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Macrinus
Macrinus
(/məˈkraɪnəs/; Latin: Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus;[a] c. 165 – June 218) was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from April 217 to 8 June 218. He reigned jointly with his young son Diadumenianus. Macrinus
Macrinus
was by origin a Berber from Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis. A member of the equestrian class, he became the first emperor who did not hail from the senatorial class and was the first emperor from Mauretania. Before becoming emperor, Macrinus
Macrinus
served under Emperor Caracalla
Caracalla
as a praetorian prefect and dealt with Rome's civil affairs. He later conspired against Caracalla
Caracalla
and had him murdered in a bid to protect his own life, succeeding him as emperor. Macrinus
Macrinus
was proclaimed emperor of Rome by 11 April 217 while in the eastern provinces of the empire and was subsequently confirmed as such by the Senate; however, for the duration of his reign, he never had the opportunity to return to Rome. His predecessor's policies had left Rome's coffers empty and the empire at war with several kingdoms, including Parthia, Armenia and Dacia. As emperor, Macrinus
Macrinus
first attempted to enact reform to bring economic and diplomatic stability to Rome. While Macrinus' diplomatic actions brought about peace with each of the individual kingdoms, the additional monetary costs and subsequent fiscal reforms generated unrest in the Roman military. Caracalla's aunt Julia Maesa
Julia Maesa
took advantage of the unrest and instigated a rebellion to have her fourteen-year-old grandson, Elagabalus, recognized as emperor. Macrinus
Macrinus
was overthrown at the Battle of Antioch
Antioch
on 8 June 218 and Elagabalus
Elagabalus
proclaimed himself emperor with support from the rebelling Roman legions. Macrinus
Macrinus
fled the battlefield and tried to reach Rome but was captured in Chaceldon and later executed in Cappadocia. He sent his son to the care of Artabanus V of Parthia, but Diadumenianus
Diadumenianus
was also captured before he could reach his destination and executed. After Macrinus' death, the Senate declared him and his son enemies of Rome and had their names struck from the records and their images destroyed.

