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Chennai
Chennai
(/ˈtʃɛnaɪ/ ( listen); formerly known as Madras /məˈdrɑːs/ ( listen) or /-ˈdræs/[12]) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
off the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the biggest cultural, economic and educational centres in South India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world.[13] Chennai
Chennai
is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked 43rd most visited city in the world for year 2015.[14] The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai
Chennai
as the safest city in India.[15] Chennai
Chennai
attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists.[16] As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai
Chennai
confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.[17] Chennai
Chennai
had the third-largest expatriate population in India
India
at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.[18][19] Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
named Chennai
Chennai
as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015.[20] Chennai
Chennai
is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index,[21] and was ranked the best city in India
India
by India
India
Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey.[22][23] In 2015 Chennai
Chennai
was named the "hottest" city (worth visiting, and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values.[24] National Geographic ranked Chennai's food as second best in the world; it was the only Indian city to feature in the list.[25] Chennai
Chennai
was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet.[26] In October 2017, Chennai
Chennai
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Network (UCCN) list for its rich musical tradition.[27] The Chennai Metropolitan Area
Chennai Metropolitan Area
is one of the largest city economies of India. Chennai
Chennai
is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. The city also houses India's Tamil (Kollywood) film industry. In January 2015, it was ranked third in terms of per capita GDP.[28] Chennai
Chennai
has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[29]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Environment

3.1 Geography 3.2 Geology 3.3 Flora and fauna 3.4 Environment conservation 3.5 Climate

3.5.1 NE Monsoon
Monsoon
in Chennai

4 Administration

4.1 Law and order 4.2 Politics 4.3 Utility services

5 Architecture 6 Demographics 7 Housing 8 Arts and culture

8.1 Museums and art galleries 8.2 Music and performing arts

9 Cityscape

9.1 Tourism and hospitality 9.2 Entertainment 9.3 Recreation 9.4 Shopping

10 Economy

10.1 Communication 10.2 Power 10.3 Banking 10.4 Health care 10.5 Waste management

11 Transport

11.1 Air 11.2 Rail 11.3 Metro Rail 11.4 Road 11.5 Sea

12 Media 13 Education 14 Sports and recreation

14.1 City based teams

15 International relations

15.1 Foreign missions 15.2 Twin towns – Sister cities

16 See also 17 References 18 External links

Etymology See also: Names of Chennai
Chennai
in different languages The nativity of the name Chennai, being of Telugu origin, is clearly proved by historians.[30][31][32] It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire
Vijayanagar Empire
from whom the British acquired the town in 1639.[33][34] The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India
India
Company, even before[35] the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 [36] while some scholar argue for the contrary. [37] In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
officially changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name.[38][39] However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city,[40] as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Madras Christian College. The name Madras originated even before the British presence was established in India. There have been clear evidences that Madras is not of alien origin.[1] A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram.[41] There are also suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase mãe de Deus, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city, specifically referring to a Church of St. Mary.[42] According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George.[43] However, it is uncertain whether the name was in use before the arrival of Europeans.[44] The British military mapmakers believed Madras was originally Mundir-raj or Mundiraj.[45] History See also: History of Chennai
History of Chennai
and Timeline of Chennai
Chennai
history

Clive House at Fort St. George, Madras said to be the first English settlement in India
India
during 1609

Surrender of the City of Madras in 1746 to de La Bourdonnais, by Jacques François Joseph Swebach

An 18th-century portrait depicting Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India
India
and the foundation stone of Chennai

St.Thomas Mount, Chennai

Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram
Pallavaram
in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI), Pallavaram
Pallavaram
was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.[46] The region around Chennai
Chennai
has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries. During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar
Thiruvalluvar
lived in the town of Mylapore
Mylapore
(a neighbourhood of present Chennai).[47] From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and parts of South India
India
was ruled by the Cholas.[48] The Pallavas
Pallavas
of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras, Cholas
Cholas
and Pandyas
Pandyas
who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period.[49] Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period.[50] The Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian
Christian
apostle, St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai.[51] On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India
India
Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti
Nayak of Kalahasti
Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri
Chandragiri
palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.[52] Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful in obtaining the lease of a strip of land about six miles long and one mile inland in return for a yearly sum of five hundred lakh pagodas.[53][54][55] The region was then primarily a fishing village known as "Madraspatnam".[50] A year later, the Company built Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India,[56] which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort.[57] Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010, but shortly afterwards it was again moved back to Fort St. George, due to a change in the Government.[58] In 1746, Fort St. George
Fort St. George
and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius, who plundered the town and its outlying villages.[51] The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and strengthened the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore.[59] They resisted a French siege attempt in 1759 under the leadership of Eyre Coote.[60] In 1769 the city was threatened by Mysore and the British were defeated by Hyder Ali, after which the Treaty of Madras ended the war.[61] By the 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and the northern modern–day states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka, establishing the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
with Madras as the capital.[62]

Map of Madras, ca 1914

Gradually, the city grew into a major naval base and became the central administrative centre for the British in South India.[63] With the advent of railways in India
India
in the 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland.[64] Sir Arthur Lawley
Arthur Lawley
was Governor of Madras from 1906 to 1911 and promoted modern agriculture, industry, railways, education, the arts and more democratic governance.[65] The Governor lived in Government House, Fort St George, and had a country home at Guindy, with access to a golf course, hockey pitches, riding stables and the Guindy
Guindy
Horse Racing Track.[66][67] In the First World War as Red Cross Commissioner in Mesopotamia, he looked after the welfare of Indian soldiers.[68] Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers
Central Powers
during World War I,[69] when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden on 22 September 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean, causing disruption to shipping.[70] After India
India
gained its independence in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras State, which was renamed as Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in 1969.[71] The violent agitations of 1965 against the compulsory imposition of Hindi and in support of English in India
India
in the state marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and eventually it had a big impact on the whole state. Because of Madras and its people, English now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language in India.[72] On 17 July 1996, the city known as Madras was officially renamed Chennai, in line with what was then a nationwide trend to using less Anglicised names.[73] On 26 December 2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai, killing 206 people in Chennai
Chennai
and permanently altering the coastline.[74][75] The 2015 Chennai Floods
2015 Chennai Floods
submerged major portions of the city, killing 269 people and resulting in damages of ₹86.4 billion (US$1 billion).[76][77][78] Environment Geography Main article: Geography of Chennai Chennai
Chennai
is located on the south–eastern coast of India
India
in the north–eastern part of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Its average elevation is around 6.7 metres (22 ft),[79] and its highest point is 60 m (200 ft).[80] Chennai
Chennai
is 2,184 kilometres (1,357 mi) south of Delhi, 1,337 kilometres (831 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 345 kilometres (214 mi) east of Bangalore
Bangalore
by road. Two major rivers flow through Chennai, the Cooum River
Cooum River
(or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River
Adyar River
to the south. A third river, the Kortalaiyar, travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.[81] Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and commercial sources, the Coumm being so heavily polluted it is regarded as the city's eyesore.[82][83] A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals.[84] The Buckingham Canal, 4 km (2.5 mi) inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers. The Otteri Nullah, an east–west stream, runs through north Chennai
Chennai
and meets the Buckingham Canal
Buckingham Canal
at Basin Bridge. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in groundwater.[85]

Satellite image of Chennai

Chennai's soil is mostly clay, shale and sandstone.[86] Clay
Clay
underlies most of the city, chiefly Manali, Kolathur, Maduravoyal, K. K. Nagar, Tambaram, Mudichur, Pallavaram
Pallavaram
Semmencherry, Alapakkam, Vyasarpadi
Vyasarpadi
and Anna Nagar. Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, and include areas such as Tiruvottiyur, George Town, Madhavaram, New Washermanpet, Chepauk, Mylapore, Porur, Adyar, Besant Nagar
Besant Nagar
and Uthandi. In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Areas having hard rock surface include Guindy, Nanganallur, Pallikaranai, Alandur, Jaladampet, Velachery, Adambakkam
Adambakkam
and a part of Saidapet
Saidapet
and Perungudi.[87][88] The ground water table in Chennai
Chennai
is at 4-5m below ground in most of the areas,[88] which was considerably improved and maintained through the mandatory rain water harvesting system.[89] Geology Chennai
Chennai
is classified as being in Seismic Zone III, indicating a moderate risk of damage from earthquakes.[90] Owing to the geotectonic zone the city falls in, the city is considered a potential geothermal energy site. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. It is expected that temperatures of around 200 to 300 C° will be available if the ground were drilled 4 to 5 km deep.[91] The region has the oldest rocks in the country dating back to nearly a billion years.[92] Flora and fauna Main article: Flora and fauna of Chennai The southern stretch of Chennai's coast from Tiruvanmiyur to Neelangarai are favoured by the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles to lay eggs every winter. A large number of cattle egrets, pond herons and other waterbirds can be seen in the rivers of Cooum and Adyar. About 75,000 birds migrate to Chennai
Chennai
every year.[93] Marshy wetlands such as Pallikaranai
Pallikaranai
also play host to a number of migratory birds during the monsoon and winter.[94] Over 300 species of birds have been recorded in the city and its neighbourhood by members of Madras Naturalists' Society since its inception in 1978. Guindy
Guindy
National Park is a protected area within the city limits. Wildlife conservation and research activities take place at Arignar Anna Zoological Park including Olive ridley sea turtle conservation.[95] Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
is a herpetology research station, located 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Chennai.[96] It is India's leading institution for herpeto faunal conservation and the first crocodile breeding centre in Asia.[97] The city's tree cover is estimated to be around 64.06 sq km.[98] The most dominant tree species is the copper pod, followed by Indian beech and Neem. A total of 121 species of trees belonging to 94 genera and 42 families are found in the city.[98] Environment conservation Chennai
Chennai
has three rivers and many lakes spread across the city. Urbanization has led to shrinkage of water bodies and wetlands.[99] The quantity of wetlands in the city has decreased from 650 to only 27 currently.[100] The Chennai
Chennai
River Restoration trust set up by the government is working on the restoration of Adyar river.[101] Environmentalist Foundation of India
India
is a volunteering group working towards wildlife conservation and habitat restoration.[102][103]

Chennai

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    23     29 22

    2.2     30 23

    4     32 25

    7.7     35 27

    44     38 28

    56     36 27

    100     35 26

    140     34 26

    137     33 26

    279     33 24

    407     29 23

    191     28 23

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: [104]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.9     84 71

    0.1     86 73

    0.2     90 76

    0.3     94 81

    1.7     101 82

    2.2     96 81

    3.9     95 79

    5.5     93 79

    5.4     91 79

    11     91 76

    16     84 73

    7.5     82 73

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Climate Chennai
Chennai
has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw). The city lies on the thermal equator[105] and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known regionally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil,[106] with maximum temperatures around 35–40 °C (95–104 °F). The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 19–25 °C (66–77 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was 13.9 °C (57.0 °F) on 11 December 1895 and 29 January 1905.[107] The highest recorded temperature was 45 °C (113 °F) on 31 May 2003.[107] The average annual rainfall is about 140 cm (55 in).[108] The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north–east monsoon winds, from mid–October to mid–December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
sometimes hit the city. The highest annual rainfall recorded is 257 cm (101 in) in 2005.[109] Prevailing winds in Chennai
Chennai
are usually southwesterly between April and October[110] and north-easterly during the rest of the year. Historically, Chennai has relied on the annual rains of the monsoon season to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area.[111] Chennai
Chennai
has a water table at 2 metres for 60 percent of the year.[112]

Climate data for edit Chennai, India
India
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30 (86) 35 (95) 38 (100) 43 (109) 45 (113) 38 (100) 36 (97) 35 (95) 32 (90) 31 (88) 30 (86) 30 (86) 45 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 28.5 (83.3) 29.9 (85.8) 32.1 (89.8) 35.5 (95.9) 36.1 (97) 37.0 (98.6) 35.3 (95.5) 34.7 (94.5) 34.2 (93.6) 32.1 (89.8) 28.9 (84) 27.9 (82.2) 33.1 (91.6)

