratic establishment. Following the first elections held in November 1920, the Justice Party, an organisation established in 1916 to campaign for increased representation of non- Brahmins
Brahmins
in the administration, came to power.[52] A. Subbarayalu Reddiar became the first Chief Minister of the Madras
Madras
Presidency but resigned soon after due to declining health and was replaced by P. Ramarayaningar, Minister of Local Self-Government and Public Health, popularly known as the Raja of Panagal.[53] The party split in late 1923 when C. R. Reddy resigned from primary membership and formed a splinter group allied with the opposition Swarajists. A motion of no-confidence was proposed against Ramarayaningar's government on 27 November 1923, but was defeated 65–44. Ramarayaningar remained in power until November 1926. The enactment in August 1921 of the first communal Government Order (G.O. No. 613), which introduced caste-based communal reservations in government jobs, remains one of the high points of his rule. In the following elections of 1926 the Justice Party lost. However, as no party was able to obtain a clear majority, the Governor, Lord Goschen, set up a cross-party government under the leadership of P. Subbarayan and nominated its supporting members.[54] In the election of 1930, the Justice Party was victorious, and P. Munuswamy Naidu became Chief Minister.[55] The exclusion of Zamindars
Zamindars
from the Ministry split the Justice Party once again. Fearing a no-confidence motion against him, Munuswamy Naidu resigned in November 1932 and the Raja of Bobbili was appointed Chief Minister in his place.[56] The Justice Party eventually lost the 1937 elections to the Indian National Congress, and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
became Chief Minister of Madras Presidency.[57] During the 1920s and 1930s, an Anti-Brahmin
Anti-Brahmin
movement emerged in the Madras
Madras
Presidency. It was launched by E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker
E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker
who, unhappy with the principles and policies of the Brahmin leadership of the provincial Congress, left the party to form the Self-Respect Movement. Periyar, as he was alternatively known, criticised Brahmins, Hinduism, and Hindu
Hindu
superstitions in periodicals and newspapers such as Viduthalai and Justice. He also participated in the Vaikom satyagraha, which campaigned for the right of untouchables in Travancore
Travancore
to enter temples.[58] Last days of British rule[edit]

The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
came to power for the first time in 1937 with Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
(pictured at a rally) as its Chief Minister

In 1937, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
was elected to power in the Presidency of Madras
Madras
for the first time.[57] Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was the first Chief Minister of the Presidency to come from the Congress party. He successfully enacted the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act[59] and introduced both prohibition[60] and sales taxes in the Madras
Madras
Presidency. His rule is largely remembered for the use of Hindi being made compulsory in educational institutions, a measure which made him highly unpopular as a politician[61][62] and sparked widespread Anti-Hindi agitations, which led to violence in some places. Over 1,200 men, women, and children were jailed for their participation in such Anti-Hindi agitations[63] while Thalamuthu and Natarasan died during the protests.[62] In 1940, Congressional ministers resigned in protest over the Government of India's declaration of war on Germany without their consent. The Governor of Madras, Sir Arthur Hope, took over the administration and the unpopular law was eventually repealed by him on 21 February 1940.[62] Most Congressional leadership and erstwhile ministers were arrested in 1942, as a result of their participation in the Quit India movement.[64] In 1944, Periyar renamed the Justice Party as Dravidar Kazhagam and withdrew it from electoral politics.[65] After the end of the Second World War, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
re-entered politics, and in the absence of any serious opposition it easily won the 1946 election.[66] Tanguturi Prakasam
Tanguturi Prakasam
was then elected as Chief Minister with the support of Kamaraj
Kamaraj
and served for eleven months. He was succeeded by O. P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar, who became the first Chief Minister of Madras
Madras
state when India gained independence on 15 August 1947.[67] The Madras
Madras
Presidency became the Madras State
Madras State
in independent India.[68] Geography[edit]

Madras
Madras
province (North), 1909

Madras
Madras
province (South), 1909

At its greatest extent, the Madras
Madras
Presidency included much of southern India. It included the present-day Indian State of Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region
Malabar region
of North Kerala, the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands, the Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
and Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
regions of Andhra Pradesh, the Ganjam, Gajapati, Rayagada, Koraput, Nabarangapur and Malkangiri districts of southern Odisha
Odisha
and the Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi
Udupi
districts of Karnataka
Karnataka
and the parts of Jayashankar Bhupalapalli, Bhadradri Kothagudem districts of Telangana. The presidency had its winter capital at Madras
Madras
and summer capital at Ootacamund.[69] Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Madras
Madras
Presidency

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1871 31,597,872 —    

1881 31,170,631 −1.4%

1891 35,630,440 +14.3%

1901 38,199,162 +7.2%

Sources:

[70]

In 1822, the Madras
Madras
Presidency underwent its first census, which returned a population of 13,476,923. A second census conducted between 1836 and 1837 recorded a population of 13,967,395, an increase of only 490,472 over 15 years. The first quinquennial population enumeration took place from 1851 until 1852. It returned a population of 22,031,697. Subsequent enumerations were made in 1851–52, 1856–57, 1861–62 and 1866–67. The population of Madras
Madras
Presidency was tallied at 22,857,855, 24,656,509 in 1861–62 and 26,539,052 in 1866–67.[71] The first organised census of India was conducted in 1871 and returned a population of 31,220,973 for the Madras Presidency.[72] Since then, a census has been conducted once every ten years. The last census of British India
British India
held in 1941 counted a population of 49,341,810 for the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[73] Languages[edit] See also: Dravidian languages

Linguistic map of the Madras
Madras
Presidency

The Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Odia, Tulu and English languages were all spoken in the Madras
Madras
Presidency. Tamil was spoken in the southern districts of the Presidency from a few miles north of Madras
Madras
city as far west as the Nilgiri hills and Western Ghats.[74] Telugu was spoken in the districts to the north of Madras
Madras
city and to the east of Bellary
Bellary
and Anantapur
Anantapur
districts.[74] In the district of South Kanara, the western part of Bellary
Bellary
and Anantapur
Anantapur
districts and parts of Malabar, Kannada
Kannada
was spoken.[75] Malayalam
Malayalam
was spoken in the districts of Malabar and South Kanara
Kanara
and the princely states of Travancore
Travancore
and Cochin, while Tulu was spoken in South Canara.[75] Oriya was spoken in the parts of the districts of then Ganjam
Ganjam
and Vizagapatam.[75] English was spoken by Anglo-Indians and Eurasians. It was also the link language for the Presidency and the official language of British India
British India
in which all government proceedings and court hearings were conducted.[76] According to the 1871 census, there were 14,715,000 people who spoke Tamil, 11,610,000 people who spoke Telugu, 2,324,000 people who spoke Malayalam, 1,699,000 spoke Canarese or Kannada, 640,000 people spoke Oriya and 29,400 people spoke Tulu.[77] The 1901 census returned 15,182,957 speakers of Tamil, 14,276,509 Telugu-speakers, 2,861,297 speakers of Malayalam, 1,518,579 were speakers of Kannada, 1,809,314 spoke Oriya, 880,145 spoke Hindusthani/Urdu and 1,680,635 spoke other languages.[78] At the time of Indian independence, Tamil and Telugu speakers made up over 78% of the total population of the presidency, with Kannada, Malayalam
Malayalam
and Tulu speakers making up the rest.[79] Religion[edit]

Vaishnavite
Vaishnavite
Brahmin students at a Gurukulam
Gurukulam
in Tanjore, c. 1909

A village shrine dedicated to Lord Ayyanar, c. 1911

Muhammadan
Muhammadan
boy, c. 1914

In 1901, the population breakdown was: Hindus (37,026,471), Muslims (2,732,931), and Christians (1,934,480). By the time of India's independence in 1947, Madras
Madras
had an estimated population of 49,799,822 Hindus, 3,896,452 Muslims and 2,047,478 Christians[80] Hinduism
Hinduism
was the predominant religion in the presidency and practised by around 88% of the population. The main Hindu
Hindu
denominations were Saivite, Vaishnavite
Vaishnavite
and Lingayat.[81] Among the Brahmins, the Smartha doctrine was quite popular.[82] Worship of village gods was strong in the southern districts of the presidency while the mathas at Kanchi, Sringeri
Sringeri
and Ahobilam
Ahobilam
were regarded as the centres of the Hindu
Hindu
faith. Of the Hindu
Hindu
temples, the largest and most important were the Venkateswara temple at Thirupathi, the Brihadeeswarar temple
Brihadeeswarar temple
at Tanjore, the Meenakshi Amman temple
Meenakshi Amman temple
at Madurai, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, the Krishna temple at Udupi
Udupi
and the Padmanabhaswamy temple
Padmanabhaswamy temple
in the princely state of Travancore. Islam was brought to the southern part of India by Arab traders although most converts were made from the 14th century onwards, when Malik Kafur conquered Madurai. Nagore
Nagore
was the holiest city for the Muslims of the Madras
Madras
Presidency. The presidency also had one of the oldest Christian populations in India. Branches of the Syrian church, contrary to historical evidence, are popularly believed to have been instituted by St. Thomas, an apostle of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
who visited the Malabar coast in 52 AD[83] Christians were mainly concentrated in the Tinnevely and Malabar districts of Madras
Madras
Presidency with native Christians forming over one–quarter of the total population of the princely state of Travancore.[84] Hill tribes of the Nilgiris, Palani and Ganjam
Ganjam
regions such as the Todas, Badagas, Kotas, Yerukalas and the Khonds, worshipped tribal gods and were often classified as Hindus. Until the early years of the 20th century, the Pallar, Paraiyar, Sakkiliar, Pulayar, Madiga, Izhava
Izhava
and Holeya Hindu
Hindu
communities were regarded as untouchable and were not allowed inside Hindu
Hindu
temples. However, along with the emancipation of Indian women and removal of social evils, untouchability was slowly eradicated through legislation and social reform. The Raja of Bobbili who served the Premier from 1932 to 1936, appointed untouchables to temple administration boards all over the presidency. In 1939, the Congress government of C. Rajagopalachari introduced the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act which removed all restrictions on untouchables entering Hindu
Hindu
temples.[59] Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
of Travancore
Travancore
had issued a similar had earlier introduced similar legislation, the Temple Entry Proclamation at the advice of his Diwan, Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Ayyar, in 1937.[85] In 1921 the Raja of Panagal's government passed the Hindu
Hindu
Religious Endowments Bill[86] that established government-controlled trusts in the Madras
Madras
Presidency to manage Hindu
Hindu
temples and prevent potential misuse of their funds.[86] The Raja of Bobbili also introduced reforms in the administration of the Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams, the trust which manages the Hindu
Hindu
temple at Tirupathi. Administration[edit] The Pitt's India Act
Pitt's India Act
of 1784 created an executive council with legislative powers to assist the Governor. The council initially consisted of four members, two of whom were from the Indian civil service or covenanted civil service and the third, an Indian of distinction.[87] The fourth was the Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
of the Madras Army.[88] The council was reduced to three members when the Madras Army was abolished in 1895.[88] The legislative powers of this council were withdrawn as per the Government of India Act 1833 and it was reduced to the status of a mere advisory body.[89] However, these powers were restored as per Indian Councils Act 1861.[89] The council was expanded from time to time through the inclusion of official and non-official members and served as the main legislative body till 1935, when a legislative assembly of a more representative nature was created and legislative powers were transferred to the assembly. On India's independence on 15 August 1947, the three-member Governor's executive council was abolished. The origins of Madras
Madras
Presidency lay in the village of Madraspatnam which was obtained in 1640.[90] This was followed by Fort St David which was acquired in 1690. Chingleput district, known as the "jaghire" of Chingleput, obtained in 1763, was the first district in the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[90] Salem and Malabar districts were obtained from Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
in 1792 as per the Treaty of Seringapatam
Treaty of Seringapatam
and Coimbatore
Coimbatore
and Kanara
Kanara
districts after the Fourth Mysore
Mysore
War in 1799.[91] The territories of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
Maratha
Maratha
kingdom were constituted as a separate district in 1799. In 1800, the districts of Bellary
Bellary
and Cuddapah were created out of the territory ceded by the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad.[90][92] In 1801, the districts of North Arcot, South Arcot, Nellore, Trichinopoly, Madura and Tinnevely
Tinnevely
were created out of the territories of the erstwhile Carnatic kingdom.[90] Trichinopoly district was made a sub-division of Tanjore
Tanjore
district in June 1805 and remained so till August 1808 when its status as a separate district was restored. The districts of Rajahmundry(Rajamahendravaram), Masulipatnam
Masulipatnam
and Guntur
Guntur
were created in 1823.[93] These three districts were reorganised in 1859 into two – the Godavari and Kistna districts.[93] Godavari district was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari districts in 1925. The Kurnool
Kurnool
kingdom was annexed in 1839 and was constituted as a separate district of the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[90] For administrative convenience, the district of Kanara
Kanara
was split into North and South Kanara
Kanara
in 1859. North Kanara
Kanara
was transferred to Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
in 1862. Between 1859–60 and 1870, the districts of Madras
Madras
and Chingleput were put together into a single district.[90] A separate Nilgiris district was carved out of Coimbatore
Coimbatore
district in 1868.[91] As of 1908, Madras Presidency was made up of 24 districts[88] each administered by a District Collector
District Collector
who was from the Indian Civil Service. The districts were sometimes sub-divided into divisions each under a Deputy Collector. The divisions were further sub-divided into taluks and union panchayats or village committees. Agencies were sometimes created in British India
British India
out of volatile, rebellion-prone areas of the Presidency. The two important agencies in the Madras
Madras
Presidency were the Vizagapatam Hill Tracts Agency which was subject to the District Collector of Vizagapatam and the Ganjam
Ganjam
Hill Tracts Agency subject to the District Collector
District Collector
of Ganjam. In 1936, the districts of Ganjam
Ganjam
and Vizagapatam (including the Vizagapatam and the Ganjam
Ganjam
agencies) were partitioned between Madras
Madras
and the newly created province of Orissa. There were five princely states subordinate to the Madras
Madras
government. They were Banganapalle, Cochin, Pudukkottai, Sandur, and Travancore.[94] All these states had a considerable degree of internal autonomy. However, their foreign policy was completely controlled by a Resident who represented the Governor of Fort St George.[95] In case of Banganapalle, the Resident was the District Collector
District Collector
of Kurnool, while the District Collector
District Collector
of Bellary[96] was the Resident of Sandur.[97] The Resident of Pudukkottai from 1800 to 1840 and 1865 to 1873, was the District Collector
District Collector
of Tanjore, from 1840 to 1865, the District Collector
District Collector
of Madura and from 1873 to 1947, the District Collector of Trichinopoly.[98] Army[edit]