Contents

1 Background and career 2 Reign 3 Downfall

3.1 Execution 3.2 Damnatio Memoriae

4 Notes 5 Citations 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Background and career[edit] Macrinus
Macrinus
was born in Caesarea Mauretaniae
Caesarea Mauretaniae
(modern Cherchell, Algeria) in the Roman province
Roman province
of Mauretania
Mauretania
to an equestrian family of Berber origins.[1][2] He received an education which allowed him to ascend to the Roman political class.[2] Over the years, he earned a reputation as a skilled lawyer; and, under Emperor Septimius Severus, he became an important bureaucrat. Severus' successor Caracalla
Caracalla
later appointed him a prefect of the Praetorian Guard.[2][3] While Macrinus
Macrinus
probably enjoyed the trust of Emperor Caracalla, this may have changed when, according to tradition, it was prophesied that he would depose and succeed the emperor.[2] Macrinus, fearing for his safety, resolved to have Caracalla
Caracalla
murdered before he was condemned.[4] In the spring of 217, Caracalla
Caracalla
was in the eastern provinces preparing a campaign against the Parthian Empire.[5][6] Macrinus
Macrinus
was among his staff, as were other members of the Praetorian Guard. In April, Caracalla
Caracalla
went to visit a temple of Luna near the site of the battle of Carrhae and was accompanied only by his personal guard, which included Macrinus.[5] On April 8, while traveling to the temple, Caracalla
Caracalla
was stabbed to death by Justin Martialis, a soldier whom Macrinus
Macrinus
had recruited to commit the murder.[5][7] In the aftermath, Martialis was killed by one of Caracalla's men.[5] For two or three days, Rome remained without an emperor.[4][7][8] By April 11, Macrinus
Macrinus
had proclaimed himself emperor and assumed all of the imperial titles and powers, without waiting for the Senate.[4] The army backed his claim as emperor and the Senate, so far away, was powerless to intervene.[9] Macrinus
Macrinus
never returned to Rome as emperor and remained based in Antioch
Antioch
for the duration of his reign.[10] Macrinus
Macrinus
was the first emperor to hail from the equestrian class, rather than the senatorial and also the first emperor of Mauretanian descent.[11] He adopted the name of Severus, in honor of the Severan dynasty, and conferred the imperial title of Augusta to his wife Nonia Celsa[b] and the title of Caesar and name of Antoninus to his son Diadumenianus
Diadumenianus
in honor of the Antonine dynasty, thus making him second in command.[11][13][14][15][16] At the time of Diadumenian's accession he was eight years old.[17] Reign[edit] Despite his equestrian background, Macrinus
Macrinus
was accepted by the Senate for two reasons: for the removal of Caracalla, and for having received the loyalty of the army.[9][18] The senators were less concerned by Macrinus' Mauretanian ancestry than by his equestrian social background and scrutinized his actions as emperor.[4] Their opinion of him was reduced by his decisions to appoint men to high offices who were of similarly undistinguished background.[4] Only the Senate had the constitutional power to choose the emperor from among the senators and Macrinus, not being a senator and having become emperor through force rather than through traditional means, was looked down upon.[9] Macrinus
Macrinus
had several issues that he needed to deal with at the time of his accession, which had been left behind by his predecessor. As Caracalla
Caracalla
had a tendency towards military belligerence, rather than diplomacy, this left several conflicts for Macrinus
Macrinus
to resolve.[19] Additionally, Caracalla
Caracalla
had been a profligate spender of Rome's income.[20] Most of the money was spent on the army; he had greatly increased their pay from 2,000 sesterces to 3,000 sesterces per year.[21][22] The increased expenditures forced Caracalla
Caracalla
to strip bare whatever sources of income he had to supply the difference.[20] This shortfall left Rome in a dire fiscal situation that Macrinus needed to address.[23] Macrinus
Macrinus
was at first occupied by the threat of the Parthians, with whom Rome had been at war since the reign of Caracalla. Macrinus settled a peace deal with the Parthians, after fighting an indecisive battle at Nisibis in 217.[24] In return for peace, Macrinus
Macrinus
was forced to pay a large indemnity to the Parthian ruler Artabanus V.[25][26] Rome was at the time also under threat from Dacia
Dacia
and Armenia, so any deal with Parthia would likely have been beneficial to Rome.[27] Next, Macrinus
Macrinus
turned his attention to Armenia.[28] In 216, Caracalla
Caracalla
had imprisoned Khosrov I of Armenia and his family after Khosrov had agreed to meet with Caracalla
Caracalla
at a conference to discuss some issue between himself and his sons. Caracalla
Caracalla
instead installed a new Roman governor to rule over Armenia. These actions angered the Armenian peoples and they soon rebelled against Rome.[29][30] Macrinus
Macrinus
settled a peace treaty with them by returning the crown and loot to Khosrov's son and successor Tiridates II and releasing his mother from prison, and by restoring Armenia to its status as a client kingdom of Rome.[31] Macrinus
Macrinus
made peace with the Dacians by releasing hostages, though this was likely not handled by himself but by Marcius Agrippa.[32] In matters of foreign policy, Macrinus
Macrinus
showed a tendency towards settling disputes through diplomacy and a reluctance to engage in military conflict, though this may have been due more to the lack of resources and manpower than to his own personal preference.[19] Macrinus
Macrinus
began to overturn Caracalla's fiscal policies and moved closer towards those that had been set forth by Septimius Severus.[23] One such policy change involved the pay of Roman legionnaires. The soldiers that were already enlisted during Caracalla's reign enjoyed exorbitant payments which were impossible for Macrinus
Macrinus
to reduce without risking a potential rebellion. Instead, Macrinus
Macrinus
allowed the enlisted soldiers to retain their higher payments, but he reduced the pay of new recruits to the level which had been set by Severus.[33][34] Macrinus
Macrinus
revalued the Roman currency, increasing the silver purity and weight of the denarius from 50.78 percent and 1.66 grams at the end of Caracalla's reign to 57.85 percent and 1.82 grams from Fall 217 to the end of his reign, so that it mirrored Severus' fiscal policy for the period 197–209 A.D.[35][36] Macrinus' goal with these policies might have been to return Rome to the relative economic stability that had been enjoyed under Severus' reign, though it came with a cost.[37] The fiscal changes that Macrinus
Macrinus
enacted might have been tenable had it not been for the military. By this time, the strength of the military was too great and by enacting his reforms he angered the veteran soldiers, who viewed his actions in reducing the pay of new recruits as a foreshadowing of eventual reductions in their own privileges and pay. This significantly reduced Macrinus' popularity with the legions that had declared him emperor.[37][38] Caracalla's mother Julia Domna was initially left in peace when Macrinus
Macrinus
became emperor. This changed when Macrinus
Macrinus
discovered that she was conspiring against him and had her placed under house arrest in Antioch.[39] By this time Julia Domna was suffering from an advanced stage of breast cancer and soon died in Antioch, possibly by starving herself.[11][39] Afterwards, Macrinus
Macrinus
sent Domna's sister Julia Maesa
Julia Maesa
and her children back to Emesa in Syria, from where Maesa set in motion her plans to have Macrinus
Macrinus
overthrown.[11][18] Macrinus remained in Antioch
Antioch
instead of going to Rome upon being declared emperor, a step which furthered his unpopularity in Rome and contributed to his eventual downfall.[40] Downfall[edit]

An aureus of Macrinus. Its elaborate symbolism celebrates the liberalitas ("prodigality") of Macrinus
Macrinus
and his son Diadumenianus.

