Madison Grant (November 19, 1865 – May 30, 1937) was an American
lawyer, writer, and zoologist known primarily for his work as a
eugenicist and conservationist. As a eugenicist, Grant was responsible
for one of the most famous works of scientific racism, and played an
active role in crafting strong immigration restriction and
anti-miscegenation laws in the United States.
As a conservationist, Grant is credited with the saving of many
different species of animals, founding many different environmental
and philanthropic organizations and developing much of the discipline
of wildlife management.
1 Early life
2 Nordic theory
3 Immigration restriction
4 Conservation efforts
6.1 Selected articles
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Grant was born in New York City, New York, the son of Gabriel Grant, a
well-known physician and
American Civil War
American Civil War surgeon, and Caroline
Manice. Madison Grant's mother was a descendant of Jessé de Forest,
Huguenot who in 1623 recruited the first band of colonists
to settle in New Netherland. On his father's side, Madison Grant's
first American ancestor was Richard Treat, dean of Pitminster Church
in England, who in 1630 was one of the first Puritan settlers of New
England. Grant's forebears through Treat's line include Robert Treat
(a colonial governor of New Jersey),
Robert Treat Paine (a signer of
the Declaration of Independence), Charles Grant (Madison Grant's
grandfather who served as an officer in the War of 1812) and Gabriel
Grant (father of Madison), a prominent physician and the health
commissioner of Newark. Dr.
Gabriel Grant was awarded the Medal of
Honor while serving as surgeon with the Second New Jersey volunteers
in the Civil War. During the Battle of Fair Oaks, he moved the
wounded to safety while under heavy fire. Grant was a lifelong
resident of New York City.
Grant was the oldest brother among four siblings. The children's
summers, and many of their weekends, were spent at Oatlands, the
Long Island country estate built by their grandfather
DeForest Manice in the 1830s. As a child he attended private
schools and traveled
Europe and the
Middle East with his father. He
attended Yale University, graduating early and with honors in 1887. He
received a law degree from Columbia Law School, and practiced law
after graduation; however, his interests were primarily those of a
naturalist. He never married and he had no children. He first achieved
a political reputation when he and his brother, De Forest Grant, took
part in the electoral campaign of New York mayor William Lafayette
Strong in 1894.
See also: Nordicism
Grant is most famously the author of the popular book The Passing of
the Great Race (1916), an elaborate work of racial hygiene
detailing the "racial history" of Europe. The most important of
Grant's concerns with the changing "stock" of American immigration of
the early 20th century (characterized by increased numbers of
immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, as opposed to Western and
Northern Europe), Passing of the Great Race was a "racial"
interpretation of contemporary anthropology and history, stating race
as the basic motor of civilization.
Similar ideas were proposed by
Gustav Kossinna in Germany. Grant
promoted the idea of the "Nordic race", a loosely defined
biological-cultural grouping rooted in Scandinavia, as the key social
group responsible for human development; thus the subtitle of the book
was The racial basis of European history. As an avid eugenicist, Grant
further advocated the separation, quarantine, and eventual collapse of
"undesirable" traits and "worthless race types" from the human gene
pool and the promotion, spread, and eventual restoration of desirable
traits and "worthwhile race types" conducive to Nordic society:
"Maximum Expansion of Alpines" — Map from Passing of the Great Race
showing the "essentially peasant" Alpine migrations into Europe.
"Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics" — Early Nordic influence
spreading over the continent.
"Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic Alpines" — Further
Nordic expansion, as well as the Alpines.
"Present Distribution of the European Races" (1916) — Grant's vision
of the status quo, with the Nordics in red, the Alpines in green, and
the Mediterraneans in yellow.