Average low °C (°F) 19.2 (66.6) 20.2 (68.4) 21.2 (70.2) 25.6 (78.1) 27.0 (80.6) 27.5 (81.5) 25.4 (77.7) 24.9 (76.8) 24.6 (76.3) 23.6 (74.5) 22.1 (71.8) 21.9 (71.4) 24.8 (76.6)

Record low °C (°F) 13.9 (57) 15.0 (59) 16.7 (62.1) 20.0 (68) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 21.0 (69.8) 20.6 (69.1) 18.6 (65.5) 15.7 (60.3) 15.0 (59) 13.9 (57) 13.9 (57)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 25.9 (1.02) 3.4 (0.134) 3.5 (0.138) 14.4 (0.567) 34.2 (1.346) 95.8 (3.772) 103.8 (4.087) 126.8 (4.992) 147.7 (5.815) 315.6 (12.425) 374.4 (14.74) 177 (6.97) 1,382.9 (54.445)

Average rainy days 1.4 0.8 0.3 0.8 1.8 4.0 6.5 7.7 7.3 14.9 17.5 5.8 58.8

Average relative humidity (%) 73 72 70 69 62 57 64 66 72 77 78 77 70

Mean monthly sunshine hours 268.3 268.1 293.6 290.2 279.9 202.6 185.2 193.6 198.6 194.6 182.7 204.3 2,761.7

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department (temperatures and precipitation)[113][114]

Source #2: NOAA (sunshine duration and humidity 1971–1990)[115]

NE Monsoon
Monsoon
in Chennai The city of Chennai
Chennai
is located on the east coast of India, which is also known as the Coromandel Coast. Chennai
Chennai
is largely dependent on NE monsoon, since 65% of rains are received in this season. Cyclones and depressions are common features during the season. Cyclones in particular are really unpredictable. They can even move towards Orissa, west Bengal, Bangladesh, and also Myanmar. The season between October and December is referred as the NE monsoon period.[116] Floods are common during this period. In 2015 Chennai
Chennai
received record breaking rains since 1918, which caused massive floods. Cyclones are highly unpredictable. The entire east coast is vulnerable during the monsoon period. For example, In 2007 a major cyclone named " Cyclone
Cyclone
Sidr" skipped Chennai
Chennai
and headed towards Bangladesh. The result was a failure of NE monsoon in Chennai, that particular year. Even in the past,there has been many occasions where Cyclones had a great influence in the monsoon. Administration Main article: Administration of Chennai

The Ripon Building, commissioned in 1913, houses the Chennai Corporation

Chennai
Chennai
city is governed by the Greater Chennai Corporation
Greater Chennai Corporation
(formerly "Corporation of Madras"), which was established in 1688. It is the oldest surviving municipal corporation in India
India
and the second oldest surviving corporation in the world.[117][118] In 2011, the jurisdiction of the Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation
was expanded from 174 km2 (67 sq mi) to an area of 426 km2 (164 sq mi),[119] dividing into three regions—North, South and Central, which covers 200 wards.[120][121] The corporation is headed by a mayor, an office presently occupied by Saidai Sa. Duraisamy.[122][123] The Mayor and councillors of the city are elected through a popular vote by the residents.[124] While the city limit was expanded in 2011, the revised population is yet to be officially announced. The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority
Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority
(CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible for planning and development of Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is spread over an area of 1,189 km2 (459 sq mi),[125] covering the Chennai district
Chennai district
and parts of Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
and Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
districts. The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 parliamentary and 28 assembly constituencies.[126][127] The CMDA has drafted an additional Master Plan that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. The city's contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
in the south, Chengalpattu
Chengalpattu
and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumpudur, Arakkonam, Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
and Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
to the west.[128] Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings in the Fort St George campus. The Madras High Court, is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Puducherry.[129] Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies— Chennai
Chennai
North, Chennai Central and Chennai
Chennai
South—and elects 24 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.[130] Law and order

Madras High Court

The Greater Chennai Police
Greater Chennai Police
is the main law enforcement agency in the city, with a jurisdiction of over 745 km2 (288 sq mi) catering to over 85 lakh people. It consists of 121 Police stations and is headed by a commissioner of police. The Greater Chennai
Chennai
Police is a division of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police, and the administrative control lies with the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Home Ministry.[131] Chennai
Chennai
City Traffic Police (CCTP) is responsible for the traffic management in the city. The metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Police, headed by the Chennai
Chennai
Police Commissionerate, and the outer district areas of the CMDA are policed by the Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
and Thiruvallur
Thiruvallur
police departments.[132][133][134]

A police patrol car

As of 2011[update] (prior to the expansion of Chennai
Chennai
Corporation area), Chennai
Chennai
city has a sanctioned strength of 14,000 police personnel. With a population density of 26,903 persons per square kilometre, the city had 1 policeman for every 413 people. The Chennai suburban police had about 4,093 police personnel and a ratio of 1:1,222.[135] In 2010, the crime rate in the city was 169.2 per 100,000 people, as against an average of 341.9 in the 35 major cities of India.[136] In 2011, North Chennai zone had 30 police stations and 3 police out posts, Central Chennai zone had 28 police stations and 3 police out posts, and South Chennai zone had 30 police stations.[137] In 2009, Chennai Central
Chennai Central
Prison, one of the oldest prisons in India, built over 11 acres (4 ha) of land, was demolished; the prisoners were moved to Puzhal
Puzhal
Central Prison.[138] Politics Since the 19th century, when Western scholars proposed that Dravidian languages, which dominated the southern region of India, formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
that are predominant in the north of the subcontinent, the aspects of Tamil nationalism gained prominence. This resulted in the Anti-Hindi agitations in the city and across the state. However, the post-Independence re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations
Anti-Hindi agitations
in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and more powerful political force in the state. The agitations of the 1960s played a crucial role in the defeat of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Congress party in the 1967 elections and the continuing dominance of Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
politics.[139]

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
legislative assembly

Being the capital of the Madras Province
Madras Province
that covered a vast area of the Deccan region, Chennai
Chennai
remained the centre of politics in the southern region of India
India
during the British colonial era. After Independence, it remained the centre of political activities of the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai
Chennai
is the birthplace of the idea of the Indian National Congress, commonly known as the Congress Party. Founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume,[140] the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in the city in December 1884.[141] During the first 50 years of the Indian National Congress, the city played host to its conferences seven times in 1887, 1894, 1898, 1903, 1908, 1914 and 1927, becoming one of the strong bases for the Indian independence movement. After independence, the city hosted the Congress in 1955 in its suburb of Avadi.[142] Chennai
Chennai
is also the birthplace of several regional political movements since the British era. South Indian Welfare Association, one of the earliest regional parties, was founded in 1916, which later came to be known as the Justice Party, which was the main opposition party to the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in the state.[143][144] In 1944, the party was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) by E. V. Ramasami
E. V. Ramasami
(popularly known as 'Periyar'). The party was a non-political party that demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu.[145] However, due to the differences between its two leaders Periyar and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK). The DMK decided to enter into politics in 1956. Utility services See also: Water management in Chennai The city's water supply and sewage treatment are managed by the Chennai
Chennai
MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board. Water is drawn from Red Hills Lake and Chembarambakkam
Chembarambakkam
Lake, the primary water reservoirs of the city,[146] and treated at water treatment plants located at Kilpauk, Puzhal, Chembarambakkam[147] and supplied to the city through 27 water distribution stations.[148] The city receives 530 million liters per day (mld) of water from Krishna River
Krishna River
through Telugu Ganga project, 180 mld of water from the Veeranam
Veeranam
lake project[147] and 100 mld of water from the Minjur
Minjur
desalination plant, the country's largest sea water desalination plant.[149][150][151] However, Chennai
Chennai
is predicted to face a huge deficit of 713 mld in 2026 as the demand is projected at 2,248 mld and supply estimated at only 1,535 mld.[152] The city's sewer system was designed in 1910, with some modifications in 1958.[153] There are 714 public toilets in the city managed by the city corporation,[154] and 2,000 more have been planned by the corporation.[155] The corporation also owns 52 community halls across the city.[156] The Corporation of Chennai
Corporation of Chennai
provides civic services to the city. Garbage collection in some of the wards is contracted to Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited, a private company,[157] while the Corporation looks after the removal and processing of solid waste in the others,[158] with a superintendent engineer managing the channels. As of 2011[update], 8 transfer stations exist within the city for treating the waste.[159] Garbage is dumped in two dump-yards in the city—One in Kodungaiyur
Kodungaiyur
and another in Perungudi, with a major portion of the latter covering the Pallikaranai
Pallikaranai
marshland.[160] In market areas, the conservancy work is done during the night.[161] Electricity is distributed by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board.[162] Fire services are handled by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Fire and Rescue Services.[163] The city, along with the suburbs, has 33 operating fire stations.[164] Architecture Main article: Architecture of Chennai See also: List of tallest buildings in Chennai
List of tallest buildings in Chennai
and Heritage structures in Chennai

Parry's Corner, one of the oldest business areas of Chennai, lined up with Art Deco
Art Deco
buildings.

With the history of many neighbourhoods of the city such as Mylapore and Triplicane
Triplicane
antedating that of the city, the architecture of Chennai
Chennai
ranges in a wide chronology. The oldest buildings in the city dates from the 7th and 8th centuries CE, which include the Kapaleeshwarar Temple
Kapaleeshwarar Temple
in Mylapore
Mylapore
and the Parthasarathy Temple
Parthasarathy Temple
in Triplicane, built in the Dravidian architecture. This architecture includes various styles, such as those of the Pallavas, the Cholas, and the Vijayanagara empires. The associated Agraharam architecture, which consists of traditional row houses surrounding a temple, can still be seen in these areas.[165][166] The heritage temples at Mamallapuram
Mamallapuram
at the outskirts of the city are some of the examples of the Pallava architecture. Chennai
Chennai
ranks second to Kolkata
Kolkata
of Indian heritage buildings.[167] With the advent of the Mugals and the British, the city saw a rise in a blend of Hindu, Islamic
Islamic
and Gothic revival
Gothic revival
styles, resulting in the distinct Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style.[168] The architecture for several early institutions such as banking and commerce, railways, press and education, chiefly through the colonial rule, followed the earlier directions of the Neo-Classical and the Indo-Saracenic.[169] The Chepauk
Chepauk
Palace in the city, designed by Paul Benfield, is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
building in India.[170] Since then, many of the colonial-era buildings in the city were designed in this style of architecture, which is most apparent around the Fort St. George
Fort St. George
built in 1640. Most of these were designed by English architects Robert Fellowes Chisholm and Henry Irwin. The best examples of this style include the Madras High Court
Madras High Court
(built in 1892), Southern Railway headquarters, Ripon Building, Government Museum, Senate House of the University of Madras, Amir Mahal, Bharat Insurance Building, Victoria Public Hall and the College of Engineering.[171]

Triumph of Labour

Southern Railway Headquarters, one of the fine examples of Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
architecture in the city

The Triumph of Labour, also known as the Labour statue, is a statue at the Marina Beach, Chennai, India. Erected at the northern end of the beach at the Anna Square opposite University of Madras, it is an important landmark of Chennai.The statue shows four men toiling to move a rock, depicting the hard work of the labouring class.It was sculpted by Debi Prasad Roy Chowdhry.[172] The construction of the National Art Gallery in Madras was completed in 1909. The new building, with a stunning façade, was built of pink sandstone brought from Sathyavedu, and formed part of the Madras Museum campus. It was opened, on 23 January 1909, by the Governor of Fort St. George, Sir Arthur Lawley, and called the Victoria Memorial Hall after the Queen-Empress Victoria.[173][174][175] The residential architecture in the city was based on the bungalow or the continuous row house prototypes.[169] Gothic revival
Gothic revival
style buildings include the Chennai Central
Chennai Central
and Chennai Egmore
Chennai Egmore
railway stations. The Santhome Church, which was originally built by the Portuguese in 1523 and is believed to house the remains of the apostle St. Thomas, was rebuilt in 1893 in neo-Gothic style.[176] By the early 20th century, the art deco too made its entry upon the city's urban landscape. From the 1930s onwards, many buildings in George Town were built in this style, including the United India building (presently housing LIC) and the Burma Shell building (presently the Chennai
Chennai
House), both built in the 1930s, and the Dare House, built in 1940. Other examples include the Bombay Mutual building (presently housing LIC) and the South Indian Chamber of Commerce building.[169] After Independence, the city witnessed a rise in the Modernism
Modernism
style of architecture.[169] The completion of the LIC Building in 1959, the tallest building in the country at that time,[177] marked the transition from lime-and-brick construction to concrete columns in the region.[178] The presence of the weather radar at the Chennai
Chennai
Port, however, prohibited the construction of buildings taller than 60 m around a radius of 10 km.[179] In addition, the floor-area ratio (FAR) in the central business district is also 1.5, much less than that of smaller cities of the country. This resulted in the city expanding horizontally, unlike other metropolitan cities where vertical growth is prominent. On the contrary, the peripheral regions, especially on the southern and south-western sides, are experiencing vertical growth with the construction of buildings up to 60 floors. Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Chennai and Religion in Chennai

Population of Chennai
Chennai
city 

Census Pop.