Julia Maesa
Julia Maesa
had retired to her home town of Emesa with an immense fortune, which she had accrued over the course of twenty years. She took her children, Julia Soaemias
Julia Soaemias
and Julia Mamaea, and grandchildren, including Elagabalus, with her to Emesa.[41] Elagabalus, aged 14, was the chief priest of the Phoenician sun-deity Elagabalus
Elagabalus
(or El-Gabal) in Emesa.[41][42] Soldiers from Legio III Gallica
Legio III Gallica
(Gallic Third Legion), that had been stationed at the nearby camp of Raphanea, often visited Emesa and went to see Elagabalus
Elagabalus
perform his priestly rituals and duties while there.[41][43] Julia Maesa
Julia Maesa
took advantage of this, to suggest to the soldiers that Elagabalus
Elagabalus
was indeed the illegitimate son of Caracalla.[11][41] On May 16, Elagabalus
Elagabalus
was proclaimed emperor by the Legio III Gallica
Legio III Gallica
at its camp at Raphanea.[44] Upon Elagabalus' revolt, Macrinus
Macrinus
travelled to Apamea and conferred the title of Augustus
Augustus
onto his son, Diadumenianus, and made him co-emperor.[17] Execution[edit] Macrinus
Macrinus
realised that his life was in danger but struggled to decide upon a course of action and remained at Antioch.[45] He sent a force of cavalry commanded by Ulpinus Julianus to regain control of the rebels, but they failed and Ulpinus died in the attempt. This failure further strengthened Elagabalus' army.[45][46] Soon after, a force under Elagabalus' tutor Gannys marched on Antioch
Antioch
and engaged Macrinus' army on 8 June 218 near the village of Immae, located approximately 24 miles from Antioch.[40] At some point during the ensuing Battle of Antioch, Macrinus
Macrinus
deserted the field and returned to Antioch.[40] Macrinus
Macrinus
was then forced to flee from Antioch
Antioch
as fighting erupted in the city as well.[40] Elagabalus
Elagabalus
himself subsequently entered Antioch
Antioch
as the new ruler of the Roman Empire.[47] Macrinus fled for Rome; he traveled as far as Chalcedon before being recognized and captured.[48] His son and co-emperor Diadumenianus, sent to the care of Artbanus V of Parthia, was himself captured in transit at Zeugma and killed in June of 218.[11][17][48] Diadumenianus' reign lasted a total of 14 months, and he was about 10 years old when he died.[17] Macrinus, upon learning of his son's death, tried to escape captivity, but he injured himself in the unsuccessful attempt[48] and was afterward executed in Cappadocia; his head was sent to Elagabalus.[48] Much like Macrinus, Diadumenianus' head was also cut off and sent to Elagabalus
Elagabalus
as a trophy.[16] Damnatio Memoriae[edit] Macrinus
Macrinus
and his son Diadumenianus
Diadumenianus
were declared hostes, enemies of the state, by the Senate immediately after news had arrived of their deaths and as part of an official declaration of support for the usurper Elagabalus, who was recognized in the Senate as the new Emperor. The declaration of hostes led to two actions being taken against the images of the former Emperors. First, their portraits were destroyed and their names were stricken from inscriptions and papyrii. The second action, taken by the Roman soldiers who had rebelled against Macrinus
Macrinus
in favour of Elagabalus, was to destroy all of the works and possessions of Macrinus. The damnatio memoriae against Macrinus
Macrinus
is among the earliest of such sanctions enacted by the Senate. Many of the marble busts of Macrinus
Macrinus
that exist were defaced and mutilated as a response to the damnatio memoriae and many of the coins depicting Macrinus
Macrinus
and Diadumenianus
Diadumenianus
were also destroyed. These actions against Macrinus
Macrinus
are evidence of his unpopularity in Rome.[15] Notes[edit]

^ In Classical Latin, Macrinus' name would be inscribed as MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS ^ The only evidence for her existence is a fictitious letter written in Diadumenianus' biography in the Historia Augusta[12]

Citations[edit]