A rigid system of selection through the elimination of those who are
weak or unfit—in other words social failures—would solve the whole
question in one hundred years, as well as enable us to get rid of the
undesirables who crowd our jails, hospitals, and insane asylums. The
individual himself can be nourished, educated and protected by the
community during his lifetime, but the state through sterilization
must see to it that his line stops with him, or else future
generations will be cursed with an ever increasing load of misguided
sentimentalism. This is a practical, merciful, and inevitable solution
of the whole problem, and can be applied to an ever widening circle of
social discards, beginning always with the criminal, the diseased, and
the insane, and extending gradually to types which may be called
weaklings rather than defectives, and perhaps ultimately to worthless
In the book, Grant recommends segregating "unfavorable" races in
ghettos by installing civil organizations through the public health
system to establish quasi-dictatorships in their particular
fields. He states the expansion of non-Nordic race
types in the Nordic system of freedom would actually mean a slavery to
desires, passions, and base behaviors.
In turn, this corruption of society would lead to the subjection of
the Nordic community to "inferior" races, who would in turn long to be
dominated and instructed by "superior" ones utilizing authoritarian
powers. The result would be the submergence of the indigenous Nordic
races under a corrupt and enfeebled system dominated by inferior
races, and both in turn would be subjected by a new ruling race class.
Nordic theory, in Grant's formulation, was similar to many 19th
century racial philosophies which divided the human species into
primarily three distinct races: Caucasoids (based in Europe), Negroids
(based in Africa), and Mongoloids (based in Asia). Nordic theory,
however, further subdivided Caucasoids into three groups: Nordics (who
Northern Europe and other parts of the continent), Alpines
(whose territory included central
Europe and parts of Asia), and
Mediterraneans (who inhabited Southern Europe, North Africa, and the
In Grant's view, Nordics probably evolved in a climate that "must have
been such as to impose a rigid elimination of defectives through the
agency of hard winters and the necessity of industry and foresight in
providing the year's food, clothing, and shelter during the short
summer. Such demands on energy, if long continued, would produce a
strong, virile, and self-contained race which would inevitably
overwhelm in battle nations whose weaker elements had not been purged
by the conditions of an equally severe environment." The
"Proto-Nordic" human, Grant reasoned, probably evolved in eastern
Germany, Poland and Russia, before migrating northward to Scandinavia.
The Nordic, in his theory, was Homo europaeus, the white man par
excellence. "It is everywhere characterized by certain unique
specializations, namely, wavy brown or blond hair and blue, gray or
light brown eyes, fair skin, high, narrow and straight nose, which are
associated with great stature, and a long skull, as well as with
abundant head and body hair." Grant categorized the Alpines as
being the lowest of the three European races, with the Nordics as the
pinnacle of civilization.
The Nordics are, all over the world, a race of soldiers, sailors,
adventurers, and explorers, but above all, of rulers, organizers, and
aristocrats in sharp contrast to the essentially peasant character of
Chivalry and knighthood, and their still surviving but
greatly impaired counterparts, are peculiarly Nordic traits, and
feudalism, class distinctions, and race pride among Europeans are
traceable for the most part to the north.
Grant, while aware of the "Nordic Migration Theory" into the
Mediterranean, appears to reject this theory as an explanation for the
high civilization features of the Greco-Roman world.
The mental characteristics of the
Mediterranean race are well known,
and this race, while inferior in bodily stamina to both the Nordic and
the Alpine, is probably the superior of both, certainly of the
Alpines, in intellectual attainments. In the field of art its
superiority to both the other European races is unquestioned.
Grant also considered North
Africa as part of Mediterranean Europe:
Africa north of the Sahara, from a zoological point of view, is now,
and has been since early Tertiary times, a part of Europe. This is
true both of animals and of the races of man. The Berbers of north
Africa to-day are racially identical with the Spaniards and south
Yet while Grant recognized Mediterraneans to have abilities in art, as
quoted above, later in the text, he pondered if the Mediterranean
achievements in civilization were due to Nordic original ideals and
This is the race that gave the world the great civilizations of Egypt,
of Crete, of
Phoenicia including Carthage, of
Etruria and of Mycenaean
Greece. It gave us, when mixed and invigorated with Nordic elements,
the most splendid of all civilizations, that of ancient Hellas, and
the most enduring of political organizations, the Roman State. To what
Mediterranean race entered into the blood and civilization
of Rome, it is now difficult to say, but the traditions of the Eternal
City, its love of organization, of law and military efficiency, as
well as the Roman ideals of family life, loyalty, and truth, point
clearly to a Nordic rather than to a Mediterranean origin.