1791 300,000

1871 367,552

1881 405,848

10.4%

1891 452,518

11.5%

1901 509,346

12.6%

1911 518,660

1.8%

1921 526,911

1.6%

1931 647,232

22.8%

1941 777,481

20.1%

1951 1,416,056

82.1%

1961 1,729,141

22.1%

1971 2,469,449

42.8%

1981 3,266,034

32.3%

1991 3,841,396

17.6%

2001 4,343,645

13.1%

2011 7,088,000

63.2%

Sources: * 1639–1791:[180] * 1871–1901:[181] * 1871–1931:[182] * 1931–1951:[183] * 1951–1961:[184] * 1991–2001:[185] * 2001:[186] 2011:[2]

A resident of Chennai
Chennai
is called a Chennaite.[187][188][189] According to 2011 census, the city had a population of 4,646,732, within the area administered by the Municipal Corporation;[190] that had 11 lakh households, with 51% of them living in rented houses.[191] The city's limits were expanded later in 2011 and its population reached 7,088,000[2] with Chennai
Chennai
Municipal Corporation being renamed as Greater Chennai
Chennai
Corporation.[2] Tamils form the majority of Chennai's population. English is spoken largely by white-collar workers,[192] often mixed into Tamil.[193] In 2001, out of the 2,937,000 migrants (33.8% of its population) in the city, 61.5% were from other parts of the state, 33.8% were from rest of India
India
and 3.7% were from outside the country.[194] As per the 2001 census, the number of speakers mother tongue wise are as follows, Tamil is spoken by 3,424,107 (78.83%), followed by Telugu by 419,209 (9.65%), Urdu by 180,245 (4.1%), Malayalam by 113,828 (2.6%), Hindi by 104,084 (2.39%), and Kannada by 22,250 (0.5%).[195] Chennai, along with Mumbai, Delhi
Delhi
and Kolkata, is one of the few Indian cities that are home to a diverse population of ethno-religious communities.[196] Minorities include Telugus, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Parsis,[197][198] Sindhis,[199][200] Odias,[201] Goans,[202] Kannadigas,[203] Anglo-Indians,[204] Bengalis,[205] Punjabi,[206] and Malayalees. As per the religious census of 2011, Chennai's population was 80.73% Hindu, 9.45% Muslim, 7.72% Christian, 1.11% Jain, 0.06% Sikh, 0.06% Buddhist, 0.04% following other religions and 0.83% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.[207] Housing See also: List of tallest buildings in Chennai In a 2013 survey titled 'Emerging trends in real estate in Asia Pacific 2014', Chennai
Chennai
emerged in the top 25 real estate destinations list in the Asia
Asia
Pacific region. The city ranked 22nd in the list.[208] There are about 1,240 slums in Chennai
Chennai
home to about 9 lakh people.[209] Per 2011 census, there are 1.1 million households in the city and the residential housing stock available is 1,150,000 – a surplus of about 50,000 houses. About 43,700 of them are kept vacant. In the suburbs of Chennai
Chennai
located in Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
and Kancheepuram
Kancheepuram
districts, the figures of vacant houses 56,000 and 71,000, respectively. Of the existing housing stock in the city, about 200,000 houses are not in good condition, necessitating either to rebuild or build new units. About 26,000 households live in houses without any room and another 427,000 families (with an average size of five members) live in small dwelling units with only one room. An earlier estimate shows that there is a need to generate about 420,000 units for low-income groups by 2016.[210] As of 2012[update], an estimated population of 11,116 (0.16 percent) were homeless. Per Supreme Court guidelines, the city needs 65 shelters for the homeless. However, it has only 15, of which 8 are functioning and two are under renovation.[211] As of 2017, there are more than 2.2 million households, with 40 percent of the residents without owning a house.[212] Arts and culture Main article: Culture of Chennai See also: Tamil culture Museums and art galleries

National Art Gallery (Chennai)

Chennai
Chennai
is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.[213] The city also has one of the oldest Museum and Art Gallery in the country- Government Museum, Chennai
Chennai
and The National Art Gallery (Chennai),[214] established in the early 18th century.[215] The city also hosts two art festivals annually. The "Fort Museum" inside the premises of Fort St. George is an important museum having a noteworthy collection of objects of the British era in its collection.[216] The museum is managed by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
and has in its possession, the first Flag of India
India
hoisted at Fort St George
Fort St George
after the declaration of India's Independence on 15 August 1947.[217] Music and performing arts

MGR Memorial at Marina beach, Chennai

Chennai
Chennai
is a major centre for music, art and culture in India.[218] The city is known for its classical dance shows. In 1930, for the first time in India, Madras University
Madras University
introduced a course of music, as part of the Bachelor of Arts curriculum.[219] The Madras Music Season, initiated by Madras Music Academy
Madras Music Academy
in 1927, is celebrated every year during the month of December.[220] It features performances of traditional Carnatic music
Carnatic music
by many artists in and around the city.[221] An arts festival called the Chennai
Chennai
Sangamam, which showcases not only various arts of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
but also from the neighbouring states, like kalari (from Kerala), which is a major attraction, is held in January every year. The Speciality of Chennai Sangamam
Chennai Sangamam
is that the various programmes are held near or at the various famous landmarks in the city so that everyone in the city has access to the programmes and there is no fee charged for entry for any of the programmes.[222] Pookolam, a form of art that uses coloured flour to create patterns and designs, comes from Kerala, but can be seen in abundance at the time of Onam.[223] The city has a diverse theatre scene and is one of the important centres for Bharata Natyam, a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and is the oldest dance of India.[224] An important cultural centre for Bharata Natyam
Bharata Natyam
is Kalakshetra, on the beach in the south of the city.[225] In 2012, a group of five Bharatha Natyam dancers from Chennai
Chennai
performed at the India
India
Campaign during the 2012 Summer Olympics.[226] Chennai
Chennai
has been featured in UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Network (UCCN) list since October 2017 for its century-old musical tradition.[27] Chennai
Chennai
is also home to some choirs, who during the Christmas season stage various carol performances across the city in Tamil and English.[227][228] Cityscape

Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu

Hyatt Regency Hotel, Chennai

Madras is divided into four broad regions: North, Central, South and West. North Madras is primarily an industrial area. South Madras and West Madras, previously mostly residential, are fast becoming commercial, home to a growing number of information technology firms, financial companies and call centres. The city is expanding quickly along the Old Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
Road and the Grand Southern Trunk Road (GST Road) in the south and towards Ambattur, Koyambedu
Koyambedu
and Sriperumbdur in the west.[229] Central Madras comprises residential elements, but is primarily home to the downtown area, and surrounding areas, the most visited by travellers to the city. The financial district is also located here.[230] Tourism and hospitality Main article: Tourism in Chennai

ITC Grand Chola
Chola
Hotel, Chennai
Chennai
is a prominent hotel in India

With temples, beaches and centres of historical and cultural significance, including the UNESCO
UNESCO
Heritage Site of Mahabalipuram, Chennai
Chennai
is one of the most visited cities in India. The city serves as the gateway to the southern part of India
India
with tourists landing in the city and starting their trip to the rest of the region. Chennai
Chennai
was the most visited Indian city by foreign tourists in 2009 and issued the third highest number of visas on arrival in 2014.[231][232] In 2011, Chennai
Chennai
was ranked 41st in global top 100 city destination ranking, with 3,174,500 tourists, a 14 percent increase from 2010.[233] About 830,620 domestic tourists arrived in Chennai
Chennai
in March 2011.[234] Top foreign nationals visiting the city include those from Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, United Kingdom, France
France
and United States. In 2015, the city received 4,243,700 foreign tourists making it the 3rd most visited city in India
India
after Delhi
Delhi
and Mumbai
Mumbai
and 43rd most visited city in the world by foreign tourists.[14] As of 2012[update], the city had 21 luxury hotels in the five-star category, with over 4,500 rooms in the inventory.[235] Entertainment

Marina Beach
Marina Beach
is a famous landmark. It is the second largest beach in the world

Chennai
Chennai
is the base for the Tamil film industry, known as Kollywood. Many film personalities have gone on to become politicians including C.N.Annadurai, M. Karunanidhi, M.G. Ramachandran
M.G. Ramachandran
and J. Jayalalithaa.[236] Chennai
Chennai
hosts major film studios, including AVM Productions, the oldest surviving studio in India.[237] As of 2012[update], there are 120 cinema screens and multiplexes. Major multiplexes include Sathyam Cinemas, Escape cinemas, Devi, Abirami complex and Mayajaal.[238] Chennai's expansive theatre network stages many Tamil plays of many genres: political satire, slapstick comedy, history, mythology and drama.[239][240][241] English plays are popular in the city, along with the more common Tamil-language plays.[242] Recreation Main article: Parks in Chennai Zoo, beaches, and wildlife parks form the primary recreation areas of the city. Chennai
Chennai
has a total coast length of more than 19 km. Marina Beach
Marina Beach
runs for 6 km (3.7 mi), spanning along the shoreline of the city between the deltas of Cooum and Adyar, and is the second longest urban beach in the world.[243] Elliot's Beach
Elliot's Beach
lies south of the Adyar delta. Covelong
Covelong
beach lies along the coromandal coast.[244]

Express Avenue
Express Avenue
shopping mall

Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
Madras Crocodile Bank Trust
is a reptile zoo located 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of the city covering an area of 8.5 acres (3.4 ha) and had over 450,000 visitors in 2007. The center has one of the world's largest collections of reptiles and has bred 14 of the 23 existing species of crocodiles and alligators.[245] The Arignar Anna Zoological Park, one of the largest zoological parks in the world, attracts nearly 20 lakh visitors per year.[246] The city boasts two popular beaches, the Marina and Elliot's. Guindy
Guindy
National Park, a protected area of Tamil Nadu, has a children's park and a snake park, which gained statutory recognition as a medium zoo from the Central Zoo
Zoo
Authority of India
India
in 1995. Chennai
Chennai
is one of the few cities in the world that accommodates a national park, the Guindy
Guindy
National Park, within its limits.[247] The city has an estimated 4.5 percent of its area under green cover.[248] This enables Chennai
Chennai
residents to go birding. The seven zones of the old corporation limits has about 260 parks, many of which suffer poor maintenance.[249] The city has a per capita park space of 0.41 sq m, which is the least among all metros in India.[249] The eight zones in the newly added areas of the city have about 265 locations that have been identified for development of new parks.[250] The largest among the parks is the 358-acre Tholkappia Poonga, developed to restore the fragile ecosystem of the Adyar estuary.[251] The horticulture department-owned Semmozhi Poonga is a 20-acre botanical garden located in the downtown.[252] Chennai
Chennai
houses several theme parks, namely MGM Dizzee World
MGM Dizzee World
and Queens Land.[253][254] The safety of several amusement parks has been questioned after several fatal accidents occurred.[255] Wonderla
Wonderla
is planning to open an amusement park in 2017.[256] Other important recreation centres include Madras Boat Club, which is over 140 years old, and Gymkhana Club, which is famous for its 18-hole golf courses. Built in 1867, Madras Boat Club is the second oldest surviving Indian rowing club.[257] Shopping See also: Shopping in Chennai Chennai
Chennai
is home to several malls, due to its status as an IT hub.[258][259][260] Major ones include Express Avenue
Express Avenue
(EA), Citi Centre, Abirami mega mall, Spencer Plaza, Ampa Skywalk, Phoenix Market City and Forum Vijaya Mall.[261] Chennai
Chennai
is an important gold market in India
India
contributing to 45 percent of the 800-tonne annual national gold uptake.[262] The city is also the base to the World Gold Council's India
India
operations. The city's retail industry is majorly concentrated in T. Nagar
T. Nagar
which accounts for major share jewellery and clothes sold in Chennai.[262] According to the 2012 report by property consultant Cushman & Wakefield, Main Streets Across the World, Khader Nawaz Khan Road at Nungambakkam
Nungambakkam
ranked 10th position in the list of 'Top 10 Global Highest Retail Rental Growth Markets 2012', with 36.7 percent jump in rents.[263] Economy Main article: Economy of Chennai