A British officer in the Madras
Madras
Light Cavalry

Main article: Madras
Madras
Army The English East India Company
East India Company
was first permitted to set up its own garrison in 1665 to guard its settlements. Notable amongst the early operations of the Company's forces were the defence of the city from Mughal and Maratha
Maratha
invaders and from the incursions of the Nawab
Nawab
of Carnatic. In 1713, the Madras
Madras
forces under Lieutenant John de Morgan distinguished themselves in the siege of Fort St David
Fort St David
and in putting down Richard Raworth's Rebellion.[99] When Joseph François Dupleix, the Governor of French India, began to raise native battalions in 1748, the British of Madras
Madras
followed suit and established the Madras
Madras
Regiment.[100] Though native regiments were subsequently established by the British in other parts of India, the distances that separated the three presidencies resulted in each force developing divergent principles and organisations. The first reorganisation of the army took place in 1795, when the Madras
Madras
army was reconstituted into the following units:

European Infantry – Two battalions of ten companies Artillery – Two European battalions of five companies each, with fifteen companies of lascars Native Cavalry – Four regiments Native Infantry – Eleven regiments of two battalions[101]

A Jamadar of the 20th Deccan Horse

In 1824, a second reorganisation took place, whereupon the double battalions were abolished and the existing battalions were renumbered. The Madras
Madras
Army at the time consisted of one European and one native brigade of horse artillery, three battalions of foot artillery of four companies each, with four companies of lascars attached, three regiments of light cavalry, two corps of pioneers, two battalions of European infantry, 52 battalions of native infantry and three local battalions.[102][103] Between 1748 and 1895, as with the Bengal and Bombay armies, the Madras
Madras
Army had its own Commander-in-Chief who was subordinate to the president, and later to the Governor of Madras. By custom the Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
of the Madras
Madras
Army was a member of the Governor's Executive Council. The army's troops participated in the conquest of Manila in 1762,[104] the 1795 expeditions against Ceylon
Ceylon
and the Dutch as well as the conquest of the Spice Islands in the same year. They also took part in expeditions against Mauritius
Mauritius
(1810), Java (1811),[105] the wars against Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
and the Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
of the 18th century, the British attack on Cuttack
Cuttack
dring the Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War,[106] the Siege of Lucknow
Siege of Lucknow
during the Indian Mutiny, and the invasion of Upper Burma during the Third Anglo-Burmese War.[107] The 1857 Mutiny, which quickly led to drastic changes in the Bengal and Bombay armies, had no effect on the Madras
Madras
Army. In 1895, the presidency armies were finally merged and the Madras
Madras
regiments came under the direct control of the Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
of British India.[108] The Madras
Madras
Army relied heavily on the Moplahs of Malabar and on soldiers from Kodagu, at that time known as Coorg.[107] Land tenure[edit]

Statue of Sir Thomas Munro who introduced the " Ryotwari System" in the Madras
Madras
Presidency

See also: List of zamindari estates in Madras
Madras
Presidency Revenue from land rental as well as an income tax based on the tenant's net profits from their land was the presidency's main source of income. In ancient times, land appears to have been held in common with an individual unable to sell it without the consent of the other owners, who in most cases were members of the same community.[109] Prior to the arrival of the British, the concept of individual proprietorship of land had already emerged along India's west coast[110] such that the new administration's land revenue system was not markedly different from that of its predecessor.[111] Nevertheless, landlords never sold land without the consent of other members of the community.[110] This communistic property rights system was known as kaniachi among the Vellalars, swastium among the Brahmins
Brahmins
and mirasi among Muslims and Christians.[110] In the Tanjore
Tanjore
district, all mirasi in the village were vested in a single individual who was called the Ekabhogam.[110] The mirasidars were required to donate a certain amount of money known as mirei to the village administration.[110] They also paid a specified sum to the Government. In return, the mirasidars demanded non-interference by the government in the internal affairs of the villages.[112] The proprietary system was entirely different in the district of Malabar and the states of Cochin and Travancore
Travancore
where communal ownership of land did not exist.[113] Instead, land was individual property mostly owned by the landowning gentry, to wit the Namboodiri and Nair
Nair
people, who did not have to pay land-tax and held extensive freeholds of land rented to tenants for agricultural puroposes. In return the Nairs supplied the king with fighting men in times of war while the Namboodhiris managed the upkeep of Hindu
Hindu
temples. These landlords were somewhat self-sufficient and had their own police and judicial systems such that the personal expenses of the Raja were minimal.[113] However, landlords lost their exemption from the taxes on land if they disposed of it[114] meaning that mortgage of land was more common than sale. Individual propreitorship of land was also common in the Telugu-speaking areas of the Presidency.[115] The chieftains of the Telugu-speaking districts had more or less maintained an independent existence for a long time,[115] furnishing the sovereign with armies and equipment in times of war. In return, their right to revenues from land remained unmolested.[115] During the time of the British, most of land in the northern districts of the Presidency were parcelled out among these petty "Rajahs".[115] Islamic invasions caused minor changes in the land proprietorship system when taxes on Hindu
Hindu
land owners were raised and private ownership of property came down.[116] When the British took over administration, the centuries-old system of land proprietorship was left intact.[117] The new rulers appointed middlemen to collect revenue for lands which were not under the control of local zamindars. In most cases, these go-betweens ignored the welfare of the farmers and exploited them to the full.[117] A Board of Revenue was established in 1786 to solve the issue but to no avail.[118] At the same time, the zamindari settlement established in Bengal by Lord Cornwallis proved highly successful and was later implemented in the Madras
Madras
Presidency from 1799 onwards.[119] However, the Permanent Settlement was not as successful as it had been in Bengal. When the Company did not reach the expected profit levels, a new system known as the "Village Settlement" was implemented between 1804 and 1814 in the districts of Tinnevely, Trichinopoly, Coimbatore, North Arcot and South Arcot. This involved the leasing of land to the principal cultivators, who in turn leased the land to ryots, or peasant farmers. However, as a village settlement had few differences compared to a permanent settlement, it was eventually discarded. In its place came the " Ryotwari Settlement" implemented by Sir Thomas Munro between 1820 and 1827. According to the new system, land was handed over directly to the ryots who paid their rent directly to the government. The land was assessed and paid revenue fixed by the Government This system had a number of advantages as well as disadvantages for the ryots. In 1833, Lord William Bentinck implemented a new system called the "Mahalwari" or village system under which landlords as well as ryots entered into a contract with the Government.[120][121] By the early 20th century, the greater part of the land was held by ryots who paid rent directly to the Government. Zamindari estates occupied about 26 million acres (110,000 km2), more than one-quarter of the whole presidency. The peshkash, or tribute, payable to the government in perpetuity was about £330,000 a year. Inams, revenue-free or quit-rent grants of lands made for religious endowments or for services rendered to the state, occupied an aggregate area of nearly 8 million acres (32,000 km2).[122] In 1945–46, there were 20,945,456 acres (84,763.25 km2) of Zamindari estates yielding revenues of ₹9,783,167 and 58,904,798 acres (238,379.26 km2) of ryotwari lands which produced ₹72,665,330.[123] Madras
Madras
had forest coverage of 15,782 square miles (40,880 km2).[124] The Land Estates Act of 1908 was passed by the Madras
Madras
Government in order to protect cultivators in Zamindaris from exploitation. Under the act, ryots were made permanent occupants of the land.[125] However, far from protecting the ryots, the legislation proved to be detrimental to the interests of the cultivators in the Oriya-speaking northern districts of the presidency[126] who were the intended beneficiaries, as it tied the cultivator to his land and landlord with the chains of eternal serfdom. In 1933, an amendment to the Act was introduced by the Raja of Bobbili to curb the rights of Zamindars
Zamindars
and safeguard the cultivators from exploitation. This act was passed in the legislative council despite strong opposition from the Zamindars. Agriculture and irrigation[edit]

A 1936 map of rice stations in Madras
Madras
Presidency

Almost 71% of the population of Madras
Madras
Presidency was engaged in agriculture[127][128] with the agricultural year usually commencing on 1 July.[129] Crops cultivated in the Madras
Madras
Presidency included cereals such as rice, corn, kambhu (Indian millet) and ragi as well as[130] vegetables including brinjal, sweet potato, ladies' fingers, beans, onions, garlic[131] and spices such as chilli, pepper and ginger along with vegetable oils made from castor beans and peanuts.[132] Fruits cultivated included lime, banana jackfruit, cashew nuts, mangos, custard apples and papayas.[133] In addition, cabbages, cauliflowers, pomelos, peaches, betel pepper, niger seed and millet were introduced from Asia, Africa or Europe,[130] while grapes were introduced from Australia.[134] The total cultivated area used for food crops was 80% and for cash crops, 15%.[135] Of the gross area, rice occupied 26.4 percent; kambhu, 10 percent; ragi, 5.4 percent and Cholam, 13.8 percent.[135] Cotton occupied 1,740,000 acres (7,000 km2), oilseeds, 2.08 million, spices,0.4 million and indigo, 0.2 million.[135] In 1898, Madras
Madras
produced 7.47 million tons of food grains from 21,570,000 acres (87,300 km2) of crops grown on 19,300,000 acres (78,000 km2) of ryotwari and inam lands, which supported a population of 28 million.[128] The rice yield was 7 to 10 cwt. per acre, the cholam yields were 3.5 to 6.25 cwt. per acre, khambu, 3.25 to 5 cwt. per acre and ragi, 4.25 to 5 cwt. per acre.[135] The average gross turnout for food crops was 6.93 cwt. per acre.[128]