According to Grant, Nordics were in a dire state in the modern world,
where, because of their abandonment of cultural values rooted in
religious or superstitious proto-racialism, they were close to
committing "race suicide" by miscegenation and by being outbred by
inferior stock taking advantage of the situation.
The book was immensely popular, went through multiple printings in the
United States, and was translated into a number of other languages,
notably German in 1925. By 1937, the book had sold 16,000 copies in
the United States alone. Nordic theory was strongly embraced by the
racial hygiene movement in Germany in the early 1920s and 1930s,
which, however, they typically used the term "Aryan" instead of
"Nordic," but the principal
Nazi ideologist, Alfred Rosenberg,
preferred "Aryo-Nordic" or "Nordic-Atlantean".
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould described
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race as "the most
influential tract of American scientific racism."
Grant's work was embraced by proponents of the National Socialist
movement in Germany and was the first non-German book ordered to be
reprinted by the Nazis when they took power.
Adolf Hitler wrote to
Grant, "The book is my Bible."
Grant's work is considered one of the most influential and vociferous
works of scientific racism and eugenics to come out of the United
States. One of his long-time opponents was the anthropologist Franz
Boas. Grant disliked Boas and for several years tried to get him fired
from his position at Columbia University. Boas and Grant were
involved in a bitter struggle for control over the discipline of
anthropology in the United States while they both served (along with
others) on the National Research Council Committee on Anthropology
after the First World War.
Grant represented the "hereditarian" branch of physical anthropology
at the time, despite his relatively amateur status, and was staunchly
opposed to and by Boas himself (and the latter's students), who
advocated cultural anthropology. Boas and his students eventually
wrested control of the
American Anthropological Association
American Anthropological Association from Grant
and his supporters and used as a flagship organization for his brand
of anthropology. In response, Grant founded the Galton Society with
American eugenicist and biologist
Charles B. Davenport
Charles B. Davenport in 1918 as an
alternative to Boas.
Grant advocated restricted immigration to the United States through
limiting immigration from
Eastern Europe and Southern Europe, as well
as the complete end of immigration from East Asia. He also advocated
efforts to purify the American population through selective breeding.
He served as the vice president of the Immigration Restriction League
from 1922 to his death. Acting as an expert on world racial data,
Grant also provided statistics for the
Immigration Act of 1924
Immigration Act of 1924 to set
the quotas on immigrants from certain European countries. Even
after passing the statute, Grant continued to be irked that even a
smattering of non-Nordics were allowed to immigrate to the country
each year. He also assisted in the passing and prosecution of several
anti-miscegenation laws, notably the
Racial Integrity Act of 1924
Racial Integrity Act of 1924 in
the state of Virginia, where he sought to codify his particular
version of the "one-drop rule" into law.
Though Grant was extremely influential in legislating his view of
racial theory, he began to fall out of favor in the United States in
the 1930s. The declining interest in his work has been attributed both
to the effects of the Great Depression, which resulted in a general
Social Darwinism and related philosophies, and to the
changing dynamics of racial issues in the United States during the
interwar period. Rather than subdivide
Europe into separate racial
groups, the bi-racial (black vs. white) theory of Grant's protege
Lothrop Stoddard became more dominant in the aftermath of the Great
Migration of African-Americans from Southern States to Northern and
Western ones (Guterl 2001). The rise of the Nazis in Germany also
contributed to Grant's intellectual falling out of favor[citation
needed], as the similarity of their overtly racist theories to Grant's
would become a liability even before they were officially an enemy at
war against the United States.