India
India
Land Tech Park, Ambattur

Infosys
Infosys
at Mahindra World City, Chennai

TATA Consultancy Services, Chennai

Cognizant's Delivery Center in Chennai

Recent estimates of the economy of the entire Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area range from $58.6 to $66 billion (PPP GDP), ranking it from fourth- to sixth-most productive metro area of India.[11][10][264] Chennai
Chennai
has a broad industrial base in the automobile, computer, technology, hardware manufacturing and healthcare sectors. As of 2012[update], the city is India's second largest exporter of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) services.[265][266] A major part of India's automobile industry is located in and around the city thus earning it the nickname "Detroit of India".[267][268][269][270] It is known as the Cultural Capital of South India
India
[271] and is the third most visited city in India
India
by international tourists according to Euromonitor.[14] The city also serves as the location of the Madras Stock Exchange, India's fourth stock exchange, one of four permanently recognised by SEBI, and India's third-largest by trading volume, ranked behind the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India.[272] Industrialisation in the city dates back to the 16th century, when textile mills manufactured goods which were exported to British during its war with France. According to Forbes
Forbes
magazine, Chennai
Chennai
is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and is rated in the "Forbes-Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the World".[273] It is ranked 4th in hosting the maximum number of Fortune 500 companies of India, next only to Mumbai, Delhi
Delhi
and Kolkata. It also is home to 24 Indian companies having a net worth of more than US$1 billion. As of 2012[update], the city has about 34,260 identified companies in its 15 zones, of which 5,196 companies have a paid-up the capital of over ₹ 50 lakh.[274] Chennai
Chennai
has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, health care and financial services industries.[265] According to the Confederation of Indian Industry, Chennai
Chennai
is estimated to grow to a US$100–billion economy, 2.5 times its present size, by the year 2025.[275] As of 2012[update], with ₹ 1 lakh crore investment in the pipeline over 5 years, the city is poised for major industrial investment.[276] Chennai
Chennai
is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Beta[277] based on the extent of global reach and financial influence.[278] The city is base to around 40 percent of India's automobile industry and 45 percent of auto components industry.[279] A large number of automotive companies including Royal enfield, Hyundai, Renault, Robert Bosch, Nissan Motors, Ashok Leyland, Yamaha Motor, Daimler AG, Caterpillar Inc., Komatsu Limited, BharatBenz, Ford, BMW
BMW
and Mitsubishi have manufacturing plants in Chennai.[280] The Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi
Avadi
produces military vehicles, including India's main battle tank: Arjun MBT.[281] The Integral Coach Factory manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways.[282] The Ambattur–Padi industrial zone houses many textile manufacturers, and a special economic zone (SEZ) for apparel and footwear manufacturing has been set up in the southern suburbs of the city.[283] Chennai
Chennai
contributes more than 50 percent of India's leather exports.[284] Many software and software services companies have development centres in Chennai, which contributed 14 percent of India's total software exports of ₹ 14,42,140 lakh during 2006–07, making it the second largest Indian city software exporter following Bangalore.[265] The Tidel Park
Tidel Park
in Chennai
Chennai
was billed as Asia's largest IT park when it was built.[285][286] Major software companies have their offices set up here, with some of them making Chennai
Chennai
their largest base.[266]

Tidel Park

Prominent financial institutions, including the World Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN AMRO, Bank of America, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Goldman Sachs, Barclays, HSBC, ING Group, Allianz, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, Asian Development Bank, Credit Suisse, BNP Paribas Fortis, Irevna, Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
and Citibank
Citibank
have back office and development centre operations in the city.[287] Chennai
Chennai
is home to the national level commercial banks Indian Bank[288] and Indian Overseas Bank[289][290] and many state level co–operative banks, finance and insurance companies. Telecom and Electronics manufacturers based in and around Chennai
Chennai
include Samsung, Nokia Siemens, Motorola, Lenovo, Dell, Force10, Wipro, Flextronics
Flextronics
and Siemens
Siemens
among others. Chennai
Chennai
is currently the largest electronics hardware exporter in India, accounting for 45% of the total exports in 2010–11.[291] Telecom giants Ericsson
Ericsson
and Alcatel-Lucent, pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer
Pfizer
and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals have research and development facilities in Chennai. The TICEL bio–tech park at Taramani[292] and Golden Jubilee bio–tech park at Siruseri[293] houses biotechnology companies and laboratories. Chennai
Chennai
has a stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange.[294][295] A study conducted by the National Housing Bank on the residential price index of Indian cities showed that Chennai
Chennai
experienced the highest growth after the 2008–2012 global financial crisis.[296] Medical tourism
Medical tourism
is an important part of Chennai's economy with 45 percent of total medical tourists to India
India
making to Chennai.[297] The Tamil film industry[298] and the Tamil television industry are also significant parts of Chennai's economy. The city also has a permanent exhibition complex in Nandambakkam
Nandambakkam
called the Chennai
Chennai
Trade Centre.[299] With 385 ultra-rich living in the city, Chennai
Chennai
is positioned in the sixth place among Indian cities that are home to the country's super-rich.[300] The city is the third largest market in India
India
for luxury cars.[301] Communication Chennai
Chennai
is one of four Indian cities connected to the rest of the world by undersea fibre-optic cables, the other three being Mumbai, Kochi, and Tuticorin. The city is the landing point of major submarine telecommunication cable networks such as SMW4 (connecting India
India
with Western Europe, Middle East and Southeast Asia), i2i (connecting India with Singapore), TIC (connecting India
India
with Singapore), and BRICS (connecting India
India
with Brasil, Russia, China
China
and South Africa). The 3,175-km-long, 8-fiber-paired i2i has the world's largest design capacity of 8.4 terabits per second.[302][303][304][305] As of 2013[update], eight mobile phone service companies operate seven GSM
GSM
networks including Airtel, Aircel, BSNL, Vodafone, Tata Docomo GSM, Idea, Reliance GSM
GSM
and three CDMA
CDMA
networks including MTS, Relaince CDMA, Tata Docomo CDMA
CDMA
in the city. 2G Mobile internet connections are provided by all the operators and 4G, 3G mobile broadband are provided by few operators in the city. There are four land line companies [306][307] providing Commercial and domestic broadband Internet services. Chennai
Chennai
was the first Indian city to deploy Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
internet access in a widespread manner.[308] As of 2010[update], there were 9.8 million mobile phone users in Chennai.[309] In 2010, Chennai
Chennai
had the fourth highest number of active Internet users in India, with 2.2 million users.[310] As of 2018, the city topped in broadband speed among Indian cities, with a recorded download speed of 32.67 Mbps.[311] Power Major power plants in the city include North Chennai Thermal Power Station, GMR Vasavi Diesel Power Plant, Ennore
Ennore
Thermal Power Station, Basin Bridge
Basin Bridge
Gas Turbine Power Station, Madras Atomic Power Station and Vallur
Vallur
Thermal Power Project. According to the Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited (TANGEDCO), as of 2013[update], the city consumes about 20 percent of the electricity in the state of Tamil Nadu. The peak evening demand of the city is 1,500 MW which is about 50 percent of the state's peak evening demand of 3,000 megawatt. This includes 37 percent consumption by the industrial sector, 30 percent by the domestic sector, 18 percent by the agricultural sector, and 11.5 percent by the commercial sector. The peak power consumption is for four months between May and August, with the city consuming the highest during June because it is when the summer peaks. On 20 June 2013, the city consumed the highest of 52,785 MU.[312] As of 2014[update], the city consumes around 3.83 crore units of power a day or 1,400 crore units annually. Hourly consumption of power in the city is about 2,000 to 3,000 MW.[313] Availability of power in the city has become a concern in recent years due to increasing demand and slow paced addition of power plants, due to which scheduled power cuts have become increasingly common. However, this situation was eradicated by the end of 2014.[314][315] As of 2016[update], the total electricity consumption by the street lamps in the city is 27 MW, costing about ₹ 60,000,000 per month.[316] The 426 sq km of the city has over 248,000 streetlights, including 88,000 in the newly expanded areas.[317] Banking The Reserve Bank of India
India
ranked Chennai
Chennai
as third largest deposit centre and third largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. Prior to the advent of modern commercial banks, the banking services in the city were offered to the public by Nattukottai Chettiars or Nagarathars, chiefly in and around the neighbourhood of George Town, who offered loans as well as accepted money deposits from the public, in addition to offering loans to the agricultural labourers. Even today, many of the banking offices are housed in heritage structures belonging to the colonial era that are chiefly clustered around Rajaji road in George Town.[318] Chennai
Chennai
is home to the first European-style banking system in India
India
with the establishment of the 'Madras Bank' on 21 June 1683, almost a century before the establishment of the first commercial banks, such as the Bank of Hindustan and the General Bank of India, which were established in 1770 and 1786, respectively.[319] Upon the recommendation of the British Finance Committee on the formation of a government bank, the Madras Bank, then known as the 'Government Bank', started functioning again from 1806. In 1843, the bank merged with the Carnatic Bank (1788), the British Bank of Madras (1795) and the Asiatic Bank (1804) and became the Bank of Madras, which was one of the three Presidency banks of India, the other two being the Bank of Bengal
Bengal
and the Bank of Bombay. In 1921, the three Presidency banks merged to form the Imperial Bank of India, which later became the State Bank of India
India
in 1955.[320] Chennai
Chennai
is the headquarters of the Indian Bank, the Indian Overseas Bank and the erstwhile Bharat Overseas Bank, which merged with the Indian Overseas Bank
Indian Overseas Bank
in 2007.[321] The city is home to the south zonal office of the Reserve Bank of India, the country's central bank, along with its zonal training centre and Reserve Bank Staff College, one of the two colleges of the bank.[322] The city also houses the permanent back office of the World Bank, which is one of the largest buildings owned by the bank outside its headquarters in Washington, DC.[323] The Chennai
Chennai
office handles corporate financial, accounting, administrative and IT services of the bank, in addition to several value-added operations of the bank that were earlier handled only in its Washington, DC
Washington, DC
office, including the bank's analytical work in bond valuation which is estimated to be US$100 billion.[324] Several foreign banks have established their branches in the city. The first Sri Lankan Bank in India
India
was established when the Bank of Ceylon opened its branch in Madras on 31 October 1995.[325] Health care Main article: Healthcare in Chennai