The Mullaperiyar Dam
Mullaperiyar Dam
was constructed across the Periyar river
Periyar river
for power generation

Irrigation along the east coast is carried out mostly by means of dams across rivers, lakes and irrigation tanks. The main source of water for agriculture in the Coimbatore
Coimbatore
district were tanks.[134] The Land Improvement and Agriculturists Loan Act passed in 1884 provided funds for the construction of wells and their utilisation in reclamation projects.[136] In the early part of the 20th century, the Madras
Madras
government established the Pumping and Boring Department to drill boreholes with electric pumps.[133] The Mettur Dam,[137] the Periyar Project, the Cudappah- Kurnool
Kurnool
canal and the Rushikulya Project were the biggest irrigation projects launched by the Madras Government. Constructed below the Hogenakkal Falls
Hogenakkal Falls
on the Madras- Mysore
Mysore
border in 1934, the Mettur Dam
Mettur Dam
supplied water to the western districts of the Presidency. The Periyar Dam (now known as the Mullaperiyar Dam) was constructed across the Periyar river
Periyar river
in Travancore, near the border.[138] This project diverted the waters of the Periyar river
Periyar river
to the Vaigai River basin in order to irrigate the arid lands to the east of the Western Ghats.[138] Similarly, the Rushikulya Project was launched to utilise the waters of the Rushikulya river in Ganjam.[139] Under the scheme over 142,000 acres (570 km2) of land were brought under irrigation.[139] The British also constructed a number of dams and canals for irrigation. An upper dam was constructed across the Kollidam river near Srirangam island.[140] The Dowlaishwaram dam across the Godavari river, the Gunnavaram aqueduct across the Vaineteyam Godavari, the Kurnool-Cuddapah canal[128] and the Krishna dam are examples of major irrigation works carried out by the British.[139][140] In 1946–47, the total area under irrigation was 9,736,974 acres (39,404.14 km2) acres which yielded a return of 6.94% on capital outlay.[141] Trade, industry and commerce[edit]

The port of Tuticorin

Textile showroom of M. V. Cunniah Chetty and Sons, circa 1914

Weaving on Handlooms, c. 1913

Parry & Co. sugar refineries at Samalkota, c. 1914

Workshops of the Madras
Madras
Automobiles Ltd., c. 1904

The trade of the Madras
Madras
Presidency comprised that of both the Presidency with other Provinces and its overseas trade. External trade made up 93 percent of the total with internal trade making up the remainder.[142] Foreign trade accounted for 70 percent of the total while 23 percent was inter-provincial.[142] In 1900–01, imports from other provinces of British India
British India
amounted to ₹13.43 crores while exports to other provinces amounted to ₹11.52 crores. During the same year, exports to other countries reached ₹11.74 crores while imports were valued at ₹66.2 million.[143] At the time of India's independence, imports of the Presidency amounted to ₹71.32 crores a year while exports were valued at ₹645.1 million.[141] Trade with the United Kingdom made up 31.54% of the total trade of the Presidency with Madras
Madras
the chief port accounting for 49% of the total trade.[141] Cotton piece-goods, cotton twist and yarn, metals and kerosene oil were the main items of import while animal hides and skins, raw cotton, coffee and piece-goods were the chief exports.[142] Raw cotton, animal hides, oil seeds, grains, pulses, coffee, tea and cotton manufactures were the main items of sea trade.[144] Most of the sea trade was carried through the presidency's principal port of Madras. Other important ports were Gopalpur, Kalingapatnam, Bimlipatnam, Visakhapatnam, Masulipatnam, Cocanada, Madras, Cuddalore, Negapatam, Pamban and Tuticorin
Tuticorin
on the east coast along with Mangalore, Cannanore, Calicut, Tellicherry, Cochin, Alleppey, Quilon(Coulão) and Colachel on the western seaboard.[145] The port of Cochin was taken over by the Government of India on 1 August 1936, and that of Madras
Madras
on 1 April 1937.[141] There were Chambers of Commerce in Madras, Cochin and Cocanada.[146] These chambers each nominated a member to the Madras
Madras
Legislative Council.[146] Cotton-ginning and weaving were two of the main industries in the Madras
Madras
Presidency. Cotton was produced in large quantities in the Bellary
Bellary
district and was pressed in Georgetown, Madras.[147] The scarcity of cotton in Lancashire caused by a decline in trade due to the American Civil War
American Civil War
gave an impetus to cotton and textile production and led to cotton presses being established all over the Presidency.[147] In the early years of the 20th century, Coimbatore emerged as an important centre for cotton textiles and earned the epithet "Manchester of South India". The northern districts of Godavari, Vizagapatam and Kistna were well-known cotton-weaving centres. There was a sugar factory at Aska in Ganjam
Ganjam
run by F. J. V. Minchin and another at Nellikuppam in South Arcot district run by the East India Distilleries and Sugar Factories Company.[148] In the Telugu-speaking northern districts of the presidency large quantities of tobacco were cultivated to be subsequently rolled into cheroots.[149] Trichinopoly, Madras
Madras
and Dindigul were the main cheroot-producing areas.[149] Until the discovery of artificial aniline and alizarine dyes, Madras
Madras
possessed a thriving vegetable dye manufacturing industry.[149] The city also imported large quantities of aluminium for the manufacture of aluminium utensils.[150] In the early 20th century, the government established the Chrome Tanning Factory which manufactured high-quality leather.[151] The first brewery in the Presidency was founded in the Nilgiri Hills in 1826.[151] Coffee was cultivated in the region of Wynad
Wynad
and the kingdoms of Coorg
Coorg
and Mysore[152] while tea was grown on the slopes of the Nilgiri Hills.[153] Coffee plantations were also established in Travancore
Travancore
but a severe blight at the end of the 19th century destroyed coffee cultivation in the kingdom and almost wiped out coffee plantations in neighbouring Wynad.[152] Coffee-curing works were located at Calicut, Tellicherry, Mangalore
Mangalore
and Coimbatore.[153] In 1947, Madras
Madras
had 3,761 factories with 276,586 operatives.[141] The presidency's fishing industry thrived, with Shark's fins,[154] fish maws[154] and fish curing-operations[155] the main sources of income for fishermen. The southern port of Tuticorin
Tuticorin
was a centre of conch-fishing[156] but Madras, along with Ceylon, was mainly known for its pearl fisheries.[157] Pearl fisheries were harvested by the Paravas
Paravas
and was a lucrative profession. The total revenue of the Presidency was ₹57 crores in 1946–47 made as follows: Land revenue, ₹8.53 crores; Excise, ₹14.68 crores; Income tax, ₹4.48 crores; Stamp revenue, ₹4.38 crores; forests, ₹1.61 crores; other taxes, ₹8.45 crores; Extraordinary receipts, ₹2.36 crores and revenue fund, Rs.5.02 crores. Total expenditure for 1946–47 was ₹569.9 million.[141] 208,675 k.v.a of electricity was generated at the end of 1948 of which 98% was under government ownership.[141] The total amount of power generated was 467 million units.[141] The Madras
Madras
Stock Exchange was established in Madras
Madras
city in 1920 with a strength of 100 members but gradually faded away and membership had reduced to three by 1923 when it had to be closed down.[158] Nevertheless, the Madras
Madras
Stock Exchange was successfully revived in September 1937 and was incorporated as the Madras
Madras
Stock Exchange Association Limited.[159] EID Parry, Binny and Co. and Arbuthnot Bank were the largest private-owned business corporations at the turn of the 20th century.[160] EID Parry
EID Parry
manufactured and sold chemical fertilizers and sugar while the Binnys marketed cotton garments and uniforms manufactured at its spinning and weaving facility, the Buckingham and Carnatic Mills in Otteri.[160][161][162] Arbuthnot, owned by the Arbuthnot family, was the largest bank in the Presidency until its crash in 1906.[163] Reduced to penury, disillusioned former Indian investors established the Indian Bank
Indian Bank
with funds donated by Nattukottai Chetties.[164][165] Between 1913 and 1914, Madras
Madras
had 247 companies.[166] In 1947, the city led in the establishment of registered factories but employed only 62% of the total productive capital.[166] The first Western-style banking institution in India was the Madras Bank which was established on 21 June 1683, with a capital of one hundred thousand pounds sterling.[167] This was followed by the opening of the Carnatic Bank in 1788, the Bank of Madras
Madras
in 1795 and the Asiatic Bank in 1804. In 1843, all the banks were merged to form the Bank of Madras.[167] The Bank of Madras
Madras
had branches in all the presidency's major cities and princely states including Coimbatore, Mangalore, Calicut, Tellicherry, Alleppy, Cocanada, Guntur, Masulipatnam, Ootacamund, Negapataam, Tuticorin, Bangalore, Cochin and Colombo
Colombo
in Ceylon. In 1921, the Bank of Madras
Madras
merged with the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Bengal to form the Imperial Bank of India.[168] In the 19th century, the Arbuthnot Bank was one of the largest privately owned banks in the Presidency.[163] The City Union Bank,[169] the Indian Bank,[169] Canara Bank,[169] Corporation Bank,[169] Nadar Bank,[170] Karur Vysya Bank,[171] Catholic Syrian Bank,[171] Karnataka
Karnataka
Bank,[171] Bank of Chettinad,[172] Andhra Bank,[173] Vysya Bank,[173] Vijaya Bank,[171] Indian Overseas Bank[174] and the Bank of Madura were some of the leading banks headquartered in the Presidency. Transport and communication[edit]

Map of the Madras
Madras
and South Mahratta Railway lines

In the early days of the agency, the only means of transportation were bullock-carts known as jhatkas along with palanquins.[175] The roads connecting Madras
Madras
to Calcutta
Calcutta
in the north and the kingdom of Travancore
Travancore
in the south served as lines of communication during wars.[175] From the early 20th century onwards, bullock-carts and horses were gradually replaced by bicycles and motor vehicles, while motor buses were the main means of private road transportation.[176] Presidency Transport and the City Motor Service were pioneers, operating buses manufactured by Simpson and Co. as early as 1910.[176] The first organised bus system in Madras
Madras
city was operated by Madras Tramways Corporation between 1925 and 1928.[176] The 1939 Motor Vehicles Act imposed restrictions on public-owned bus and motor services. Most of the early bus services were operated by private agencies.