Grant was a close friend of several U.S. presidents, including
Theodore Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover, and also was an avid
conservationist. He is credited with saving many natural species from
extinction, and co-founded the
Save-the-Redwoods League with Frederick
Russell Burnham, John C. Merriam, and
Henry Fairfield Osborn
Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1918.
He is also credited with helping develop the first deer hunting laws
in New York state, legislation which spread to other states as well
He was also the creator of wildlife management, helped to found the
Bronx Zoo, build the Bronx River Parkway, save the
American bison as
an organizer of the American Bison Society, and helped to create
Glacier National Park and Denali National Park. In 1906, as Secretary
of the New York Zoological Society, he lobbied to put Ota Benga, a
Congolese pygmy, on display alongside apes at the Bronx Zoo.
Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, he served on the boards of many
eugenic and philanthropic societies, including the board of trustees
at the American Museum of Natural History, a director of the American
Eugenics Society, vice president of the Immigration Restriction
League, a founding member of the Galton Society, and one of the eight
members of the International Committee of Eugenics. He was awarded the
gold medal of the Society of Arts and Sciences in 1929. In 1931, the
world's largest tree (in Dyerville, California) was dedicated to
Grant, Merriam, and Osborn by the California State Board of Parks in
recognition for their environmental efforts. A species of caribou was
named after Grant as well (Rangifer tarandus granti, also known as
Grant's Caribou). He was a member of the
Boone and Crockett Club
Boone and Crockett Club (a
big game hunting organization) since 1893, where he was friends with
president Theodore Roosevelt. He was head of the New York Zoological
Society from 1925 until his death.
Historian Jonathan Spiro has argued that Grant's interests in
conservationism and eugenics were not unrelated: both are hallmarks of
the early 20th-century Progressive movement, and both assume the need
for various types of stewardship over their charges. In Grant's mind,
natural resources needed to be conserved for the Nordic Race, to the
exclusion of other races. Grant viewed the
Nordic race lovingly as he
did any of his endangered species, and considered the modern
industrial society as infringing just as much on its existence as it
did on the redwoods. Like many eugenicists, Grant saw modern
civilization as a violation of "survival of the fittest", whether it
manifested itself in the over-logging of the forests, or the survival
of the poor via welfare or charity.[verification needed]
Grant became a part of popular culture in 1920s America, especially in
New York. Grant's conservationism and fascination with zoological
natural history made him very influential among the New York elite who
agreed with his cause, most notably Theodore Roosevelt. Author F.
Scott Fitzgerald featured a reference to Grant in The Great Gatsby.
Tom Buchanan, the husband of Daisy Buchanan, the novel's principal
female character, was reading a book called The Rise of the Colored
Empires by "this man Goddard", a combination of Passing of the Great
Race (Grant) and his colleague Lothrop Stoddard's The Rising Tide of
Color Against White World Supremacy (Stoddard; Grant wrote the
introduction to Stoddard's book).
"Civilization’s going to pieces," broke out Tom violently. "I’ve
gotten to be a terrible pessimist about things. Have you read "The
Rise of the Colored Empires’ by this man Goddard?"
"Why no," I answered, rather surprised by his tone."
"Well, it’s a fine book, and everybody ought to read it. The idea is
if we don’t look out the white race will be — will be utterly
submerged. It’s all scientific stuff; it’s been proved."
"Tom’s getting very profound," said Daisy, with an expression of
unthoughtful sadness. "He reads deep books with long words in them.
What was that word we — "
"Well these books are all scientific," insisted Tom, glancing at her
impatiently. "This fellow has worked out the whole thing. It’s up to
us, who are the dominant race, to watch out or these other races will
have control of things."
"We’ve got to beat them down," whispered Daisy, winking ferociously
toward the fervent sun.
"You ought to live in California —" began Miss Baker, but Tom
interrupted her by shifting heavily in his chair.