Government General Hospital

Chennai
Chennai
has world-class medical facilities, including both government-run and private hospitals. The government-aided hospitals include General Hospital, Adyar Cancer Institute, TB Sanatorium, and National Institute of Siddha. The National Institute of Siddha
National Institute of Siddha
is one of the seven apex national-level educational institutions that promote excellence in Indian system of medicine and Ayurveda.[326] Major hospitals in Chennai
Chennai
include Apollo Hospitals, Apollo Speciality Hospital, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chettinad Health City, MIOT Hospitals, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Fortis Malar Hospital, Lifeline Hospitals, Vasan Healthcare, Dr Mehta Hospitals, Global Hospitals & Health City, Sankara Nethralaya and Vijaya Medical & Educational Trust.[327] Chennai
Chennai
attracts about 45 percent of health tourists from abroad and 30 percent to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. The city has been termed India's health capital.[234][328][329] The city has more than 12,500 beds in its hospitals,[330] including about 5,000 in multi-specialty hospitals in the private sector and over 6,000 beds in the public sector.[331] This works to 2.1 beds per 1,000 population against the national average of less than 1 bed per 1,000 population and the World Health Organisation's norms of 3 beds per 1,000 persons, higher than any other city in the country. Waste management The city generates 4,500 tonnes of garbage every day of which 429 tonnes are plastic waste.[332] The city has three dumpyards, one each at Perungudi, Kodungaiyur, and Pallikaranai. The corporation has planned to close these yards and create four new dumpyards at Malaipattu, Minjur, Vallur
Vallur
and Kuthambakkam villages, ranging in size from 20 acres (8 ha) to 100 acres (40 ha).[333][334] The civic body also spends ₹ 400 crore a year on solid waste management.[335] Transport Main article: Transport in Chennai

Chennai
Chennai
International Airport

Chennai Central
Chennai Central
Station

Chennai Metro
Chennai Metro
Rail

Cloverleaf interchange
Cloverleaf interchange
at Kathipara Junction

Chennai
Chennai
Mofussil Bus Terminus

A bus on Route 21G operated by MTC

Chennai Port
Chennai Port
view from the Marina Beach

Air The Chennai International Airport
Chennai International Airport
is the fourth busiest in India
India
in terms of passenger traffic. It handled about 15.2 million passengers in 2013–2014;[63][336][337] in terms of international passengers, Chennai
Chennai
is the third busiest airport behind Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi, and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai.[338] Chennai
Chennai
handles 400 flights a day, again placing it fourth among Indian airports. The city is connected to major hubs across Asia, Europe, and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers.[339] The existing airport is undergoing further modernisation and expansion with an addition of 1,069.99 acres (433.01 ha), while a new greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of ₹ 2,000 crore in Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur
on 4,200 acres (17 km2) of land.[340] The new airport is said to be likely to handle cargo spillover traffic from the existing one.[341] Rail Chennai
Chennai
hosts the headquarters of the Southern Railway. The city has four main railway terminals. Chennai
Chennai
Central, Chennai
Chennai
Egmore, Chennai Beach and Tambaram. Chennai Central
Chennai Central
station, the city's largest, provides access to other major cities as well as many other smaller towns across India,[342] whereas Chennai Egmore
Chennai Egmore
provides access to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; however, it also handles a few inter–state trains.[343] The Chennai suburban railway
Chennai suburban railway
network, one of the oldest in the country, facilitates transportation within the city. It consists of four broad gauge sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely Chennai Central
Chennai Central
and Chennai
Chennai
Beach. While three sectors are operated on-grade, the fourth sector is majorly an elevated corridor, which links Chennai Beach
Chennai Beach
to Velachery
Velachery
and is interlinked with the remaining rail network. Metro Rail Main article: Chennai
Chennai
Metro Chennai Metro
Chennai Metro
is a rapid transit system serving the city and was partially commenced on 29 June 2015. To improve the city's public transportation system and prepare the city for the future commuting needs, the Chennai Metro
Chennai Metro
was planned and approved by the state cabinet during 2007 for which construction began on 2009.[344] The Phase I of the Chennai Metro
Chennai Metro
network consists of 2 lines (Blue Line and Green Line) covering a length of 45.1 kilometres (28.0 mi) consisting of 40 stations with Alandur
Alandur
and Chennai Central
Chennai Central
serving as interchanges. 55% of the corridors in Phase-I are underground and the rest are elevated. The entire phase-I is scheduled to be operational by end of 2018. In December 2016, it was announced by Chennai
Chennai
Metro Rail Limited (CMRL) that Phase-2 of Chennai Metro
Chennai Metro
is set to be for a length of 104 km consisting of 104 stations which is subject to approval from the state and central governments.[345] As of May 2017, Nehru Park to St. Thomas Mount
St. Thomas Mount
on the Green line and Little Mount to Chennai International Airport
Chennai International Airport
on Blue line are commercially operational which brings the total operational network to 28 km. Road Chennai
Chennai
is one of the cities in India
India
that is connected by the Golden Quadrilateral system of National Highways.[346] It is connected to other Indian cities by four major National Highways (NH) that originate in the city. They are NH 4 to Mumbai
Mumbai
(via Bangalore, Pune), NH 5 to Kolkata
Kolkata
(linked via NH 6) (via Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneswar), NH 45 to Theni
Theni
(via Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli, Dindigul) and NH 205 to Madanapalle
Madanapalle
(via Tirupati). Chennai
Chennai
is connected to other parts of the state and the Union Territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
by state highways.[347] The government has constructed grade separators and flyovers at major intersections, and built Inner Ring Road and Outer Ring Road.[348][349] The Gemini flyover, built in 1973 crosses over the arterial road, and eases the traffic movements towards Anna Salai
Anna Salai
and towards the Kathipara Flyover.[348][349] As of 2011[update], according to the Transport Department, there were 25.8 lakh two–wheelers and 5.6 lakh four–wheelers in the city, and the Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) bus fleet were 3,421, which was 0.1% of the total vehicular population of the city.[350] When opened, the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus
Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus
(CMBT) was the largest bus station in Asia.[351] It is the main intercity bus station of Chennai,[352] administered by 7 government-owned transport corporations, which operate intercity and interstate bus services. There are many private bus companies that provide similar transport services. The MTC provides an exclusive intracity bus service, consisting of 3,421 buses on 724 routes, which provides transportation to 55.2 lakh passengers daily.[348][353] The Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation operates Volvo
Volvo
air-conditioned services from Chennai
Chennai
to nearby cities like Pondicherry, Vellore, Hosur
Hosur
and Trichy.[354] The other means of road transport in the city include vans, regionally known as Maxi Cabs, auto rickshaws, on-call metered taxis and tourist taxis.[355] Chennai
Chennai
outer ring road is 62.3 km long connecting NH 45 (GST Road) at Perungalathur, NH 4 (GWT Road) at Nazarathpet, NH 205 (CTH Road) at Nemilicherry(Thiruninravur), NH 5 (GNT Road) at Nallur and TPP road at Minjur
Minjur
under the process by Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area. Sea The city is served by two major ports, Chennai
Chennai
Port, one of the largest artificial ports in India, and Ennore
Ennore
Port. The Chennai
Chennai
port is the largest in Bay of Bengal, with an annual cargo tonnage of 6.146 crore (2010–2011), and second largest containerise hub in India, with an annual container volume of 15.23 lakh TEUs (2010–2011). The port handles transportation of automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo.[63] The Ennore Port
Ennore Port
with an annual cargo tonnage of 1.101 crore (2010–2011) handles cargo such as coal, ore and other bulk and rock mineral products.[356] Royapuram
Royapuram
fishing harbour is used by fishing boats and Kattupalli Shipyard near Ennore Port
Ennore Port
was inaugurated in January 2013.[357][358] Media Main article: Media in Chennai See also: List of Tamil-language television channels Newspaper publishing started in Chennai
Chennai
with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier, in 1785.[359] It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazette and The Government Gazette in 1795. The Spectator, founded in 1836, was the first English newspaper in Chennai
Chennai
to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in 1853.[360] The first Tamil newspaper, Swadesamitran, was launched in 1899.[359] The major English dailies published in Chennai
Chennai
are The Hindu, The New Indian Express, The Deccan Chronicle
The Deccan Chronicle
and The Times of India
India
and many more. The evening dailies are, The Trinity Mirror and The News Today. As of 2004[update], The Hindu
Hindu
was the city's most read English newspaper, with a daily circulation of 267,349.[361] The major business dailies published from the city are The Economic Times, The Hindu
Hindu
Business Line, Business Standard, Mint and The Financial Express. The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi, Dinakaran, Dina Mani, Dina Malar, The Hindu
Hindu
Tamil,[362] Tamil Murasu, Makkal Kural and Malai Malar. Malayala Manorama
Malayala Manorama
and Mathrubhumi
Mathrubhumi
are the major Malayalam dailies while major Telugu dailies include Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi and Sakshi.[363] The one and only Hindi Newspaper published from Chennai
Chennai
is the Rajasthan Patrika.[364] The Local weekly Newspapers circulated to residents are T.Nagar Times, Pillar Times, Arcot Road Talk, Chrompet Times.[365] Chennai's First Corporate Leisure Newspaper, The Shopping Express.[366] Magazines published from Chennai
Chennai
include Ananda Vikatan, Kumudam, Kalki, Kungumam, Puthiya Thalaimurai,Thuglak, Frontline and Sportstar

Headquarters of Sun Network, India's largest private TV broadcaster

Doordarshan
Doordarshan
runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai
Chennai
centre, which was set up in 1974. Private Tamil satellite television networks such as Sun TV, Raj TV, Zee Tamizh, Star Vijay, Jaya TV, Makkal TV, Vasanth TV, Kalaignar TV, Captain TV and PuthiyaThalaimurai TV
PuthiyaThalaimurai TV
broadcast out of Chennai. The Sun Network one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city. While the cable TV service is entirely controlled by the state government,[367] direct–to–home (DTH) is available via DD Direct Plus, Dish TV, Tata Sky, Videocon DTH, Sun direct DTH, Reliance Big TV and Digital TV[368][369] Chennai
Chennai
is the first city in India
India
to have implemented the Conditional Access System for cable television.[370] Radio broadcasting started from the radio station at the Rippon Buildings complex, founded in 1930 and was then shifted to All India Radio in 1938.[359] The city has 4 AM and 11 FM radio stations operated by All India
India
Radio, Anna University
Anna University
and Suryan FM, Radio Mirchi, BIG FM, Hello FM, Radio City, Radio One among others.[371] Education Main article: Education in Chennai See also: Schools in Chennai and Education in India

Government law college, Chennai

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras is a premier engineering institute in India

College of Engineering, Guindy
Guindy
is the oldest engineering college in India
India
established in 1794

University of Madras
University of Madras
Senate House

Loyola College, Chennai

Chennai
Chennai
ranks second among Indian metropolitan city centres with a 90.33 percent literacy rate.[372] Chennai
Chennai
has a mix of public and private schools, some of which also receive financial support from the government. The public school system is managed by the Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation
with an enrolment of 142,387 students in over 330 schools.[373] Tamil and English are the primary medium of instruction, though some schools also use Telugu and Urdu as medium of instruction in their schools.[373] Public schools run by the Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation
are all affiliated with the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Board, while private schools may be affiliated with either of the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Board of Secondary Education or the Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
(CBSE).[374] A few schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations,[375] the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board or the Montessori
Montessori
system. Education in Chennai starts with two years of Kindergarten from age three onward and then follows the Indian 10+2+3 plan, ten years of school, two years of higher secondary education, and three years of undergraduate education.[376][377] English is the medium of instruction in the majority of institutions for higher education.[373] The University of Madras, founded in 1857, is one of the India's first three modern universities.[378] Colleges for science, arts and commerce degrees are typically affiliated with the University of Madras, which has six campuses in the city.[379] The Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
(IIT Madras) and the College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University
Anna University
are two well known centres for engineering education in the city. The Indian Army's Officers Training Academy is also headquartered in the city.