The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, an UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Pamban railway bridge, which connects the Pamban island
Pamban island
with the Indian mainland was constructed in 1914

A backwater and canal in Malabar, c. 1913

The first organised initiative for the construction of new roads and maintenance of existing roads in the Presidency was initiated in 1845 with the appointment of a special officer for the maintenance of main roads.[177] The principal roads under the aegis of the officer were the Madras-Bangalore road, Madras-Trichinopoly road, Madras-Calcutta road, Madras-Cuddapah road and the Sumpajee Ghaut road.[177] A Public Works Department was initiated by Lord Dalhousie in 1852 and subsequently in 1855 an East coast canal was constructed for the purpose of easy navigation.[177] Roadways were handled by the Public Works Secretariat which was under the control of the member of the Governor's Executive Council. The principal highways of the Presidency were the Madras- Calcutta
Calcutta
road, the Madras- Travancore
Travancore
road and the Madras-Calicut road.[178] By 1946–47, the Madras
Madras
Presidency had 26,201 miles (42,166 km) of metalled roads and 14,406 miles (23,184 km) of unmetalled roads, and 1,403 miles (2,258 km) of navigable canals.[141] The first railway line in South India was laid between Madras
Madras
and Arcot, which was opened for traffic on 1 July 1856.[179] The line was constructed by the Madras
Madras
Railway Company formed in 1845.[179] The railway station at Royapuram, the first in South India, was built in 1853 and served as the headquarters of the Madras
Madras
Railway Company.[179] The Great Southern Indian Railway Company was set up in the United Kingdom in 1853.[179] and had its headquarters at Trichinopoly where it constructed its first railway line between Trichinopoly and Negapatam in 1859.[179] The Madras
Madras
Railway Company operated standard or broad-gauge railway lines while the Great South Indian Railway Company operated metre-gauge railway lines.[180] In 1874, The Great Southern Indian Railway Company merged with the Carnatic Railway Company (established in 1864) and was renamed the Southern Indian Railway Company.[181] The Southern Indian Railway Company merged with the Pondicherry Railway Company in 1891 while the Madras
Madras
Railway Company merged with the Southern Mahratta Railway Company in 1908 to form the Madras
Madras
and South Mahratta Railway Company.[179] A new terminus was built at Egmore
Egmore
for the Madras
Madras
and South Mahratta Railway Company.[179] In 1927, the South Indian Railway Company shifted its headquarters from Madurai
Madurai
to Chennai
Chennai
Central. The company operated a suburban electric train service for Madras
Madras
city from May 1931 onwards.[181] In April 1944, the Madras
Madras
and South Mahratta Railway Company was taken over by the Madras
Madras
Government. In 1947, there were 4,961 miles (7,984 km) of railway in the Presidency, in addition to 136 miles (219 km) of district board lines.[141] Madras
Madras
was well-connected with other Indian cities like Bombay and Calcutta
Calcutta
and with Ceylon.[182] The 6,776-foot (2,065 m) Pamban railway bridge connecting Mandapam
Mandapam
on the Indian mainland with Pamban island
Pamban island
was opened for traffic in 1914.[183] The Nilgiri Mountain Railway
Nilgiri Mountain Railway
was inaugurated between Mettupalayam and Ootacamund
Ootacamund
in 1899. The Madras
Madras
Tramways Corporation was promoted in Madras
Madras
city in 1892 by Hutchinsons and Co. and began operating in 1895, before even London had its own tramway system.[176] It plied six routes in Madras
Madras
linking distant parts of Madras
Madras
city and covered a total of 17 miles (27 km).[176] The chief navigable waterways in the presidency were the canals in the Godavari and the Kistna deltas.[178] The Buckingham canal
Buckingham canal
was cut in 1806 at a cost of 90 lakhs of silver[184] to connect the city of Madras
Madras
with the delta of the Kistna river at Peddaganjam. Ships of the British India
British India
Steam Navigation Company frequently docked at Madras
Madras
and provided frequent services to Bombay, Calcutta, Colombo
Colombo
and Rangoon.[184] In 1917, Simpson and Co. arranged for a test flight by the first aeroplane in Madras[185] while a flying club was established at the Mount Golf Club grounds near St Thomas Mount
St Thomas Mount
by a pilot named G. Vlasto in October 1929.[186] This site was later used as the Madras aerodrome.[186] One of the early members of the club, Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar went on to establish an aerodrome in his native Chettinad.[186] On 15 October 1932, Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
pilot Nevill Vintcent piloted J. R. D. Tata's plane carrying air-mail from Bombay to Madras
Madras
via Bellary.[187] This was the beginning of Tata Sons' regular domestic passenger and airmail service from Karachi to Madras. The flight was later re-routed through Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and became bi-weekly.[187] On 26 November 1935, Tata Sons started an experimental weekly service from Bombay to Trivandrum via Goa and Cannanore. From 28 February 1938, onwards, Tata Sons' Aviation division, now renamed Tata Airlines, began a Karachi to Colombo
Colombo
airmail service via Madras and Trichinopoly.[187] On 2 March 1938, the Bombay-Trivandrum air service was extended to Trichinopoly.[187] The first organised postal service was established between Madras
Madras
and Calcutta
Calcutta
by Governor Edward Harrison in 1712. After reform and regularisation, a new postal system was started by Sir Archibald Campbell and was introduced on 1 June 1786. The Presidency was divided into three postal divisions: Madras
Madras
North up to Ganjam, Madras South-West to Anjengo (erstwhile Travancore) and Madras
Madras
West, up to Vellore. In the same year, a link with Bombay was established then in 1837, the Madras, Bombay and Calcutta
Calcutta
mail services were integrated to form the All-India Service. On 1 October 1854, the first stamps were issued by the Imperial Postal Service. The General Post Office (GPO), Madras, was established by Sir Archibald Campbell
Sir Archibald Campbell
in 1786. In 1872–73, a bimonthly sea-mail service began between Madras
Madras
and Rangoon. This was followed by the commencement of a fortnightly sea-mail service between Madras
Madras
and ports on the eastern coast. Madras
Madras
was linked to the rest of the world through telegraphs in 1853 and a civilian telegraph service was introduced on 1 February 1855. Soon afterwards, telegraph lines linked Madras
Madras
and Ootacamund
Ootacamund
with other cities in India. A Telegraph department was set up in 1854, with a Deputy Superintendent stationed in Madras
Madras
city. The Colombo- Talaimannar
Talaimannar
telegraph line established in 1858, was extended to Madras
Madras
in 1882, thereby connecting the city with Ceylon.[188] Telephones were introduced in the presidency in 1881 and on 19 November 1881, the first telephone exchange with 17 connections was established at Errabalu Street in Madras.[189] A wireless telgraphy service was established between Madras
Madras
and Port Blair in 1920 and in 1936, the Indo-Burma radio telephone service was established between Madras
Madras
and Rangoon. Education[edit] The first schools offering Western-style education in the presidency were established in Madras[190] during the 18th century. In 1822, a Board of Public Instruction was created based on the recommendations of Sir Thomas Munro, after which schools teaching students in vernacular language was established.[191] A central training school was set up in Madras
Madras
as per Munro's scheme.[191] However, this system appeared to be a failure and the policy was altered in 1836 in order to promote European literature and science.[191] The Board of Public Instruction was superseded by a Committee for Native Education.[192] In January 1840, during the viceroyalty of Lord Ellenborough, a University Board was established with Alexander J. Arbuthnot as the Joint Director of Public Instruction.[193] The central school was converted to a high school in April 1841 with 67 students and in 1853 became the Presidency College with the addition of a college department.[192][193] On 5 September 1857, the University of Madras was established as an examining body using the University of London
University of London
as a model with the first examinations held in February 1858.[193] C. W. Thamotharam Pillai and Caroll V. Visvanatha Pillai of Ceylon
Ceylon
were the first to graduate from the University.[193] Sir S. Subramaniya Iyer was the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of the University.[193] Similarly, Andhra University
Andhra University
was established by the Andhra University Act of 1925[194] and in 1937, the University of Travancore
Travancore
was established in the princely state of Travancore.[195] The Government Arts College, established in Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
in 1867, was one of the first educational institutions outside Madras.[196] The oldest engineering college in the presidency, College of Engineering, Guindy, was established as a Government Survey School in 1794 before being upgraded to an Engineering College in 1861.[197] Initially, only Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering
was taught,[197] with the further disciplines of Mechanical Engineering added in 1894, Electrical Engineering in 1930 and Telecommunication and Highways in 1945.[198] The AC College, with its emphasis on textiles and leather technology, was founded by Alagappa Chettiar in 1944.[199] The Madras
Madras
Institute of Technology, which introduced courses such as aeronautical and automobile engineering was established in 1949.[199] In 1827, the first medical school in the Presidency was established then followed by the Madras Medical College in 1835.[200] The Government Teacher's College was established at Saidapet
Saidapet
in 1856.[201] Among the private institutions, the Pachaiyappa's College, established in 1842, is the oldest Hindu
Hindu
educational institution in the presidency. The Annamalai University, established by Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar in Chidambaram in 1929, was the first university in the presidency to have hostel facilities[202] Christian missionaries were pioneers in promoting education in the region. The Madras Christian College, St. Aloysius College at Mangalore, Loyola College in Madras
Madras
and the St. Peter's College at Tanjore
Tanjore
were some of the educational institutions established by Christian missionaries. The Madras
Madras
Presidency had the highest literacy rate of all the provinces in British India.[203] In 1901, Madras
Madras
had a male literacy rate of 11.9 percent and a female literacy rate of 0.9 percent.[204] In 1950, when the Madras
Madras
Presidency became Madras
Madras
State, the literacy rate was slightly higher than the national average of 18 percent.[205] In 1901, there were 26,771 public and private institutions with 923,760 scholars of whom 784,621 were male and 139,139 female.[206] By 1947, the number of educational institutions had increased to 37,811 and the number of scholars to 3,989,686.[79] Apart from colleges, in 1947 there were 31,975 public and elementary schools, 720 secondary schools for boys and 4,173 elementary and 181 secondary schools for girls.[79] Most of the early graduates were Brahmins.[33][50] The preponderance of Brahmins
Brahmins
in the universities and in the civic administration was one of the main causes for the growth of the Anti-Brahmin
Anti-Brahmin
movement in the presidency. Madras
Madras
was also the first province in British India
British India
where caste-based communal reservations were introduced. In 1923, the Madras
Madras
University Act was passed after its introduction by Education Minister A. P. Patro.[194] Under the bill's provisions, the governing body of Madras
Madras
University was completely reorganised on democratic lines. The bill asserted that the governing body would henceforth be headed by a Chancellor who would be assisted by a pro-Chancellor, usually the Minister of Education. Apart from the Chancellor and the pro-Chancellor who were elected, there was to be a Vice-Chancellor appointed by the Chancellor.[194] Culture and society[edit] Hindus, Muslims and Christians generally followed a joint family system.[207][208] The society was largely patriarchal with the eldest male member the leader of the family.[208] Most of the presidency followed a patrilineal system of inheritance.[209] The only exceptions were the district of Malabar and the princely states of Travancore
Travancore
and Cochin which practised the marumakkathayam system.[210] Women were expected to confine themselves to indoor activities and the maintenance of the household. Muslims and high-caste Hindu
Hindu
women observed purdah.[207] The daughter in the family rarely received an education and usually helped her mother with household chores.[211] Upon marrying, she moved to the house of her in-laws where she was expected to serve her husband and the elder members of his family.[212][213] There have been recorded instances of torture and ill treatment of daughters-in-law.[212][213] A Brahmin widow was expected to shave her head and was subjected to numerous indignities.[214][215] Rural society comprised villages where people of different communities lived together. Brahmins
Brahmins
lived in separate streets called agraharams. Untouchables lived outside village limits in small hamlets called cheris and were strictly forbidden from having houses in the village.[216] They were also forbidden from entering important Hindu temples or approaching high-caste Hindus.[217][218] Serfdom was practised in almost all castes from Brahmins
Brahmins
to non- Brahmins
Brahmins
subjecting agricultural labourers to bondage for non-payment of debt.[219] The Law Commission report on slavery in 1841 contains the indicative figures on the number of slaves, computed based on the population of specific castes of Pallar and Paraiyar.[220] There were proposed regulations in 1811 and 1823 to prevent child labour.[221] In 1833, the British Crown and the House of Commons proposed immediate abolotion of slavery in India, but East India Company decreed otherwise.[222] All legal recognition to permit the civil status of slavery were withdrawn with the Act V of 1843 and selling of slaves became a criminal offence in 1862 under the new Indian Penal Code.[223] In spite of these regulations, serfdom continued and the slave population formed 12.2% – 20% of the total population in 1930 across various districts of the Presidency.[224] With the influx of Western education starting from the middle of the 19th century, social reforms were introduced to remove the problems of traditional Indian society. The Malabar Marriage Act of 1896 recognised sambandham contracts as legal marriages while the marmakkathayam system was abolished by the Marmakkathayam Law of 1933.[225] Numerous measures were taken to improve the lot of Dalit outcasts. The Thirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams Act (1933), included Dalits in the devasthanams administration. The presidemcy's Temple Entry Authorization Act (1939)[59] and its Temple Entry Proclamation (1936) of Travancore
Travancore
were aimed at elevating the status of Dalit
Dalit
and other low castes to a position equal to that of high-caste Hindus. In 1872, T. Muthuswamy Iyer
T. Muthuswamy Iyer
established the Widow Remarriage Association in Madras
Madras
and advocated the remarriage of Brahmin widows.[226] The devadasi system was regulated in 1927 and completely abolished on 26 November 1947.[227] The Widow Remarriage movement was spearheaded in the Godavari district by Kandukuri Veeresalingam.[228] Most of the pioneers of social reform were Indian nationalists.[229][230] Traditional pastimes and forms of recreation in rural areas were cock-fighting, bull-fighting, village fairs and plays.[231] Men in urban areas indulged in social and communistic activities at recreational clubs, music concerts or sabhas, dramas and welfare organisations. Carnatic music
Carnatic music
and bharatanatyam were especially patronised by the upper and upper-middle class Madras
Madras
society. Of the sports introduced by the British in the presidency, cricket, tennis, football and hockey were the most popular. An annual cricket tournament, known as the Madras
Madras
Presidency Matches, was held between Indians and Europeans during Pongal.[232] The presidency's first newspaper, the Madras
Madras
Courier, was started on 12 October 1785, by Richard Johnston, a printer employed by the British East India Company.[233] The first Indian-owned English-language newspaper was The Madras
Madras
Crescent which was established by freedom-fighter Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty
Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty
in October 1844.[234] Lakshminarasu Chetty is also credited with the foundation of the Madras
Madras
Presidency Association which was a forerunner of the Indian National Congress. The number of newspapers and periodicals published in the presidency totalled 821 in 1948. The two most popular English-language newspapers were The Hindu
The Hindu
established by G. Subramania Iyer in 1878, and The Mail,[189] established as the Madras Times by the Gantz family in 1868.[235] Regular radio service in the presidency commenced in 1938 when All India Radio established a station in Madras.[236] Cinemas became popular in the 1930s and 1940s with the first film in a South Indian language, R. Nataraja Mudaliar's Tamil film Keechaka Vadham, released in 1916. The first sound films in Tamil and Telugu were made in 1931 while the first Kannada
Kannada
talkie Sati Sulochana was made in 1934 and the first Malayalam
Malayalam
talkie Balan in 1938.[237] There were film studios at Coimbatore,[238] Salem,[239] Madras
Madras
and Karaikudi.[240] Most early films were made in Coimbatore
Coimbatore
and Salem[238][239] but from the 1940s onwards, Madras
Madras
began to emerge as the principal centre of film production.[238][240] Until the 1950s, most films in Telugu,[241] Kannada[242] and Malayalam[243] were made in Madras.