"This idea is that we’re Nordics. I am, and you are, and you are,
and —" After an infinitesimal hesitation he included Daisy with a
slight nod, and she winked at me again. " — And we’ve produced all
the things that go to make civilization — oh, science and art, and
all that. Do you see?"
There was something pathetic in his concentration, as if his
complacency, more acute than of old, was not enough to him any
In May 1921, soon after his unhappy first visit to Europe, Fitzgerald
wrote to Edmund Wilson:
God damn the continent of Europe. It is of merely antiquarian
interest. Rome is only a few years behind Tyre and Babylon. The
negroid streak creeps northward to defile the Nordic race. Already the
Italians have the souls of blackamoors. Raise the bars of immigration
and permit only Scandinavians, Teutons, Anglo-Saxons and Celts to
enter. France made me sick. Its silly pose as the thing the world has
to save. I think it's a shame that England and America didn't let
Germany conquer Europe. It's the only thing that would have saved the
fleet of tottering old wrecks. (Letters 326)
Fitzgerald recognized the racism implicit in these statements and
seemed to abhor it. "My reactions," he wrote "were all philistine,
anti-socialistic, provincial and racially snobbish." Yet he continued
in the same vein as previously: "I believe at last in the white man's
burden. We are as far above the modern Frenchman as he is above the
Negro. Even in art!" And so on".
Grant left no offspring when he died in 1937 of nephritis. Several
hundred people attended Grant's funeral, and he was buried in
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Tarrytown, New York. He left a bequest of
$25,000 to the
New York Zoological Society
New York Zoological Society to create "The Grant
Endowment Fund for the Protection of Wild Life", left $5,000 to the
American Museum of Natural History, and left another $5,000 to the
Boone and Crockett Club.
Grant was not only a crusading environmentalist. He opposed war, had
doubts about imperialism, and strongly supported birth control.
Passing of the Great Race was lauded by Adolf Hitler, who in the early
1930s wrote a 'fan letter' to Grant in which he called the book "his
Bible". At the postwar Nuremberg Trials, Grant's Passing of the
Great Race was introduced into evidence by the defense of Karl Brandt,
Hitler's personal physician and head of the
Nazi euthanasia program,
in order to justify the population policies of the Third Reich, or at
least indicate that they were not ideologically unique to Nazi
Grant's works of "scientific racism" have been cited to demonstrate
that many of the genocidal and eugenic ideas associated with the Third
Reich did not arise specifically in Germany, and in fact that many of
them had origins in other countries including the United States.
As such, because of Grant's well-connectedness and influential
friends, he is often used to illustrate the strain of race-based
eugenic thinking in the United States which had some influence until
the Second World War. Because of the use made of Grant's eugenics work
by the policy-makers of
Nazi Germany, his work as a conservationist
has been somewhat ignored and obscured, as many organizations with
which he was once associated (such as the Sierra Club) wanted to
minimize their association with him.
Grant was mentioned in Anders Behring Breivik's "2083: A European
Declaration of Independence," in which Breivik argues for the
preservation of the
Nordic race and criticized miscegenation.
The Caribou. New York: Office of the New York Zoological Society,
"Moose." New York: Report of the Forest, Fish, Game Commission, 1903.
The Origin and Relationship of the Large Mammals of North America. New
York: Office of the New York Zoological Society, 1904.
The Rocky Mountain Goat. Office of the New York Zoological Society,
The Passing of the Great Race; or, The Racial Basis of European
History. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.
New ed., rev. and Amplified, with a New Preface by Henry Fairfield
Osborn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918
Rev. ed., with a Documentary Supplement, and a Preface by Henry
Fairfield Osborn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921.
Fourth rev. ed., with a Documentary Supplement, and a Preface by Henry
Fairfield Osborn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936.
Saving the Redwoods; an Account of the Movement During 1919 to
Preserve the Redwoods of California. New York: Zoological Society,
Early History of Glacier National Park, Montana. Washington: Govt.
print. off., 1919.