Anna Centenary Library, one of the largest libraries in Asia

Chennai
Chennai
has a plethora of libraries, including British Council Library, American Library, Connemara Public Library, and Anna Centenary Library. The Connemara Public Library
Connemara Public Library
is one of four National Depository Centres in India
India
that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in the country.[380][381] The Anna Centenary Library is the largest library in Asia.[382][383] Chennai
Chennai
has two CSIR research institutions namely Central Leather Research Institute and Structural Engineering Research Centre. Chennai Book Fair, an annual book fair organised in Chennai
Chennai
by the Booksellers and Publishers Association of South India
India
(BAPASI), is the largest exhibition for Tamil book publishers to display their books. The fair is typically held for about 10 days between the last week of December and the third week of January.[384] The forty-first edition of the fair was held in 2018. Chennai
Chennai
also has Indian Maritime University
Indian Maritime University
to impart quality education in maritime management, engineering and different pre sea courses. This is the only central university, headquartered in Chennai
Chennai
to impart maritime education in India. Sports and recreation Main article: Sport in Chennai

Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium multipurpose stadium

M. A. Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Stadium, one of the premier cricket venues in India

Cricket
Cricket
is the most popular sport in Chennai.[385] It was introduced in 1864 with the foundation of the Madras Cricket
Cricket
Club.[386] The M.A. Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Stadium established in 1916 is among the oldest cricket stadium in India.[387] The stadium was also one of the venues of the 1987,1996 and 2011 ICC Cricket
Cricket
World Cups. Chemplast Cricket
Cricket
Ground located at the IIT Madras campus is another important venue for cricket matches. Prominent cricketers from the city include former cricket captains S. Venkataraghavan and Kris Srikkanth.[388][389] A cricket fast bowling academy called the MRF Pace Foundation, whose coaches include T. A. Sekhar and Glenn Mcgrath, is based in Chennai.[390][391] Being home to the Indian Premier League (IPL) cricket team Chennai
Chennai
Super Kings, the city hosted the finals of the IPL's 2011 and 2012 series.[392][393] The city's football team Chennaiyin FC
Chennaiyin FC
competes in the Indian Super League, the country's association football league associated with Asian Football Federation and recognized by FIFA. The club uses the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium nicknamed the Marina Arena
Marina Arena
as their home ground and are champions of the Indian Super League
Indian Super League
in 2015. Chennai
Chennai
was the venue of the 1995 South Asian Games.[394] Chennai
Chennai
is home to a World Series Hockey
World Series Hockey
(WSH) team, the Chennai
Chennai
Cheetahs. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is associated with hockey and was venue for the international hockey tournament the 2005 Men's Champions Trophy and the 2007 Men's Asia
Asia
Cup. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is associated for hosting Football and athletic competitions, it also houses a multi–purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball, basketball and table tennis. Water sports
Water sports
are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex. Tennis sport is popularising among the city youths, Since 1997 Chennai
Chennai
has been host to the only ATP World Tour
ATP World Tour
event held in India, the Chennai
Chennai
Open[395] which has been shifted to Pune
Pune
as Maharashtra Open
Maharashtra Open
from 2017. Vijay Amritraj, Mahesh Bhupathi
Mahesh Bhupathi
Ramesh Krishnan and Somdev Devvarman
Somdev Devvarman
are tennis players from Chennai.[396] Chennai
Chennai
is home to Chennai
Chennai
Slam,[397] two-time national champion of India's top professional basketball division, the UBA Pro Basketball League.

Chennai Open
Chennai Open
match at the SDAT Tennis Stadium

Viswanathan Anand, former World Chess Champion

Madras Boat Club (founded in 1846) and the Royal Madras Yacht Club (founded by Sir Francis Spring
Francis Spring
in 1911) promote the sailing sports in Chennai, and organise national and international sailing events.[386] Automobile racing in India
India
has been closely connected with Chennai since its beginnings shortly after independence. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudur,[398] which has also been the venue for several international competitions.[399] Formula One
Formula One
driver Karun Chandhok
Karun Chandhok
was born in Chennai.[400][401] Horse racing is held at the Guindy
Guindy
Race Course, while rowing competitions are hosted at the Madras Boat Club. The city has two 18–hole golf courses, the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club, both established in the late nineteenth century. The city has a rugby union team called the Chennai
Chennai
Cheetahs.[402] Previous world chess champion Viswanathan Anand
Viswanathan Anand
grew up in Chennai.[403] Other sports persons of repute from Chennai
Chennai
include table tennis players Sharath Kamal and two–time world carrom champion, Maria Irudayam.[404][405] Chennai
Chennai
was the host of the World Chess Championship 2013 match between Viswanathan Anand
Viswanathan Anand
and Magnus Carlsen.[406][407] City based teams

Club Sport League Home Stadium Founded

Chennai
Chennai
Super Kings Cricket Indian Premier League M.A. Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Stadium 2008

Chennaiyin FC Football Indian Super League Marina Arena 2013

Chennai
Chennai
Smashers Badminton Premier Badminton
Badminton
League Gachibowli Indoor Stadium[408][a] 2015

Tamil Thalaivas[409] Kabaddi Pro Kabaddi
Kabaddi
League Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium 2017

Chennai
Chennai
Slam Basketball UBA Pro Basketball
Basketball
League Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium 2015

Chennai
Chennai
Strikers[410] Cue Sports Indian Cue Masters League N/A 2017

Chepauk
Chepauk
Super Gillies Cricket Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Premier League M.A. Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Stadium 2016

^ Due to 2015 Chennai
Chennai
floods, the team played their home matches in Hyderabad

International relations Foreign missions

The American consulate in Chennai.

See also: List of diplomatic missions in Chennai The consular presence in the city dates back to 1794, when William Abbott was appointed US consular agent for South India.[411][412][413] As of 2012[update], there were 43 foreign representations in Chennai, including consulates general, deputy high commissions and honorary consulates.[414] The American Consulate in Chennai
Chennai
is one of the top adjudication posts in the world and the number one in processing employment-based visas. It was ranked among the top globally in issuing 'L' and 'H' category visas for workers and professionals and was ranked eighth globally in terms of all category of visas being issued.[415] The Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO), which is the office of the field officers in charge of immigration and registration activities in the city, is located at Shastri Bhavan at Haddows Road.[416] Twin towns – Sister cities Chennai
Chennai
has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world:

City Country State/Region Since Ref.

Volgograd Russia Volgograd
Volgograd
Oblast 1966 [417]

Denver United States Colorado 1984 [418]

San Antonio United States Texas 2008 [419]

Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur 2010 [420]

Chongqing China Municipality
Municipality
of Chongqing 2015 [421]

Ulsan South Korea Yeongnam 2016 [422]

See also

Chennai
Chennai
portal Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
portal India
India
portal South Asia
Asia
portal

Areas of Chennai Chennai
Chennai
International Airport List of people from Chennai Madras Bulls

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turned into 'Detroit Of India'". Financial Express. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.  ^ Chris Devonshire-Ellis (2012). Doing Business in India. Springer. p. 218. ISBN 978-3-642-27617-0.  ^ U.S. International Trade Commission (2007). Competitive Conditions for Foreign Direct Investment in India, Staff Research Study #30. DIANE Publishing. pp. 2–10. ISBN 978-1-4578-1829-5.  ^ "The economist". 370 (8361–8364). Economist Newspaper Ltd. 2004: 282.  ^ Rina Kamath (2000). Chennai. Orient Blackswan. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-250-1378-5.  ^ "Madras Stock Exchange". Retrieved 12 October 2015.  ^ "In pictures: the next decade's fastest-growing cities – Chennai, India". Forbes. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "Company tax upped, capped at ₹ 30,000". The Hindu. Chennai. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "Seminar to focus on Chennai's growth potential". The Hindu. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ " Chennai
Chennai
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GaWC
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GaWC
2010". Lboro.ac.uk. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 2014-04-06.  ^ Tourism and the branded city: film and identity on the Pacific Rim. Ashgate publishing Ltd. 6 November 2007. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-7546-4829-1.  ^ "Chennai: The next global auto manufacturing hub?". CNBC-TV18. CNBC. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ " Chennai
Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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CDMA
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Koyambedu
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Koyambedu
bus terminus". The Times of India. 22 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "More buses coming but no new routes". The Times of India. 8 January 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ V, Venkatasubramanian (19 February 2010). "A boon to Kancheepuram unit of TNSTC". The Hindu. Kancheepuram. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "Airport taxis, a law unto themselves". The Hindu. Chennai. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "Traffic handled". Government of Tamil Nadu. Ennoreport.gov.in. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "Jayalalithaa inaugurates Kattupalli port". The Hindu. Chennai. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 31 Dec 2013.  ^ "Shipyard Cum Captive Port Complex in the Kattupalli Village" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ a b c "Historical Events at a Glance". District Profile. Govt. of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ Muthiah, S (3 February 2003). "A landmark's last vestiges vanish". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ Shankaran, Sanjiv (4 May 2005). "How Deccan Chronicle stormed Chennai". rediff.com. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ " Hindu
Hindu
Tamil Magazine". The Hindu. 7 Oct 2013. Retrieved 7 Oct 2013.  ^ "Publication Place Wise-Registration". Registrar of Newspapers for India. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  If one types in Chennai
Chennai
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Chennai
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Chennai
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Dish TV
launches 'One Alliance' bouquet". The Hindu. 13 June 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ "DTH companies come up with offers for World Cup". The Hindu. 4 March 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ " Conditional Access System in South Delhi
Delhi
from December 15". The Hindu. 6 December 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ Gilbert, Sean, ed. (2006). World Radio TV Handbook 2007: The Directory of International Broadcasting. London: WRTH Publications Ltd. pp. 237–242. ISBN 0-8230-5997-9.  ^ Sun 6 Apr 2014, 7:34 PM IST – India
India
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India
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Chennai
now boasts South Asia's largest library". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 28 December 2012.  ^ G.C. Shekhar (2011-11-03). "Largest library to turn into hospital". Telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 2014-04-06.  ^ Kamath, Rina (2000). Chennai. Orient Blackswan. p. 105. ISBN 81-250-1378-4.  ^ Kaminsky, Arnold P; Long, Roger D (2011). India
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Chennai Super Kings
beat Royal Challengers Bangalore
Bangalore
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Chennai
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v t e

Chennai

History

Early history (pre-1500)

Sangam period Thomas the Apostle Pallava Dynasty Chola
Chola
Dynasty Vijayanagar Empire

Colonial period (1500–1900)

São Tomé de Meliapore Raja of Chandragiri Agency of Fort St George 1721 Madras cyclone Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(Madras Adyar Chingleput) Anglo-Mysore Wars Governors

Modern period (1900–present)

Arbuthnot Bank Crash Besant v. Narayaniah Bombardment of Madras
Bombardment of Madras
by SMS Emden de La Haye scandal 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike Neil Statue Satyagraha 1928 South Indian Railway Strike 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike 1943 Chennai
Chennai
floods Madras Manade Anti-Hindi agitations Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi R. S. S. Chennai
Chennai
bombing 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 2013 Anti- Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
protests 2015 South Indian floods

Writers and historians

S. Muthiah Randor Guy S. Theodore Baskaran V. Sriram A. R. Venkatachalapathy

Geography and wildlife

Regions

Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Area Central Chennai North Chennai South Chennai

Rivers and waterways

Adyar River Buckingham Canal Coovum River Kosasthalaiyar River Otteri
Otteri
Nullah

Lakes

Chembarambakkam
Chembarambakkam
Lake Chetput Lake Long Tank Manali Lake Porur
Porur
Lake Red Hills Lake Retteri Veeranam

Islands

Kattupalli Island Quibble Island The Island

Zoological parks

Arignar Anna Zoological Park Chennai
Chennai
Snake Park Guindy
Guindy
National Park Madras Crocodile Bank

Reserve Forests

Nanmangalam Reserve Forest Vandalur
Vandalur
Reserve Forest

Marshlands

Ennore
Ennore
creek Pallikaranai
Pallikaranai
Wetland

Heritage monuments

Amir Mahal Bharat Insurance Building Brodie Castle Chennai Central
Chennai Central
Prison Chepauk
Chepauk
Palace LIC Building Lighthouse Police headquarters Port Trust Building Puzhal
Puzhal
Central Prison Ripon Building Royapuram
Royapuram
railway station University of Madras
University of Madras
Senate House Southern Railway headquarters Valluvar Kottam Victoria Public Hall