A Westernized middle-class urban Tamil Brahmin couple. c.a .1945

Tamil film actor M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar

A Namboodiri
Namboodiri
Brahman's house, c.a. 1909

Hindu
Hindu
devotees in procession around the temple at Tirupparankunram, c.a. 1909

Telugu bride and groom belonging to the Kapu caste, c.a. 1909

A Mangalorean Catholic gentleman belonging to the Bamonn caste, c. a. 1938

Refreshment stall at a railway station in the Madras
Madras
Presidency, c. a. 1895

See also[edit]

History of Tamil Nadu Madras
Madras
States Agency List of colonial Governors and Presidents of Madras Advocate-General of Madras

Notes[edit]

^ Iyengar
Iyengar
1929, p. 535 ^ "They administered our region HERITAGE". The Hindu. 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.  ^ Thurston 1913, pp. 138–142 ^ Hunter, 1908, p. 6 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 5 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 6 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 7 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 19 ^ a b c d e f Wheeler 1996, p. 26 ^ Roy 2012, p. 74 ^ Chaudhuri 2006, p. 206 ^ Thorpe 2011, p. 94 ^ Newell 1919, p. 18 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 281 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 282 ^ India Office List 1905, p. 121 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 251 ^ Kulke 2004, p. 245 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 252 ^ Codrington 1926, Chapter X:Transition to British administration ^ Hunter 1908, p. 254 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 255 ^ Read 1997, pp. 34–37 ^ Dodd 1859, p. 288 ^ Kamath 1980, p. 250 ^ Kamath 1980, pp. 250–253 ^ Hibbert 2000, p. 221 ^ Sadasivan 1974, p. 22 ^ Sadasivan 1974, p. 40 ^ Sadasivan 1974, p. 54 ^ Sadasivan 1974, p. 55 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 418 ^ a b Frykenberg, Robert Eric (1968). Elite Formation in Nineteenth Century South India, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Tamil Culture and History. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaysia Press.  ^ S.A. 1969, p. 14 ^ a b Tercentenary Madras
Madras
Staff 1939, p. 223 ^ "Report of the High Court of Madras" (PDF). High Court, Madras. 2007. p. 17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Pramanand 1985 ^ Dutt 1999, p. 10 ^ S., Muthiah (13 September 2003). "Willing to strike and not reluctant to wound". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ Sadasivan 1974, p. 18 ^ Sadasivan 1974, p. 28 ^ Mazumdar 1917, p. 58 ^ Mazumdar 1917, p. 59 ^ Besant 1915, p. 35 ^ Besant 1915, p. 36 ^ "Congress Sessions". Indian National Congress. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ "Biography of the founders of the Theosophical Society". Theosophical Society, Adyar. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ "BBC Historic Figures – Annie Besant". BBC. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ "A clarion call against the Raj". The Hindu. 13 September 2003. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b Slater 1918, p. 168 ^ Ralhan 2002, p. 179 ^ Ralhan 2002, p. 180 ^ Ralhan 2002, p. 182 ^ Ralhan 2002, p. 190 ^ Ralhan 2002, p. 196 ^ Ralhan 2002, p. 197 ^ a b Ralhan 2002, p. 199 ^ W.B. 2005, pp. 3–8 ^ a b c Thurston 1909, p. 116 ^ Bhakshi 1991, p. 149 ^ Kumar, P. C. Vinoj (10 September 2003). "Anti-Hindi sentiments still alive in TN". Sify News.  ^ a b c Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1997). "Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970, Chapter 4". University of California.  ^ Ramaswamy 1997, Chapter 4 ^ P. 2001, pp. 42–44 ^ W.B. 2005, p. 109 ^ India (Failure of Constitutional Machinery) HC Deb 16 April 1946 vol 421 cc2586-92 Archived 9 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Walch 1976, pp. 157–160 ^ "The State Legislature – Origin and Evolution". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ The Illustrated Weekly of India. Published for the proprietors, Bennett, Coleman & Company, Limited, at the Times of India Press. 1975. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017.  ^ Kumar 1965, p. 120-121 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 327 ^ Hunter, Volume 16, p. 256 ^ Steinberg 1950, p. 137 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 120 ^ a b c Thurston 1913, p. 121 ^ Mollin 2006, p. 17 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 6 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 260 ^ a b c Steinberg 1950, p. 174 ^ Steinberg 1950, p. 141 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 337 ^ T. 1765, p. 110 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 137 ^ Pirie 1883, p. 110 ^ Smith 1976, p. 42 ^ a b Ralhan 2002, p. 73 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 181 ^ a b c Thurston 1913, p. 182 ^ a b Sadasivan 1974, p. 17 ^ a b c d e f MaClean 1877, p. 21 ^ a b MaClean 1877, p. 22 ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 291. ^ a b MaClean 1877, p. 20 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 1 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 183 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 63 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 65 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 232 ^ Wheeler 1996, p. 198 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 4 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 7 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 20 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 21 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 14 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 15 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 57 ^ a b Major MacMunn 1911, p. 123 ^ Major MacMunn 1911, p. 126 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 82 ^ a b c d e MaClean 1877, p. 85 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 83 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 86 ^ a b MaClean 1877, p. 88 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 89 ^ a b c d MaClean 1877, p. 90 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 91 ^ a b MaClean 1877, p. 92 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 93 ^ MaClean 1877, p. 94 ^ Ahmed 2011 pp. 392–4 ^ Rai 2011, p. 91 ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 290. ^ Steinberg 1950, p. 154 ^ Steinberg 1950, p. 155 ^ Thangaraj 2003, p. 287 ^ Patnaik 1997, p. 330 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 193 ^ a b c d Hunter 1908, p. 276 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 194 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 195 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 196 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 197 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 199 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 200 ^ a b c d Hunter 1908, p. 274 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 278 ^ Gough 2008, p. 130 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 203 ^ a b c Thurston 1913, p. 205 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 206 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Steinberg 1950, p. 175 ^ a b c Hunter 1908, p. 297 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 354 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 43 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 36 ^ a b Hunter 1908, p. 298 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 208 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 210 ^ a b c Thurston 1913, p. 211 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 212 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 213 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 214 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 216 ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 219 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 220 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 223 ^ Thurston 1913, p. 222 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 264 ^ "History of Madras
Madras
Stock Exchange". Madras
Madras
Stock Exchange Limited. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2008.  ^ a b Muthiah 2004, p. 261 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 262 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 263 ^ a b Muthiah 2004, p. 410 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 338 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 339 ^ a b Sinha 2005, p. 44 ^ a b Kumar 2003, p. 70 ^ Kumar 2003, p. 71 ^ a b c d Muthiah, S. (6 October 2006). "The birth of a bank". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Tercentenary Madras
Madras
Staff 1939, p. 261 ^ a b c d Eur 2002, p. 498 ^ W.S. 1973, p. 43 ^ a b B. 1998, p. 37 ^ "Building a bank, the MCt. way". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 12 April 2004. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b Thurston 1913, p. 185 ^ a b c d e Muthiah 2004, p. 323 ^ a b c Mill 1996, p. 134 ^ a b Hunter 1908, p. 303 ^ a b c d e f g Muthiah 2004, p. 321 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 301 ^ a b Muthiah 2004, p. 322 ^ Christophers 1927, p. 14 ^ Srinivasan, T. A. (8 July 2005). "Swept off its feet, literally". The Hindu: Entertainment Chennai. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ a b Hunter 1908, p. 304 ^ "Historical Events at a Glance". District Collectorate, Chennai. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b c Muthiah 2004, p. 127 ^ a b c d "History 1932–1940". Air India. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ Wright 1999, p. 207 ^ a b Muthiah 2004, p. 54 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 383 ^ a b c Hunter 1908, p. 338 ^ a b Hunter 1908, p. 339 ^ a b c d e Jebaraj, Priscilla (5 September 2008). "Ongoing saga of higher learning". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b c Ralhan 2002, p. 74 ^ "University of Kerala
Kerala
Home page". University of Kerala. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  ^ Craik 2007, p. 260 ^ a b Muthiah 2004, p. 239 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 240 ^ a b Muthiah 2004, p. 241 ^ Christophers 1927, p. 41 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 343 ^ "About University". Annamalai University. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Seal 1971, p. 103 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 345 ^ K. Mehrotra 2006, p. 23 ^ Hunter 1908, p. 361 ^ a b Finnemore 1917, p. 62 ^ a b Srinivas 1982, p. 69 ^ Agarwal 1994, p. 472 ^ Böck 2000, p. 177 ^ Finnemore 1917, p. 22 ^ a b Finnemore 1917, p. 63 ^ a b Finnemore 1917, p. 64 ^ Finnemore 1917, p. 65 ^ Finnemore 1917, p. 66 ^ Thurston 1909, p. 87 ^ Thurston 1909, p. 78 ^ Thurston 1909, p. 79 ^ British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society 1841, p. 5 ^ British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society 1841, p. 4 ^ British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society 1841, p. 27 ^ Price 1837, p. 154 ^ Chatterjee 2006, p. 231 ^ Kumar 1965 pp. 52–53 ^ P.V. 1981, p. 21 ^ Anantha Raman 2005, p. 87 ^ S., Muthiah (17 December 2007). "When the devadasi tradition ended". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Roy 2002, p. 213 ^ Desai 2005, p. 224 ^ Deol 2000, p. 26 ^ Finnemore 1917, pp. 35–41 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 173 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 50 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 53 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 51 ^ Muthiah 2004, p. 164 ^ Guy, Randor (26 November 2004). "A milestone movie". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b c M., Allirajan (17 November 2003). "Reel-time nostalgia". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b Guy, Randor (8 August 2008). "Stickler for discipline". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b S., Muthiah (30 January 2006). "The innovative film-maker". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Thoraval 2000, p. 345 ^ Ishizuka 2008, p. 174 ^ Kasbekar 2006, p. 233