The Conquest of a Continent; or, The Expansion of Races in America,
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1933.
"The Depletion of American Forests," Century Magazine, Vol. XLVIII,
No. 1, May 1894.
"The Vanishing Moose, and their Extermination in the Adirondacks,"
Century Magazine, Vol. XLVII, 1894.
"A Canadian Moose Hunt." In:
Theodore Roosevelt (ed.),
Hunting in Many
Lands. New York: Forest and Stream Publishing Company, 1895.
"The Future of Our Fauna," Zoological Society Bulletin, No. 34, June
"History of the Zoological Society," Zoological Society Bulletin,
Decennial Number, No. 37, January 1910.
"Condition of Wild Life in Alaska." In:
Hunting at High Altitudes. New
York: Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 1913.
"Wild Life Protection," Zoological Society Bulletin, Vol. XIX, No. 1,
"The Passing of the Great Race," Geographical Review, Vol. 2, No. 5,
"The Physical Basis of Race," Journal of the National Institute of
Social Sciences, Vol. III, January 1917.
"Discussion of Article on Democracy and Heredity," The Journal of
Heredity, Vol. X, No. 4, April, 1919.
"Restriction of Immigration: Racial Aspects," Journal of the National
Institute of Social Sciences, Vol. VII, August 1921.
"Racial Transformation of America," The North American Review, March
"America for the Americans," The Forum, September 1925.
Leon Dominian, The Frontiers of Language and Nationality in Europe,
with an introduction by Madison Grant. New York: H. Holt and Company,
Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color Against White
World-Supremacy, with an introduction by Madison Grant. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921
Ed., with Charles Stewart Davidson. The Founders of the Republic on
Immigration, Naturalization and Aliens, collected for and edited by
Madison Grant and Charles Stewart Davidson. New York: C. Scribner’s
Ed., with Charles Stewart Davidson, The Alien in Our Midst; or,
"Selling our Birthright for a Mess of Pottage"; the Written Views of a
Number of Americans (present and former) on Immigration and its
Results. New York: The Galton Publishing Co., 1930.
Eugenics in the United States
Henry Fairfield Osborn
^ Zubrin, Robert (2012). Merchants of Despair: Radical
Environmentalists, Criminal Pseudo-scientists, and the Fatal Cult of
Antihumanism. Encounter Books, p. 57.
^ Spiro, Jonathan Peter (2009). Defending the Master Race:
Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. University of
Vermont Press, pp. 6–7.
Gabriel Grant (Surgeon)". health.mil (the official website of
Military Health System
Military Health System and the Defense Health Agency. Archived
from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
^ Spiro (2009), p. 7.
^ Lindsay, J.A. (1917). "The Passing of the Great Race, or the Racial
Basis of European History," The
Eugenics Review 9 (2), pp. 139–141.
^ Alexander, Charles C. (1962). "Prophet of American Racism: Madison
Grant and the Nordic Myth," Phylon 23 (1), pp. 73-90.
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916), p. 46.
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916), pp. 152–153.
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916), p. 150.
^ a b
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916), p. 198.
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916), pp. 137-138.
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916), p. 139.
^ a b c Spiro, Jonathan P. (2009). Defending the Master Race:
Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Univ. of
Vermont Press. ISBN 978-1-58465-715-6. Lay summary (29 September
^ Petit, Jeanne D. (2010). The Men and Women We Want: Gender, Race,
Progressive Era Literary Test Debate. University of Rochester.
p. 165. ISBN 978-1-58046-348-5. Retrieved 26 June
^ Winfield, Ann Gibson (2007).
Eugenics and Education in America:
Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology,
and Memory. Peter Lang. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8204-8146-3.
^ Spiro 2002
^ Tucker, William H. (2007). The Funding of Scientific Racism:
Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press.
ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (4 September 2010).