Statues

Marina Beach
Marina Beach
Statues Thomas Munro Triumph of Labour

Memorials

Gandhi Mandapam Kamarajar Mandapam Rajaji Mandapam Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Madras War Cemetery Victory War Memorial Vivekanandar Illam

Administration and politics

Districts

Chennai
Chennai
District Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
District Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
District Vellore
Vellore
District

Taluks

Chennai
Chennai
District

Aminjikarai Ayanavaram Egmore Guindy Mambalam Mylapore Perambur Purasaiwalkam Tondiarpet Velachery

Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
district

Tiruvottiyur Madhavaram Ambattur Avadi Maduravoyal Ponneri Poonamallee Tiruvallur Gummidipoondi Uthukottai Tiruttani Pallipattu

Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
district

Alandur Sholinganallur Pallavaram Tambaram Chengalpattu Thiruporur Tirukalukundram Sriperumbudur Walajabad Kanchipuram Uthiramerur Madurantakam Cheyyur

Vellore
Vellore
District

Arakkonam

Parliamentary constituencies

Chennai
Chennai
Central Chennai
Chennai
North Chennai
Chennai
South Sriperumbudur Thiruvallur

Assembly constituencies

Alandur Ambattur Anna Nagar Avadi Chengalpattu Chepauk Egmore Harbour Kolathur Madhavaram Maduravoyal Mylapore Pallavaram Perambur Ponneri Poonamallee RK Nagar Royapuram Saidapet Sholinganallur Sriperumbudur T.Nagar Tambaram Thiru. Vi. Ka. Nagar Thiruvottiyur Thousand Lights Tiruvallur Villivakkam Virugambakkam Velachery

Nodal agencies

Greater Chennai
Chennai
Corporation Chennai
Chennai
Metropolitan Development Authority Chennai
Chennai
MetroWater and Sewage Board Chennai
Chennai
Police Commissionerate General Post Office Greater Chennai
Chennai
Police Madras High Court

Sheriff

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Fire and Rescue Services

Economy

Business districts

Burma Bazaar Kothawal Chavadi Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Wholesale Market Complex Panagal Park Parry's Corner Pondy Bazaar Purasawalkam Ranganathan Street Ritchie Street Velachery Washermanpet

SEZ

SEZ Corridor MEPZ Tidel Park World Trade Center

Companies and institutions

Aavin Ashok Leyland Basin Bridge
Basin Bridge
Gas Blue Dart Aviation Chettinad Group EID Parry Ennore
Ennore
Thermal GMR Vasavi Heavy Vehicles Factory Higginbotham's Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Integral Coach Factory Madras Atomic Power Station Madras Cements Madras Rubber Factory Madras Stock Exchange Murugappa Group North Chennai Thermal Reserve Bank of India Royal Enfield SPIC Sun Group The Hindu The New Indian Express TI Cycles of India TVS Motors Vallur
Vallur
Thermal World Bank
World Bank
office

Industry

Automotive Electronics Retail Software

Culture and recreation

General

Architecture of Chennai Kollywood Madrassi Madras Bashai Madras School Tourism in Chennai

Beaches

Covelong Elliot's Beach Golden Beach Marina Beach

Parks

Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
Tower Park Semmozhi Poonga Tholkappia Poonga

Cinemas

SPI Cinemas Mayajaal
Mayajaal
Multiplex

Periodic events

Chennai
Chennai
Book Fair Chennai
Chennai
International Film Festival Chennai
Chennai
Sangamam Lit for Life Madras Day Madras Music Season Saarang Techofes

Theme parks

EVP World MGM Dizzee World Queens Land VGP Universal Kingdom Dash N Splash Kishkinta Mayajaal
Mayajaal
Beach Resort

Shopping malls

Abhirami Mega Mall Alsa Mall Ampa Skywalk Chandra Mall Chennai
Chennai
Citi Centre Chennai
Chennai
Trade Centre Coromandel Plaza Express Avenue Gold Souk Grande Mall Phoenix Market City Ramee Mall Spectrum Mall Spencer Plaza Forum Vijaya Mall

Clubs

Gymkhana Club Madras Boat Club Royal Madras Yacht Club

Religion

Temples

Ayyappan Temple Ashtalakshmi Kovil ISKCON Temple Chennai Kapaleeswarar Temple Kalikambal Temple Madhya Kailash Marundeeswarar Temple Parthasarathy Temple Ravishwarar Varasiddhi Vinayaka temple

Churches

Armenian Church Church of Our Lady of Light St. Andrew's Kirk St. George's Cathedral St. Patrick's Cathedral Santhome
Santhome
Basilica St. Mary's Church

Others

Mahabodhi Centre Thousand Lights Mosque

Transport

Air

Chennai
Chennai
International Airport

Sea

Chennai
Chennai
Port Ennore
Ennore
Port Kattupalli Shipyard Royapuram
Royapuram
fishing harbour

Rail

Chennai
Chennai
Central Chennai
Chennai
Metro Chennai
Chennai
MRTS Chennai
Chennai
Suburban Railway Southern Railway Railway stations in Chennai

Road

Roads and expressways

Anna Salai Cenotaph Road Chennai
Chennai
Bypass Chennai Port
Chennai Port
- Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Expressway China
China
Bazaar Road East Coast Road Inner Ring Road Nungambakkam
Nungambakkam
High Road Outer Ring Road Peters Road Poonamallee
Poonamallee
High Road Rajiv Gandhi Salai Sardar Patel Road

Grade separators and flyovers

Anna Flyover Chennai
Chennai
Airport Flyover Chrompet Flyover Irumbuliyur Junction Kathipara Junction Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Junction Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Junction Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Junction Moolakadai
Moolakadai
Junction Padi Junction

Others

Chennai
Chennai
Mofussil Bus Terminus Chennai
Chennai
Contract Carriage Bus Terminus Metropolitan Transport Corporation State Express Transport Corporation

Sport

Venues

Guindy
Guindy
Race Course Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium M. A. Chidambaram
Chidambaram
Stadium Madras Motor Race Track Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium MRF Pace Foundation Mudaliarkuppam boat house Muttukadu boat house Rajarathinam Stadium SDAT Tennis Stadium

Teams

Chennai
Chennai
Cheetahs Chennai
Chennai
City F.C. Chennai
Chennai
Smashers Chennai
Chennai
Spikers Chennai
Chennai
Super Kings Chennai
Chennai
Superstars Chennai
Chennai
Veerans Chennaiyin FC V Chennai
Chennai
Warriors

Others

Chennai
Chennai
Open M. J. Gopalan Trophy Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
Matches

Institutions

Education

Alliance Française de Madras Anna Centenary Library Birla Planetarium Cholamandal Artists' Village Connemara Public Library DakshinaChitra Government Museum Kalakshetra KM Music Conservatory Madras Music Academy Schools in Chennai

Universities

Anna University University of Madras Dr MGR Medical University Dr Ambedkar Law University Indian Maritime University Veterinary and Animal Sciences University VIT University Chennai SRM University B S Abdur Rahman University Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Open University Vels University Hindustan University

Engineering colleges

Indian Institute of Technology Madras College of Engineering, Guindy Madras Institute of Technology Alagappa College of Technology

Medical colleges

Madras Medical College Stanley Medical College Kilpauk
Kilpauk
Medical College Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute National Institute of Siddha

Arts and science colleges

Loyola Madras Christian
Christian
College Presidency College Queen Mary's (Women) Vivekananda Pachaiyappa's College Stella Mary's (Women) DG Vaishnav MOP Vaishnav (Women)

Research

Central Leather Research Institute National Institute of Ocean Technology Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai
Chennai
Mathematical Institute Regional Meteorological Centre Structural Engineering Research Centre Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India)

Diplomatic missions

American Consulate British Deputy High Commission Singapore
Singapore
Consulate Malaysian Consulate Russian Consulate German Consulate Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Deputy High Commission Royal Thai Consulate Japanese Consulate Australian Consulate Belgian Consulate South Korean Consulate Chinese Consulate

Hospitals

Government General Hospital Government multi super speciality hospital Royapettah
Royapettah
Hospital Stanley Hospital Kilpauk Medical College
Kilpauk Medical College
Hospital Perambur
Perambur
railway hospital Apollo Hospitals Egmore
Egmore
Eye Hospital Sir Ivan Stedeford Hospital Sankara Nethralaya Madras Medical Mission MIOT Hospital Chettinad Health City Tambaram
Tambaram
TB Sanatorium Government Dental Hospital Hindu
Hindu
Mission Hospital Fortis Malar Hospital Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital Sundaram Medical Foundation

Hotels

Taj Coromandel The Park Le Royal Meridien Hyatt Regency Chola
Chola
Sheraton Taj Mount Road The Leela Kempinski ITC Grand Chola Hilton Chennai Taj Connemara Fisherman's Cove Trident Hilton Park Sheraton & Towers Radisson GRT Accord Metropolitan JW Marriott Park Hyatt Radisson Blu City Centre Raintree Hotel St Mary's Road The Raintree Hotel Anna Salai Savera Hotel Residency Towers Westin Chennai Kohinoor Asiana

Localities

North

Aamullaivoyal Aathur Agaram Alamathi Andarkuppam Angadu Anuppampattu Arambakkam Arani Ariyalur Arumandhai Assisi Nagar, Chennai Athipattu Athipattu
Athipattu
New Town Athivakkam Attanthangal Avurikollaimedu Ayanavaram Azhinjivakkam Bandikavanoor Basin Bridge Chinnasekkadu Chettimedu Edapalayam Edayanchavadi Ennore Elandanur Elanthancherry Elavur Ernavoor Erukkancherry Gnayiru Gounderpalayam Grant Lyon Gummidipoondi Janapanchatram Jawahar Nagar Kadapakkam Kaladipet Kalakkral Kalpalayam Kanniammanpettai Kannigaipair Karanodai Kathirvedu Kathivakkam Katupalli Kavangarai Kavaraipettai Kasimedu Kattur KK Thazhai Kaviarasu Kannadhasan Nagar Kodipallam Kodungaiyur Kolathur Kondithope Korukkupet Kosappur Kottai Karai Kumaran Nagar Lakshmipuram Madhavaram Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Milk Colony Madharpakkam Madiyur Mahakavi Bharathi Nagar Manali Manali New Town Manjambakkam Mathur Mettu Surapedu Mettu Thandalam Minjur Moolachatiram Moolakadai Muthialpet Nallur Nandiambakkam Napalayam Naravarikuppam New Erumai Vetti Palayam Old Erumai Vetti Palayam Orakadu Padianallur Pallipattu Panchetti Payasambakkam Pazhaverkadu Perambur Peravallur Periapalayam Periyamullavoyal Periyar Nagar Periyasekkadu Perungavur Ponneri Ponniammanmedu Pothur Puthubakkam Puduvoyal Pulli Lyon Puthagaram Puzhal Red Hills Retteri Royapuram Sadayankuppam Sathangadu Sathyamoorthy Nagar (Tiruvottiyur) Sathyamoorthy Nagar (Vyasarpadi) Seemavaram Selavayal Sembilivaram Sembium Sembiyamanali Sholavaram Siruvapuri Sirunium Sowcarpet Sothuperumbedu Surapet Thadaperumbakkam Thatchoor Thathaimanji Theerthakariampattu Theeyampakkam Thervoy Kandigai Thirunilai Thiruvellavoyal Thiru Vi Ka Nagar Tiruvottiyur Tollgate Tondiarpet Uthukottai Vadagarai Vadamadurai Vadaperumbakkam Vaikkadu Vallalar Nagar Vallur Vannipakkam Vazhuthigaimedu Vellivoyalchavadi Vengal Vichoor Vijayanallur Vilakupattu Vilangadupakkam Villivakkam Vinayagapuram VOC Nagar Voyalur Vyasarpadi Washermanpet Wimco Nagar