Bibliography[edit]

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British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society (1841). Slavery and the slave trade in British India: with notices of the existence of these evils in the islands of Ceylon, Malacca, and Penang, drawn from official documents. T. Ward, and to be had at the office of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery society.  C. D., MaClean (1877). Standing Information regarding the Official Administration of Madras
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Presidency. Government of Madras.  Great Britain India Office (1905). The India List and India Office List. London: Harrison and Sons.  Hunter, Sir William Wilson (1908). The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1908. Clarendon Press.  Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway (Incorporated in England): Including the Tanjore
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District Board, Pondicherry, Peralam-Karaikkal, Travancore
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State, Cochin State, Coimbatore
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District Board, Tinnevelly-Tiruchendur, and the Nilgiri Railways. Madras: South Indian Railway Company. 1926.  Madras
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District Gazetteers Raghavaiyangar, Srinivasa (1893). Memorandum of progress of the Madras Presidency during the last forty years of British Administration. Government of Madras.  Slater, Gilbert (1918). Economic Studies Vol I:Some South Indian villages.  Talboys-Wheeler, James (1862). Hand-book to the cotton cultivation in the Madras
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A., Vadivelu (1903). The Aristocracy of South India. Vest & Co.  Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan
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Times Printing and Publishing.  Pirie, A. H. (1883). Indian Students Geography. Methodist Episcopal Church Press.  Playne, Somerset; J. W. Bond; Arnold Wright (1914). Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce, and Industrial Resources.  Price, Thomas (1837). Slavery in America: With Notices of the Present State of Slavery and the Slave Trade Throughout the World. Oxford University.  S. H., Steinberg (1950). The Statesman's Yearbook 1950. London: Macmillan and Co.  Some Madras
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Leaders. Babu Bhishambher Nath Bhargava. 1922.  T., Osborne; C. Hitch; A. Millar; John Rivington; S. Crowder; B. Law & Co; T. Longman; C. Ware (1765). The Modern part of a universal history from the Earliest Account of Time, Vol XLIII. London: Oxford University. 

Aggarwal, Bina (1994). A field of one's own: gender and land rights in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42926-9.  Ahmed, Farooqui Salma; Ahmed Farooqui, Salma (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131732021.  Anantha Raman, Sita; Vasantha Surya; A. Mātavaiyā (2005). A. Madhaviah: A Biography and a Novel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-567021-3.  B., Anitha (1998). Quality of Work Life in Commercial Banks. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 81-7141-431-1.  Böck, Monika; Rao, Aparna (2000). Culture, creation, and procreation: concepts of kinship in South Asian practice. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-911-8.  Chatterjee, Indrani; Eaton, Richard Maxwell (2006). Slavery & South Asian History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34810-2.  Chaudhuri, K.N. (2006). The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company: 1660–1760. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521031592.  D. Craik, Alex (2007). Mr Hopkins' Men: Cambridge Reform and British Mathematics in the 19th Century. Springer. SBN 1846287901, ISBN 978-1-84628-790-9.  D., Sadasivan (1974). The Growth of public opinion in the Madras Presidency (1858–1909). University of Madras.  Deol, Harnik (2000). Religion and nationalism in India: the case of the Punjab. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20108-7.  Desai, A. R. (2005). Social background of Indian nationalism. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 81-7154-667-6.  Dutt, Romesh Chunder (1999). Open Letters to Lord Curzon on Famines and Land Assessments in India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4021-5115-2.  Eur (2002). Regional Surveys of the world: Far East and Australasia 2003. Psychology Press. ISBN 9781857431339.  Gough, Kathleen (2008). Rural Society in Southeast India. Cambridge University. ISBN 0-521-04019-1.  Hibbert, Christopher (2000). Queen Victoria: A Personal History. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-638843-4.  Ishizuka, Karen L.; Zimmermann, Patricia Rodden (2008). Mining the home movie: excavations in histories and memories. California Press. ISBN 0-520-23087-6.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop culture India: media, arts, and lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-636-1.  Kothari, Rajni (2004). Caste in Indian Politics. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 81-250-0637-0.  Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-32919-1.  Kumar, Dharma (1965). Land and Caste in South India: Agricultural Labor in the Madras
Madras
Presidency During the Nineteenth Century. CUP Archive.  Kumar, Naresh (2003). "Historical Background of Banking System". Motivation And Morale in Banking Administration: A Study Of Four Branches Of United Commercial Bank. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-897-2.  M., Thangaraj (2003). Tamil Nadu: An Unfinished Task. SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-9780-6.  Mehrotra, Santosh K. (2006). The Economics of Elementary Education in India: The Challenge of Public Finance, Private Provision, and Household Costs. SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-3419-7.  Mill, John Stuart; John M. Robson; Martin Moir; Zawahir Moir (1996). Miscellaneous Writings. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04878-8.  Mollin, Sandra (2006). Euro-English: assessing variety status. Gunter Narr Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8233-6250-0. Retrieved 2012-11-17.  O.P., Ralhan (2002). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications Private Limited. ISBN 81-7488-865-9.  P. V., Balakrishnan (1981). Matrilineal system in Malabar. Satyavani Prakashan.  P., Kandaswamy (2001). The political career of K Kamaraj. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-7022-801-8.  Paramanand (1985). Mahāmanā Madan Mohan Malaviya: An Historical Biography. Malaviya Adhyayan Sansthan, Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University.  Patnaik, Nihar Ranjan (1997). Economic History of Orissa. Indus Publishing. SBN 8173870756, ISBN 978-81-7387-075-0.  Rai, Raghunath (2011). History. FK Publications. ISBN 9788187139690.  Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1997). Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. University of California. ISBN 9780520918795.  Read, Anthony (1997). The Proudest Day – India's Long Ride to Independence. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-393-31898-2.  Roy, Kalpana (2002). Encyclopaedia of violence against women and dowry death in India. Anmol Publications Private Limited. ISBN 81-261-0343-4.  Roy, Tirthankar (2012). East India Company
East India Company
the Worlds Most Powerful Company. Penguin Books India. ISBN 9780670085071.  S. A., Govindarajan (1969). G. Subramania Iyer. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.  S. R., Bakshi (1991). C. Rajagopalachari: Role in Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 81-7041-433-4.  S., Muthiah (2004). Madras
Madras
Rediscovered. East West Books (Madras) Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-88661-24-4.  Seal, Anil (1971). The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century. CUP Archive. ISBN 0-521-09652-9.  Sinha, Aseema (2005). The Regional Roots of Developmental Politics in India: A Divided Leviathan. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21681-8.  Smith, Bardwell L. (1976). Religion and Social Conflict in South Asia. Brill. ISBN 9789004045101.  Srinivas, Mysore
Mysore
Narasimhachar (1982). India: social structure. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781412826198.  Thoraval, Yves (2000). Cinemas of India. Macmillan India. ISBN 0-333-93410-5.  Thorpe, Edgar; Showick Thorpe; Thorpe Edgar (2011). The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Dorling Kindersly (India) Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4.  von Fürer-Haimendorf, Christoph (1982). Tribes of India – The Struggle for Survival. University of California.  W. B., Vasantha Kandasamy; F. Smarandache; K. Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache (2005). Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Analysis of Periyar's Views on Untouchability. Infinite Study. ISBN 9781931233002.  W. S., Weerasooriya (1973). The Nattukottai Chettiar Merchant Bankers in Ceylon. Tisara Prakasakayo.  Walch, James (1976). Faction and front: Party systems in South India. Young Asia Publications.  Wright, Arnold (1999). Twentieth Century Impressions of Ceylon: Its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120613355. 

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Presidencies and provinces of the British Raj

Italics = outside present Indian & Pakistan

Presidencies

Agra Presidency Bengal Presidency Bombay Presidency Madras
Madras
Presidency Presidency of Coromandel and Bengal Settlements Straits Settlements Presidency
Straits Settlements Presidency
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Western Presidency
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Presidency)

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(associated, in Yemen, Arabia) Agra Province Ajmer-Merwara Andaman and Nicobar Islands Assam Province Baluchistan Bengal Province Berar Province Bihar and Orissa Province Bihar Province (Upper) Burma Central Provinces Central Provinces
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 State of Tamil Nadu

Capital: Chennai

State symbols

Seal: Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Srivilliputhur Andal Temple
Gopuram Animal: Nilgiri tahr Bird: Emerald dove Flower: Gloriosa lily Fruit: Jackfruit Tree: Palm tree

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Ariyalur Chennai Coimbatore Cuddalore Dharmapuri Dindigul Erode Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Karur Krishnagiri Madurai Nagapattinam Namakkal Perambalur Pudukkottai Ramanathapuram Salem Sivaganga Thanjavur The Nilgiris Theni Thoothukudi Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Tiruppur Tiruvallur Tiruvannamalai Tiruvarur Vellore Viluppuram Virudhunagar

Major cities

Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirapalli Tiruppur

Tamil Nadu

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State of Andhra Pradesh

Capital: Amaravati
Amaravati
(de facto), Hyderabad
Hyderabad
(de jure)

Topics

Cinema Cuisine Culture Demographics Economy Education Elections Geography Government Highest point History Language Politics Sports People Transport Tourism

Regions

Coastal Andhra Rayalaseema

Districts

Anantapur Chittoor East Godavari Guntur Kadapa Kurnool Krishna Prakasam Nellore Srikakulam Visakhapatnam Vizianagaram West Godavari

Million-plus cities

Visakhapatnam Vijayawada

Cities (population over 1 lakh)

Adoni Anantapur Bhimavaram Chilakaluripet Chittoor Dharmavaram Eluru Gudivada Guntakal Guntur Hindupur Kadapa Kakinada Kurnool Machilipatnam Madanapalle Nandyal Narasaraopet Nellore Ongole Proddatur Rajahmundry Srikakulam Tadepalligudem Tadpatri Tenali Tirupati Vijayawada Visakhapatnam Vizianagaram

Tourism

Dams Forts Lakes National Parks Hindu
Hindu
Temples Churches Wildlife Sanctuaries Waterfalls

Related lists

List of cities in Andhra Pradesh List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh List of urban local bodies in Andhra Pradesh List of revenue divisions in Andhra Pradesh List of urban agglomerations in Andhra Pradesh