^ Naylor, Phillip (2015-01-15). North Africa, Revised Edition: A History from Antiquity to the Present. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-76190-2.  ^ a b c d Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 1. p. 162.  ^ Mennen, Inge (2011). Impact of Empire, Volume 12: Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 15. OCLC 859895124.  ^ a b c d e Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b c d Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ Mennen, Inge (2011). Impact of Empire, Volume 12: Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 22. OCLC 859895124.  ^ a b Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 163.  ^ Ando, Clifford (2012). Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284: The Critical Century. Edinburgh University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-7486-5534-4.  ^ a b c Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 164.  ^ Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. p. 185. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  ^ a b c d e f Dunstan, William, E. (2010). Ancient Rome. Rowman and Littleman Publishers. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 190. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Mennen, Inge (2011). Impact of Empire, Volume 12: Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 26. OCLC 859895124.  ^ Crevier, Jean Baptiste Louis (1814). The History of the Roman Emperors From Augustus
Augustus
to Constantine, Volume 8. F. C. & J. Rivington. p. 238.  ^ a b Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. pp. 184–188. ISBN 90-04-13577-4.  ^ a b Bunson, Matthew (2014). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 1-4381-1027-8.  ^ a b c d Vagi, David (2000). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, C. 82 B.C. – A.D. 480: History. Taylor & Francis. pp. 289–290. ISBN 1-57958-316-4.  ^ a b Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 118. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ a b Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 118–119. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Dunstan, William, E. (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  ^ Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel J; Talbert, Richard J. A. (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. p. 413. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.  ^ a b Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 126. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 76. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 119. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 111. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 113. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Payaslian, S (2008). The History of Armenia: From the Origins to the Present. Springer. p. 32. ISBN 0-230-60858-2.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 270-271. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. p. 113. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Emperor. pp. 165–166.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 127–128. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Harl, Kenneth. "Roman Currency of the Principate". Tulane University. Archived from the original on 10 February 2001. Retrieved 30 August 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. pp. 134–135. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  ^ Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 166.  ^ a b Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b c d Glanville, Downey (1961). History of Antioch
Antioch
in Syria: From Seleucus to the Arab Conquest. Literary Licensing. pp. 248–250. ISBN 1-258-48665-2.  ^ a b c d Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 182.  ^ Vagi, David (2000). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, C. 82 B.C. – A.D. 480: History. Taylor & Francis. pp. 295–296. ISBN 1-57958-316-4.  ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  ^ a b Gibbon, Edward (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 169.  ^ Mennen, Inge (2011). Impact of Empire, Volume 12: Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 164. OCLC 859895124.  ^ Icks, Martijn (2011). The Crimes of Elagabalus: The Life and Legacy of Rome's Decadent Boy Emperor. I. B. Tauris. p. 14. ISBN 1-84885-362-9.  ^ a b c d Crevier, Jean Baptiste Louis (1814). The History of the Roman Emperors from Augustus
Augustus
to Constantine, Volume 8. F. C. & J. Rivington. pp. 236–237. 

References[edit]

Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro; Gargola, Daniel J; Talbert, Richard J. A. (2004). The Romans, from village to empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511875-8.  Bunson, Matthew (2014). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-1027-8.  Crevier, Jean Baptiste Louis (1814). The History of the Roman Emperors From Augustus
Augustus
to Constantine, Volume 8. F. C. & J. Rivington.  Downey, Glanville. (1961). History of Antioch
Antioch
in Syria: From Seleucus to the Arab Conquest. Literary Licensing. ISBN 1-258-48665-2 Dunstan, William (2011). Ancient Rome. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-6832-7.  Harl, Kenneth. "Roman Currency of the Principate". Tulane University. Archived from the original on 10 February 2001. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Gibbon, Edward. (1776). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 1 Goldsworthy, Adrian (2009). How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-16426-8.  Icks, Martijn (2011). The Crimes of Elegabalus: The Life and Legacy of Rome's Decadent Boy Emperor. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84885-362-9.  Mennen, Inge (2011). Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193–284. Impact of Empire. Volume 12. Brill Academic. OCLC 859895124.  Naylor, Phillip (2015). North Africa, Revised Edition: A History from Antiquity to the Present. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-76190-2.  Payaslian, S (2008). The History of Armenia: From the Origins to the Present. Springer. p. 32. ISBN 0-230-60858-2.  Scott, Andrew (2008). Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Rutgers. ISBN 0-549-89041-6.  Vagi, David (2000). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, C. 82 B.C. – A.D. 480: History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-57958-316-4.  Varner, Eric (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill Academic. ISBN 90-04-13577-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Dio, Cassius. (n.d.). Roman History. Herodian of Antioch. (n.d.). History of the Roman Empire. Historia Augusta. (n.d.)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Macrinus.

Life of Macrinus
Macrinus
( Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
at LacusCurtius: Latin text and English translation) " Macrinus
Macrinus
and Diadumenianius" at De Imperatoribus Romanis (by Michael Meckler of Ohio State University) Macrinus
Macrinus
by Dio Cassius Livius.org: Marcus Opellius Macrinus

Macrinus Severan dynasty Born: 11 April 165 Died: June 218

Regnal titles

Preceded by Caracalla Roman Emperor 217–218 Served alongside: Diadumenianus Succeeded by Elagabalus

Political offices

Preceded by Gaius Bruttius Praesens , Titus
Titus
Messius Extricatus Consul of the Roman Empire 218 with Marcus Oclatinius Adventus Succeeded by Elagabalus, Marcus Oclatinius Adventus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89202499 LCCN: nb2010014

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