West

Adayalampattu Alwarthirunagar Ambattur Aminjikarai Athipet Andankuppam Anna Nagar Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
West Annanur Arakkambakkam Aranvoyal Ashok Nagar Arakkonam Arumbakkam Avadi Ayanambakkam Ayapakkam Ayathur Beemanthangal Chembarambakkam Choolaimedu Egattur Gerugambakkam Govardhanagiri ICF Colony Irungattukottai Iyyapanthangal K. K. Nagar Kadambathur Kadavur Kakkalur Kakkalur Industrial Estate Kallikuppam Karalapakkam Karambakkam Karayanchavadi Kattupakkam Kilkondaiyur Koduvalli Koladi Kolapakkam Konnur Korattur Kovur Koyambedu Kumananchavadi Kundrathur Kuthambakkam Maduravoyal Malayambakkam Manapakkam Manavala Nagar Melkondaiyur Mettu Kandigai MGR Nagar Mogappair Morai Moulivakkam Mugalivakkam Muthapudupet Nandambakkam Nandambakkam Narasingapuram Nazarathpettai Nemam Nemilichery Nesapakkam Nerkundram Nolambur Noombal Oragadam Padi Pakkam Pandeswaram Pandur Paraniputhur Parivakkam Paruthipattu Pattabiram Pattaravakkam Perambakkam Periyapanicheri Perumalpattu Poochi Athipedu Poonamallee Poondi Poonthandalam Porur Pudhur Putlur Ramapuram Ramavaram Sekkadu Seneerkuppam Sevvapet Shenoy Nagar Sorancheri Sriperumbudur Sunguvarchatram Surapet Tamaraipakkam Thandalam Thandurai Thathankuppam Thirumangalam Thirumazhisai Thirumullaivoyal Thiruninravur Tiruvallur Tiruverkadu Valasaravakkam Vanagaram Veerapuram Vellanur Vellavedu Velappanchavadi Vengathur Venkatapuram Veppampattu Vilinjiyambakkam Virugambakkam

Central

Alwarpet Broadway Burma Bazaar Chennai
Chennai
Central Chepauk Chetput Chintadripet Choolai Egmore Foreshore Estate George Town Gopalapuram Greenways Road Kilpauk Kodambakkam Kosapet Kothawal Chavadi Kotturpuram Mandavelli Mannady Mambalam MRC Nagar Mylapore Nandanam Nochikuppam Nungambakkam Otteri Panagal Park Park Town Parry's Corner Pattalam Periamet Pondy Bazaar Pudupet Pulianthope Purasawalkam Quibble Island Raja Annamalai Puram Royapettah Saidapet Saligramam Santhome T Nagar Teynampet The Island Triplicane Trustpuram Vadapalani Vepery West Mambalam

South

Alandur Adambakkam Adyar Agaramthen Alandur Anakaputhur Besant Nagar Chitlapakkam Chromepet Chengalpattu Egattur Ekkaduthangal Erumaiyur Gowrivakkam Guduvancheri Guindy Guindy
Guindy
TVK Estate Devaneri Hasthinapuram Illalur Injambakkam Irumbuliyur Jafferkhanpet Jaladampet Kanathur Kandanchavadi Kannivakkam Karanai Karapakkam Karumbakkam Kattankulathur Kazhipattur Kizhkalvoy Keelkattalai Kelambakkam Kottivakkam Kovalam Kovilambakkam Kovilanchery Madambakkam Madhuvankarai Madipakkam Mamallapuram Manimangalam Mannivakkam Maraimalai Nagar Medavakkam Meenambakkam Melkalvoy MEPZ Mettukuppam Mudichur Muttukadu Nandivaram Nanganallur Nanmangalam Navalur Neelankarai Nellikuppam Noothancheri Okkiyam Okkiyampet Oragadam Ottiambakkam Padappai Palavakkam Palavanthangal Pallavaram Pallikaranai Pammal Panaiyur Paranur Pattipulam Payanur Pazhanthandalam Peerkankaranai Perumbakkam Perumathunallur Perungalathur Perungudi Perunthandalam Ponmar Polichalur Potheri Pudupakkam Puzhuthivakkam Rajakilpakkam Rathinamangalam Selaiyur Sembakkam Semmencherry Sholinganallur Singaperumalkoil Siruseri Sithalapakkam Somangalam St. Thomas Mount Tambaram Tambaram
Tambaram
Sanatorium Thaiyur Tharamani Tharapakkam Thirumudivakkam Thiruneermalai Thiruporur Thiruvanmiyur Thiruvidandhai Thuraipakkam Tirusulam Ullagaram Urapakkam Uthandi Vadanemili Vandalur Vanuvampet Velachery Vengaivasal Vettuvankeni

Category Portal WikiProject

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Neighbourhoods of Chennai

Adyar Adambakkam Alapakkam Alandur Alwarpet Alwarthirunagar Ambattur Aminjikarai Anna Nagar Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
West Annanur Andarkuppam Arumbakkam Ashok Nagar Athipattu Avadi Ayanavaram Besant Nagar Chepauk Chembarambakkam Chengalpattu Chetput Chitlapakkam Choolai Choolaimedu Chromepet Edayanchavadi Egmore Ennore Ernavoor Foreshore Estate Georgetown Greenways Road Guduvancheri Gummidipoondi Guindy Guindy
Guindy
TVK Estate ICF Colony Injambakkam Irumbuliyur Irungattukottai The Island K. K. Nagar Karapakkam Karanodai Kathivakkam Kattankulathur Kavaraipettai Kelambakkam Kilpauk Kodambakkam Kodungaiyur Kolathur Korattur Kosappur Kottivakkam Kotturpuram Kovalam Kovilambakkam Koyambedu Kundrathur Madambakkam Madipakkam Madhavaram Madhavaram
Madhavaram
Milk Colony Maduravoyal Mamallapuram Manali Manali New Town Manapakkam Mandavelli Mangadu Manjambakkam Maraimalai Nagar Mathur Medavakkam Meenambakkam Minjur Mogappair Moolakadai Muttukadu Mylapore Nandanam Nandambakkam Nandiambakkam Nanganallur Navalur Neelankarai Nerkundram Nesapakkam Nolambur Nungambakkam Padi Palavakkam Palavanthangal Pallavaram Pallikaranai Pammal Panagal Park Park Town Parry's Corner Pattabiram Pattaravakkam Pazhaverkadu Peerkankaranai Perambur Periapalayam Perumbakkam Perungalathur Perungudi Pondy Bazaar Ponneri Poonamallee Porur Potheri Pudhur Purasawalkam Puzhal Puzhuthivakkam Red Hills Royapettah Royapuram Sadayankuppam Saidapet Santhome Semmencherry Sholavaram Sholinganallur Shenoy Nagar Singaperumalkoil Siruseri Sithalapakkam Sriperumbudur Sunguvarchatram Surapet Sowcarpet St. Thomas Mount T. Nagar Tambaram Tharamani Teynampet Thirumangalam Thirumazhisai Thirumullaivoyal Thiruninravur Thiruvanmiyur Thiruvidandhai Thiruporur Thuraipakkam Tirusulam Tiruverkadu Tiruvottiyur Tolgate Tondiarpet Triplicane Trustpuram Urapakkam Vadapalani Vadaperumbakkam Valasaravakkam Vallalar Nagar Vanagaram Vandalur Velachery Veppampattu Vichoor Villivakkam Vinayagapuram Virugambakkam Vyasarpadi Washermanpet West Mambalam

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Urban transit in Chennai

Bus Transportation

Chennai
Chennai
Bus Rapid Transit System* Chennai
Chennai
Rapid Bus Transit Ways* MTC buses

Intra-city Expressways

Chennai
Chennai
Bypass Outer Ring Road† Chennai Port
Chennai Port
Maduravoyal
Maduravoyal
Expressway† Chennai
Chennai
Elevated Expressways*

Rail Transportation

Chennai
Chennai
Suburban Railway

North Line South Line South West Line West Line West North Line West South Line

Rapid transit

Chennai
Chennai
MRTS Chennai
Chennai
Metro† Chennai
Chennai
Monorail*

* Planned † Under construction

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State and Union Territory capitals of India

Agartala Aizawl Amaravati
Amaravati
(de facto) Bangalore Bhopal Bhubaneswar Chandigarh Chennai Daman Dehradun
Dehradun
(interim) New Delhi Dispur Gandhinagar Gangtok Hyderabad Imphal Itanagar Jaipur Jammu
Jammu
(in winter) Kavaratti Kohima Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai Panaji Patna Pondicherry Port Blair Raipur Ranchi Shillong Shimla Silvassa Srinagar
Srinagar
(in summer) Thiruvananthapuram

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Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

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Municipalities of Tamil Nadu

Municipal Corporations

Greater Chennai · Coimbatore · Madurai · Erode · Salem · Thoothukudi · Tiruchirappalli  · Tirunelveli · Thanjavur  · Tiruppur
Tiruppur
 · Vellore
Vellore
 · Dindigul

Municipalities

Special
Special
grade

Avadi Cuddalore Hosur Kancheepuram Karaikudi Karur Kodaikanal Kovilpatti Kumbakonam Maraimalainagar Nagercoil Pallavapuram Pollachi Rajapalayam Sivakasi Tambaram Thiruvannamalai Udhagamandalam

Selection grade

Ambur Alandur Attur Chidambaram Coonoor Dharmapuri Gobichettipalayam Mannargudi Mayiladuthurai Mettupalayam Mettur Nagapattinam Namakkal Palani Pammal Pattukkottai Pudukkottai Ranipet Theni
Theni
Allinagaram Thiruverkadu Thuraiyur Tindivanam Tiruchengode Tiruppattur Udumalaipettai Valparai Vaniyambadi Viluppuram Virudhunagar

First grade

Arakkonam Arani Aranthangi Arcot Aruppukkottai Bodinayakanur Chengalpattu Colachel Cumbum Devakottai Dharapuram Edappadi Gudiyatham Kadayanallur Kallakurichi Komarapalayam Krishnagiri Manapparai Palladam Panruti Paramakudi Poonamallee Ramanathapuram Rasipuram Sankarankovil Sembakkam Sathyamangalam Sivagangai Srivilliputhur Thiruthangal Tiruvallur tenkasi Tiruvarur Virudhachalam

Second grade

Ambasamudram Anakaputhur Ariyalur Bhavani Chinnamanur Gudalur (Nilgiris district) Gudalur ( Theni
Theni
district) Jayankondam Jolarpet Kangeyam Kayalpattinam Keelakarai Koothanallur Kulithalai Kuzhithurai Maduranthakam Melur Melvisharam Nellikuppam Nelliyalam Oddanchatram Padmanabhapuram Pallipalayam Perambalur Periyakulam Pernampattu Puliyankudi Punjai Puliampatti Rameswaram Sattur Sengottai Sirkazhi Thiruthani Thiruthuraipoondi Thiruvathipuram Thuvakudi Tirumangalam Usilampatti Vandavasi Vedaranyam Vellakoil Vikramasingapuram Walajapet

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 State of Tamil Nadu

Capital: Chennai

State symbols

Seal: Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
Andal Temple Gopuram Animal: Nilgiri tahr Bird: Emerald dove Flower: Gloriosa lily Fruit: Jackfruit Tree: Palm tree

Governance

Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly Political parties Raj Bhavan High Court Police

Topics

Cinema Cuisine Economy Government History Language Literature Music People Education Politics Temples Protected areas Highest point Wildlife Sexual Minorities Tourism

Districts

Ariyalur Chennai Coimbatore Cuddalore Dharmapuri Dindigul Erode Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Karur Krishnagiri Madurai Nagapattinam Namakkal Perambalur Pudukkottai Ramanathapuram Salem Sivaganga Thanjavur The Nilgiris Theni Thoothukudi Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Tiruppur Tiruvallur Tiruvannamalai Tiruvarur Vellore Viluppuram Virudhunagar

Major cities

Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirapalli Tiruppur

Tamil Nadu

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World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19145424546186831446 GND: 42114

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