Portal: Andhra Pradesh

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State of Kerala

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram

Symbols

Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden shower Fish Karimeen

Topics

Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Flora and Fauna Government Tourism Sports

Districts

Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
KL-01 Kollam
Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam KL-07 Thrissur
Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad KL-12 Kannur
Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod
Kasaragod
KL-14

Taluks

Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Tiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwaram

Municipal Corporations

Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur

Municipalities

Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur Tattamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Palai Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perintalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Tiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala

Other Towns

Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakkada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Chathannur Kundara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Pathanapuram Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omalloor Vadasserikkara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalapuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirapally Erumeli Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varapuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Pudukkad Manalur Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiyadi Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadam Anjarakandi Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kaliiasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbala Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwaram

Historical Regions

Malabar

North Malabar South Malabar

Cochin Venad
Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin

Portal: Kerala

v t e

Indian state of Karnataka

Overviews

Architecture Cinema Climate Cuisine Demography Economy Education Folk Arts Geography History Media People Sports Transportation Wildlife

History

Aihole Alupa dynasty Amoghavarsha Badami Banavasi Balligavi Belur Chalukya dynasty Chitradurga Nayakas Deva Raya II Durvinita Halebidu Haleri Kingdom Halmidi Hampi Hoysala Empire Kadamba dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas Keladi Nayakas Shivappa Nayaka Kittur Chennamma Kingdom of Mysore Mayurasharma Pattadakal Pulakeshin II Rashtrakuta dynasty Sringeri Srirangapatna Tipu Sultan Unification of Karnataka Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Vijayanagara Vishnuvardhana Veera Ballala II Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya VI Western Ganga dynasty

Geography

Cities and towns Districts Rivers Dams and Reservoirs Taluks Villages Highest point Bayalu Seeme Malenadu Karavali Western Ghats

Culture

Bharata Natyam Bhuta Kola Bidriware Channapatna toys Chitrakala Parishat Gaarudi Gombe Ilkal saree Kamsale Kannada Karnatik music Kasuti Khedda Mysore
Mysore
Dasara Togalu Gombeyaata Udupi
Udupi
cuisine Veeragase Yakshagana Mysore
Mysore
musicians

Literature

Kannada

Milestones Epics Medieval Rashtrakuta Western Ganga Western Chalukya Hoysala Vijayanagara Vachana Haridasa Mysore Play Modern

Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Sammelana Karnataka

Noted poets

Asaga Gunavarma I Adikavi Pampa Sri Ponna Ranna Devar Dasimayya Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddharama Harihara Raghavanka Rudrabhatta Janna Kumara Vyasa Chamarasa Nijaguna Shivayogi Ratnakaravarni Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Vijaya Dasa Gopala Dasa Jagannatha Dasa Lakshmisa Sarvajna Shishunala Sharif Krishnaraja Wadiyar III D. R. Bendre Gopalakrishna Adiga K. S. Narasimhaswamy M. Govinda Pai Kuvempu D. V. Gundappa G. S. Shivarudrappa

People and Society

Karnataka
Karnataka
ethnic groups List of people from Karnataka

Tourism

Beaches Dams Forts National Parks Hindu
Hindu
Temples Jain Temples Waterfalls

Awards

Karnataka
Karnataka
Ratna Pampa Award Nrupatunga Award Basava
Basava
Puraskara Rajyotsava Prashasti Jakanachari Award Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award

v t e

State of Odisha

Capital: Bhubaneswar

Governance

Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly Political parties High Court Police

Topics

Arts Cinema Cuisine Culture Economy Education Elections Flora and Fauna Geography Highest point History

Historic sites Rulers

Language

Act Alphabet Literature Morphology

People Politics Tourism

GI Products

Berhampur
Berhampur
Patta Bomkai Sari Dhalapathar Parda & Fabrics Ganjam
Ganjam
Kewda Flower Ganjam
Ganjam
Kewda Rooh Gopalpur Tussar Fabrics Habaspuri Saree & Fabrics Khandua Konark Stone Carving Kotpad Handloom
Handloom
fabrics Orissa Ikat Pattachitra Pipili applique work Sambalpuri saree

Districts and divisions

Northern Division

Angul Balangir Bargarh Deogarh Dhenkanal Jharsuguda Kendujhar Sambalpur Subarnapur Sundargarh

Central Division

Balasore Bhadrak Cuttack Jagatsinghpur Jajpur Kendrapada Khordha Mayurbhanj Nayagarh Puri

Southern Division

Boudh Gajapati Ganjam Kalahandi Kandhamal Koraput Malkangiri Nabrangpur Nuapada Rayagada

Cities

Angul Balasore Barbil Bargarh Baripada Bhadrak Bhubaneswar Berhampur Cuttack Dhenkanal Jajpur Jharsuguda Puri Rourkela Sambalpur

Odisha
Odisha
portal

v t e

Chennai

History

Early history (pre-1500)

Sangam period Thomas the Apostle Pallava Dynasty Chola Dynasty Vijayanagar Empire

Colonial period (1500–1900)

São Tomé de Meliapore Raja of Chandragiri Agency of Fort St George 1721 Madras
Madras
cyclone Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
( Madras
Madras
Adyar Chingleput) Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars Governors

Modern period (1900–present)

Arbuthnot Bank Crash Besant v. Narayaniah Bombardment of Madras
Madras
by SMS Emden de La Haye scandal 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike Neil Statue Satyagraha 1928 South Indian Railway Strike 1932 Madras
Madras
and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike 1943 Chennai
Chennai
floods Madras
Madras
Manade Anti-Hindi agitations Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi R. S. S. Chennai
Chennai
bombing 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 2013 Anti-Sri Lanka protests 2015 South Indian floods

Writers and historians

S. Muthiah Randor Guy S. Theodore Baskaran V. Sriram A. R. Venkatachalapathy

Geography and wildlife

Regions

Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area Central Chennai North Chennai South Chennai

Rivers and waterways

Adyar River Buckingham Canal Coovum River Kosasthalaiyar River Otteri
Otteri
Nullah

Lakes

Chembarambakkam
Chembarambakkam
Lake Chetput Lake Long Tank Manali Lake Porur
Porur
Lake Red Hills Lake Retteri Veeranam

Islands

Kattupalli Island Quibble Island The Island

Zoological parks

Arignar Anna Zoological Park Chennai
Chennai
Snake Park Guindy
Guindy
National Park Madras
Madras
Crocodile Bank

Reserve Forests

Nanmangalam Reserve Forest Vandalur
Vandalur
Reserve Forest

Marshlands

Ennore
Ennore
creek Pallikaranai
Pallikaranai
Wetland

Heritage monuments

Amir Mahal Bharat Insurance Building Brodie Castle Chennai Central
Chennai Central
Prison Chepauk
Chepauk
Palace LIC Building Lighthouse Police headquarters Port Trust Building Puzhal
Puzhal
Central Prison Ripon Building Royapuram
Royapuram
railway station University of Madras
Madras
Senate House Southern Railway headquarters Valluvar Kottam Victoria Public Hall

Statues

Marina Beach
Marina Beach
Statues Thomas Munro Triumph of Labour

Memorials

Gandhi Mandapam Kamarajar Mandapam Rajaji Mandapam Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Madras
Madras
War Cemetery Victory War Memorial Vivekanandar Illam

Administration and politics

Districts

Chennai
Chennai
District Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
District Kanchipuram District Vellore District

Taluks

Chennai
Chennai
District

Aminjikarai Ayanavaram Egmore Guindy Mambalam Mylapore Perambur Purasaiwalkam Tondiarpet Velachery

Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
district

Tiruvottiyur Madhavaram Ambattur Avadi Maduravoyal Ponneri Poonamallee Tiruvallur Gummidipoondi Uthukottai Tiruttani Pallipattu

Kanchipuram district

Alandur Sholinganallur Pallavaram Tambaram Chengalpattu Thiruporur Tirukalukundram Sriperumbudur Walajabad Kanchipuram Uthiramerur Madurantakam Cheyyur

Vellore District

Arakkonam

Parliamentary constituencies

Chennai
Chennai
Central Chennai
Chennai
North Chennai
Chennai
South Sriperumbudur Thiruvallur

Assembly constituencies

Alandur Ambattur Anna Nagar Avadi Chengalpattu Chepauk Egmore Harbour Kolathur Madhavaram Maduravoyal Mylapore Pallavaram Perambur Ponneri Poonamallee RK Nagar Royapuram Saidapet Sholinganallur Sriperumbudur T.Nagar Tambaram Thiru. Vi. Ka. Nagar Thiruvottiyur Thousand Lights Tiruvallur Villivakkam Virugambakkam Velachery

Nodal agencies

Greater Chennai
Chennai
Corporation Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Development Authority Chennai
Chennai
MetroWater and Sewage Board Chennai
Chennai
Police Commissionerate General Post Office Greater Chennai
Chennai
Police Madras
Madras
High Court

Sheriff

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Fire and Rescue Services

Economy

Business districts

Burma Bazaar Kothawal Chavadi Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Wholesale Market Complex Panagal Park Parry's Corner Pondy Bazaar Purasawalkam Ranganathan Street Ritchie Street Velachery Washermanpet

SEZ

SEZ Corridor MEPZ Tidel Park World Trade Center

Companies and institutions

Aavin Ashok Leyland Basin Bridge
Basin Bridge
Gas Blue Dart Aviation Chettinad Group EID Parry Ennore
Ennore
Thermal GMR Vasavi Heavy Vehicles Factory Higginbotham's Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Integral Coach Factory Madras
Madras
Atomic Power Station Madras
Madras
Cements Madras
Madras
Rubber Factory Madras
Madras
Stock Exchange Murugappa Group North Chennai
Chennai
Thermal Reserve Bank of India Royal Enfield SPIC Sun Group The Hindu The New Indian Express TI Cycles of India TVS Motors Vallur Thermal World Bank office

Industry

Automotive Electronics Retail Software

Culture and recreation

General

Architecture of Chennai Kollywood Madrassi Madras
Madras
Bashai Madras
Madras
School Tourism in Chennai

Beaches

Covelong Elliot's Beach Golden Beach Marina Beach

Parks

Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
Tower Park Semmozhi Poonga Tholkappia Poonga

Cinemas

SPI Cinemas Mayajaal
Mayajaal
Multiplex

Periodic events

Chennai
Chennai
Book Fair Chennai
Chennai
International Film Festival Chennai
Chennai
Sangamam Lit for Life Madras
Madras
Day Madras
Madras
Music Season Saarang Techofes

Theme parks

EVP World MGM Dizzee World Queens Land VGP Universal Kingdom Dash N Splash Kishkinta Mayajaal
Mayajaal
Beach Resort

Shopping malls

Abhirami Mega Mall Alsa Mall Ampa Skywalk Chandra Mall Chennai
Chennai
Citi Centre Chennai
Chennai
Trade Centre Coromandel Plaza Express Avenue Gold Souk Grande Mall Phoenix Market City Ramee Mall Spectrum Mall Spencer Plaza Forum Vijaya Mall

Clubs

Gymkhana Club Madras
Madras
Boat Club Royal Madras
Madras
Yacht Club

Religion

Temples

Ayyappan Temple Ashtalakshmi Kovil ISKCON Temple Chennai Kapaleeswarar Temple Kalikambal Temple Madhya Kailash Marundeeswarar Temple Parthasarathy Temple Ravishwarar Varasiddhi Vinayaka temple

Churches

Armenian Church Church of Our Lady of Light St. Andrew's Kirk St. George's Cathedral St. Patrick's Cathedral Santhome
Santhome
Basilica St. Mary's Church

Others

Mahabodhi Centre Thousand Lights Mosque

Transport

Air

Chennai
Chennai
International Airport

Sea

Chennai
Chennai
Port Ennore
Ennore
Port Kattupalli Shipyard Royapuram
Royapuram
fishing harbour