^ "The Great Gatsby," Chap. 1.
^ Margolies, Alan (1997). "The Maturing of F. Scott Fitzgerald."
Twentieth Century Literature, 43 (1), pp. 75–93. Also see
Slater, Peter Gregg (1973). "Ethnicity in The Great Gatsby," Twentieth
Century Literature, 19 (1), pp. 53–62; Dekker, Jeffrey Louis
(1994). "Gatsby's Pristine Dream: The Diminishment of the Self-Made
Man in the Tribal Twenties," Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 28 (1),
pp. 52–71; Bender, Bert (1998). "'His Mind Aglow': The
Biological Undercurrent in Fitzgerald's Gatsby and Other Works,"
Journal of American Studies, 32 (3), Part 1, Cambridge University
Press, pp. 399–420.
^ Leonard, Thomas C. Illiberal Reformers Princeton University Press
2016 p. 116
^ Arnold, Kathleen R. (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A
Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 227. ISBN 0313375224.
^ Black, Edwin (2003). War Against the Weak.
Eugenics and America's
Campaign to Create a Master Race. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows,
pp. 259, 273, 274–275, 296.
^ 2083: A European Declaration of Independence.
^ Reprinted in The National Geographic, Vol. XXXVII, January/June,
"Madison Grant, 71, Zoologist, Is Dead," New York Times (May 31,
1937), p. 15.
Barkan, Elazar (1992). The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing
Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States between the World
Wars. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cooke, Kathy J. (2000). "Grant, Madison." American National Biography.
Degler, Carl N. (1991). In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and
Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought. Oxford University
Field, Geoffrey G. (1977). "Nordic Racism," Journal of the History of
Ideas 38 (3), pp. 523–540.
Guterl, Matthew Press (2001). The Color of Race in America, 1900-1940.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Spiro, Jonathan P. (2000). Patrician Racist: The Evolution of Madison
Grant. Ph.D. diss., Dept. of History, University of California,
________. "Nordic vs. Anti-Nordic: The Galton Society and the American
Anthropological Association," Patterns of Prejudice 36:1 (2002):
________. "The Alien in Our Midst."
Regal, Brian (2002). Henry Fairfield Osborn: Race and the Search for
the Origins of Man. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
Regal, Brian (2004). "Maxwell Perkins and Madison Grant: Eugenics
Publishing at Scribners," Princeton University Library Chronicle 65
(2), pp. 317–341.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Madison Grant.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Madison Grant
Environmentalisms Racist History
Madison Grant at Find a Grave
Excerpts from Passing of the Great Race used at the Nuremberg Trials
Madison Grant at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Historical race concepts
List of racially mixed groups
Robert Bennett Bean
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Alice Mossie Brues
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Samuel A. Cartwright
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Sonia Mary Cole
Carleton S. Coon
Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt
Stanley Marion Garn
Reginald Ruggles Gates
Arthur de Gobineau
Hans F. K. Günther
Frederick Ludwig Hoffman
Thomas Henry Huxley
Calvin Ira Kephart
Robert E. Kuttner
Georges Vacher de Lapouge
Felix von Luschan
Lewis H. Morgan
Samuel George Morton
Josiah C. Nott
Isaac La Peyrère
Ludwig Hermann Plate
James Cowles Prichard
William Z. Ripley
Charles Gabriel Seligman
Samuel Stanhope Smith
William Graham Sumner
Thomas Griffith Taylor
John H. Van Evrie
Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer
An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in
Different Climates (1744)
The Outline of History of Mankind (1785)
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849)
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
The Races of
Europe (Ripley, 1899)
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899)
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907)
Heredity in Relation to
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920)
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930)
Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste (1936)
The Races of
Europe (Coon, 1939)
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
The Race Question
The Race Question (1950)
Great chain of being
History of anthropometry
in Latin America
in the United States
Nazism and race
in the United States
ISNI: 0000 0001 2101 7053
BNF: cb14450776m (da