Rail

Chennai
Chennai
Central Chennai
Chennai
Metro Chennai
Chennai
MRTS Chennai
Chennai
Suburban Railway Southern Railway Railway stations in Chennai

Road

Roads and expressways

Anna Salai Cenotaph Road Chennai
Chennai
Bypass Chennai
Chennai
Port - Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Expressway China Bazaar Road East Coast Road Inner Ring Road Nungambakkam
Nungambakkam
High Road Outer Ring Road Peters Road Poonamallee
Poonamallee
High Road Rajiv Gandhi Salai Sardar Patel Road

Grade separators and flyovers

Anna Flyover Chennai
Chennai
Airport Flyover Chrompet Flyover Irumbuliyur Junction Kathipara Junction Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Junction Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Junction Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Junction Moolakadai
Moolakadai
Junction Padi Junction

Others

Chennai
Chennai
Mofussil Bus Terminus Chennai
Chennai
Contract Carriage Bus Terminus Metropolitan Transport Corporation State Express Transport Corporation

Sport

Venues

Guindy
Guindy
Race Course Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium M. A. Chidambaram Stadium Madras
Madras
Motor Race Track Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium MRF Pace Foundation Mudaliarkuppam boat house Muttukadu boat house Rajarathinam Stadium SDAT Tennis Stadium

Teams

Chennai
Chennai
Cheetahs Chennai
Chennai
City F.C. Chennai
Chennai
Smashers Chennai
Chennai
Spikers Chennai
Chennai
Super Kings Chennai
Chennai
Superstars Chennai
Chennai
Veerans Chennaiyin FC V Chennai
Chennai
Warriors

Others

Chennai
Chennai
Open M. J. Gopalan Trophy Madras
Madras
Presidency Matches

Institutions

Education

Alliance Française de Madras Anna Centenary Library Birla Planetarium Cholamandal Artists' Village Connemara Public Library DakshinaChitra Government Museum Kalakshetra KM Music Conservatory Madras
Madras
Music Academy Schools in Chennai

Universities

Anna University University of Madras Dr MGR Medical University Dr Ambedkar Law University Indian Maritime University Veterinary and Animal Sciences University VIT University Chennai SRM University B S Abdur Rahman University Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Open University Vels University Hindustan University

Engineering colleges

Indian Institute of Technology Madras College of Engineering, Guindy Madras
Madras
Institute of Technology Alagappa College of Technology

Medical colleges

Madras
Madras
Medical College Stanley Medical College Kilpauk
Kilpauk
Medical College Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute National Institute of Siddha

Arts and science colleges

Loyola Madras
Madras
Christian College Presidency College Queen Mary's (Women) Vivekananda Pachaiyappa's College Stella Mary's (Women) DG Vaishnav MOP Vaishnav (Women)

Research

Central Leather Research Institute National Institute of Ocean Technology Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai
Chennai
Mathematical Institute Regional Meteorological Centre Structural Engineering Research Centre Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India)

Diplomatic missions

American Consulate British Deputy High Commission Singapore Consulate Malaysian Consulate Russian Consulate German Consulate Sri Lanka Deputy High Commission Royal Thai Consulate Japanese Consulate Australian Consulate Belgian Consulate South Korean Consulate Chinese Consulate

Hospitals

Government General Hospital Government multi super speciality hospital Royapettah
Royapettah
Hospital Stanley Hospital Kilpauk Medical College
Kilpauk Medical College
Hospital Perambur
Perambur
railway hospital Apollo Hospitals Egmore
Egmore
Eye Hospital Sir Ivan Stedeford Hospital Sankara Nethralaya Madras
Madras
Medical Mission MIOT Hospital Chettinad Health City Tambaram
Tambaram
TB Sanatorium Government Dental Hospital Hindu
Hindu
Mission Hospital Fortis Malar Hospital Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital Sundaram Medical Foundation

Hotels

Taj Coromandel The Park Le Royal Meridien Hyatt Regency Chola Sheraton Taj Mount Road The Leela Kempinski ITC Grand Chola Hilton Chennai Taj Connemara Fisherman's Cove Trident Hilton Park Sheraton & Towers Radisson GRT Accord Metropolitan JW Marriott Park Hyatt Radisson Blu City Centre Raintree Hotel St Mary's Road The Raintree Hotel Anna Salai Savera Hotel Residency Towers Westin Chennai Kohinoor Asiana

Localities

North

Aamullaivoyal Aathur Agaram Alamathi Andarkuppam Angadu Anuppampattu Arambakkam Arani Ariyalur Arumandhai Assisi Nagar, Chennai Athipattu Athipattu
Athipattu
New Town Athivakkam Attanthangal Avurikollaimedu Ayanavaram Azhinjivakkam Bandikavanoor Basin Bridge Chinnasekkadu Chettimedu Edapalayam Edayanchavadi Ennore Elandanur Elanthancherry Elavur Ernavoor Erukkancherry Gnayiru Gounderpalayam Grant Lyon Gummidipoondi Janapanchatram Jawahar Nagar Kadapakkam Kaladipet Kalakkral Kalpalayam Kanniammanpettai Kannigaipair Karanodai Kathirvedu Kathivakkam Katupalli Kavangarai Kavaraipettai Kasimedu Kattur KK Thazhai Kaviarasu Kannadhasan Nagar Kodipallam Kodungaiyur Kolathur Kondithope Korukkupet Kosappur Kottai Karai Kumaran Nagar Lakshmipuram Madhavaram Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Milk Colony Madharpakkam Madiyur Mahakavi Bharathi Nagar Manali Manali New Town Manjambakkam Mathur Mettu Surapedu Mettu Thandalam Minjur Moolachatiram Moolakadai Muthialpet Nallur Nandiambakkam Napalayam Naravarikuppam New Erumai Vetti Palayam Old Erumai Vetti Palayam Orakadu Padianallur Pallipattu Panchetti Payasambakkam Pazhaverkadu Perambur Peravallur Periapalayam Periyamullavoyal Periyar Nagar Periyasekkadu Perungavur Ponneri Ponniammanmedu Pothur Puthubakkam Puduvoyal Pulli Lyon Puthagaram Puzhal Red Hills Retteri Royapuram Sadayankuppam Sathangadu Sathyamoorthy Nagar (Tiruvottiyur) Sathyamoorthy Nagar (Vyasarpadi) Seemavaram Selavayal Sembilivaram Sembium Sembiyamanali Sholavaram Siruvapuri Sirunium Sowcarpet Sothuperumbedu Surapet Thadaperumbakkam Thatchoor Thathaimanji Theerthakariampattu Theeyampakkam Thervoy Kandigai Thirunilai Thiruvellavoyal Thiru Vi Ka Nagar Tiruvottiyur Tollgate Tondiarpet Uthukottai Vadagarai Vadamadurai Vadaperumbakkam Vaikkadu Vallalar Nagar Vallur Vannipakkam Vazhuthigaimedu Vellivoyalchavadi Vengal Vichoor Vijayanallur Vilakupattu Vilangadupakkam Villivakkam Vinayagapuram VOC Nagar Voyalur Vyasarpadi Washermanpet Wimco Nagar

West

Adayalampattu Alwarthirunagar Ambattur Aminjikarai Athipet Andankuppam Anna Nagar Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
West Annanur Arakkambakkam Aranvoyal Ashok Nagar Arakkonam Arumbakkam Avadi Ayanambakkam Ayapakkam Ayathur Beemanthangal Chembarambakkam Choolaimedu Egattur Gerugambakkam Govardhanagiri ICF Colony Irungattukottai Iyyapanthangal K. K. Nagar Kadambathur Kadavur Kakkalur Kakkalur Industrial Estate Kallikuppam Karalapakkam Karambakkam Karayanchavadi Kattupakkam Kilkondaiyur Koduvalli Koladi Kolapakkam Konnur Korattur Kovur Koyambedu Kumananchavadi Kundrathur Kuthambakkam Maduravoyal Malayambakkam Manapakkam Manavala Nagar Melkondaiyur Mettu Kandigai MGR Nagar Mogappair Morai Moulivakkam Mugalivakkam Muthapudupet Nandambakkam Nandambakkam Narasingapuram Nazarathpettai Nemam Nemilichery Nesapakkam Nerkundram Nolambur Noombal Oragadam Padi Pakkam Pandeswaram Pandur Paraniputhur Parivakkam Paruthipattu Pattabiram Pattaravakkam Perambakkam Periyapanicheri Perumalpattu Poochi Athipedu Poonamallee Poondi Poonthandalam Porur Pudhur Putlur Ramapuram Ramavaram Sekkadu Seneerkuppam Sevvapet Shenoy Nagar Sorancheri Sriperumbudur Sunguvarchatram Surapet Tamaraipakkam Thandalam Thandurai Thathankuppam Thirumangalam Thirumazhisai Thirumullaivoyal Thiruninravur Tiruvallur Tiruverkadu Valasaravakkam Vanagaram Veerapuram Vellanur Vellavedu Velappanchavadi Vengathur Venkatapuram Veppampattu Vilinjiyambakkam Virugambakkam

Central

Alwarpet Broadway Burma Bazaar Chennai
Chennai
Central Chepauk Chetput Chintadripet Choolai Egmore Foreshore Estate George Town Gopalapuram Greenways Road Kilpauk Kodambakkam Kosapet Kothawal Chavadi Kotturpuram Mandavelli Mannady Mambalam MRC Nagar Mylapore Nandanam Nochikuppam Nungambakkam Otteri Panagal Park Park Town Parry's Corner Pattalam Periamet Pondy Bazaar Pudupet Pulianthope Purasawalkam Quibble Island Raja Annamalai Puram Royapettah Saidapet Saligramam Santhome T Nagar Teynampet The Island Triplicane Trustpuram Vadapalani Vepery West Mambalam

South

Alandur Adambakkam Adyar Agaramthen Alandur Anakaputhur Besant Nagar Chitlapakkam Chromepet Chengalpattu Egattur Ekkaduthangal Erumaiyur Gowrivakkam Guduvancheri Guindy Guindy
Guindy
TVK Estate Devaneri Hasthinapuram Illalur Injambakkam Irumbuliyur Jafferkhanpet Jaladampet Kanathur Kandanchavadi Kannivakkam Karanai Karapakkam Karumbakkam Kattankulathur Kazhipattur Kizhkalvoy Keelkattalai Kelambakkam Kottivakkam Kovalam Kovilambakkam Kovilanchery Madambakkam Madhuvankarai Madipakkam Mamallapuram Manimangalam Mannivakkam Maraimalai Nagar Medavakkam Meenambakkam Melkalvoy MEPZ Mettukuppam Mudichur Muttukadu Nandivaram Nanganallur Nanmangalam Navalur Neelankarai Nellikuppam Noothancheri Okkiyam Okkiyampet Oragadam Ottiambakkam Padappai Palavakkam Palavanthangal Pallavaram Pallikaranai Pammal Panaiyur Paranur Pattipulam Payanur Pazhanthandalam Peerkankaranai Perumbakkam Perumathunallur Perungalathur Perungudi Perunthandalam Ponmar Polichalur Potheri Pudupakkam Puzhuthivakkam Rajakilpakkam Rathinamangalam Selaiyur Sembakkam Semmencherry Sholinganallur Singaperumalkoil Siruseri Sithalapakkam Somangalam St. Thomas Mount Tambaram Tambaram
Tambaram
Sanatorium Thaiyur Tharamani Tharapakkam Thirumudivakkam Thiruneermalai Thiruporur Thiruvanmiyur Thiruvidandhai Thuraipakkam Tirusulam Ullagaram Urapakkam Uthandi Vadanemili Vandalur Vanuvampet Velachery Vengaivasal Vettuvankeni

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Coordinates: 13°05′N 80°16′E / 13.08°N 80.27°E

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