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The Macintosh
Macintosh
128K, originally released as the Apple Macintosh, is the original Apple Macintosh
Macintosh
personal computer. Its beige case consisted of a 9 in (23 cm) CRT monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle built into the top of the case made it easier for the computer to be lifted and carried. It had an initial selling price of $2,495 (equivalent to $5,877 in 2017). The Macintosh
Macintosh
was introduced by the now-famous $370,000 (equivalent to $871,550 in 2017) television commercial by Ridley Scott, "1984", that most notably aired on CBS during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII
Super Bowl XVIII
on January 22, 1984.[6] Sales of the Macintosh
Macintosh
were strong from its initial release on January 24, 1984, and reached 70,000 units on May 3, 1984.[7] Upon the release of its successor, the Macintosh
Macintosh
512K, it was rebranded as the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K.

Contents

1 Processor and memory 2 Peripherals 3 Storage 4 Cooling 5 Software 6 Models 7 Expansion 8 OEM upgrades 9 Credits 10 Reception 11 Timeline of compact Macintosh
Macintosh
models 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Processor and memory[edit] The centerpiece of the machine was a Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
microprocessor running at 7.8336 MHz, connected to 128 KB RAM
RAM
shared by the processor and the display controller. The boot procedure and some operating system routines were contained in an additional 64 KB ROM chip. Apple did not offer RAM
RAM
upgrades. Unlike the Apple II, no source code listings of the Macintosh
Macintosh
system ROMs were offered. The RAM
RAM
in the Macintosh
Macintosh
consisted of sixteen 4164 64k×1 DRAMs. The 68000 and video controller took turns accessing D RAM
RAM
every four CPU cycles during display of the frame buffer, while the 68000 had unrestricted access to D RAM
RAM
during vertical and horizontal blanking intervals. Such an arrangement reduced the overall performance of the CPU as much as 35% for most code as the display logic often blocked the CPU's access to RAM. This made the machine run more slowly than several of its competitors, despite the nominally high clock rate.

Back case of an unaltered original Macintosh
Macintosh
(sold January–November 1984). Those made after November 1984 have the label " Macintosh
Macintosh
128K" on the back of the case.

Peripherals[edit] The built-in display was a one-bit black-and-white, 9 in (23 cm) CRT with a fixed resolution of 512×342 pixels, establishing the desktop publishing standard of 72 PPI.[8] Expansion and networking were achieved using two non-standard RS-422
RS-422
DE-9
DE-9
serial ports named "printer" and "modem"; they did not support hardware handshaking. An external floppy disk drive could be added using a proprietary connector (19-pin D-sub). The keyboard and mouse used simple proprietary protocols, allowing some third-party upgrades. The original keyboard had no arrow keys, numeric keypad or function keys. This was an intentional decision by Apple, as these keys were common on older platforms and it was thought that the addition of these keys would encourage software developers to simply port their existing applications to the Mac, rather than design new ones around the GUI paradigm.[9] Later, Apple would make a numeric keypad available for the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K. The keyboard sold with the newer Macintosh
Macintosh
Plus model would include the numeric keypad and arrow keys, but still no function keys. As with the Apple Lisa
Apple Lisa
before it, the mouse had a single button. Standard headphones could also be connected to a monaural jack. Apple also offered their 300 and 1200 bit/s modems originally released for the Apple II
Apple II
line. Initially, the only printer available was the Apple ImageWriter, a dot matrix printer which was designed to produce 144 dpi WYSIWYG
WYSIWYG
output from the Mac's 72 dpi screen. Eventually, the LaserWriter
LaserWriter
and other printers were capable of being connected using AppleTalk, Apple's built-in networking system. Storage[edit] The Macintosh
Macintosh
contained a single 400 KB, single-sided 3.5-inch floppy disk drive, dedicating no space to other internal mechanical storage. The Mac OS was disk-based from the beginning, as RAM
RAM
had to be conserved, but this "Startup Disk" could still be temporarily ejected. (Ejecting the root filesystem remained an unusual feature of the classic Mac OS until System 7.) One floppy disk was sufficient to store the System Software, an application and the data files created with the application. Indeed, the 400 KB drive capacity was larger than the PC XT's 360 KB 5.25-inch drive. However, more sophisticated work environments of the time required separate disks for documents and the system installation. Due to the memory constraints (128 KB) of the original Macintosh, and the fact that the floppies could hold 400 KB, users frequently had to swap disks in and out of the floppy drive. For this reason, external floppy drives were frequently used. The Macintosh
Macintosh
External Disk Drive (mechanically identical to the internal one, piggybacking on the same controller) was a popular add-on at US $495. Third-party hard drives were considerably more expensive and usually connected to the slower serial port (as specified by Apple), though a few manufacturers chose to use the faster non-standard floppy port. The 128K can only use the original Macintosh
Macintosh
File
File
System for storage.

Macintosh
Macintosh
motherboard

Cooling[edit] The unit did not include a fan, relying instead on convection cooling, which made it quiet while in operation. Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
insisted that the Macintosh
Macintosh
ship without a fan, which persisted until the introduction of the Macintosh
Macintosh
SE in 1987. This was allegedly a source of many common, costly component failures in the first four Macintosh
Macintosh
models. This was enough of a problem to prompt the introduction of a third-party, external cooling fan. This fan unit fitted inside the Macintosh's carrying-handle slot and produced a forced draft through the computer's existing ventilation holes.[10] Software[edit] The Macintosh
Macintosh
shipped with the very first System and Finder application, known to the public as "System 1.0" (formally known as System 0.97 and Finder 1.0). The original Macintosh
Macintosh
saw three upgrades to both before it was discontinued. Apple recommends System 2.0 and Finder 4.2, with System 3.2 and Finder 5.3 as the maximum. System 4.0 officially dropped support for the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K because it was distributed on 800 KB floppy disks, which could not be used by the 128K. The applications MacPaint
MacPaint
and MacWrite
MacWrite
were bundled with the Mac. Other programs available included MacProject, MacTerminal
MacTerminal
and Microsoft Word. Programming languages available at the time included MacBASIC, MacPascal[11] and the Macintosh
Macintosh
68000 Development System.[12] The Macintosh
Macintosh
also came with a manual and a unique guided tour cassette tape which worked together with the guided tour diskette as a tutorial for both the Macintosh
Macintosh
itself and the bundled applications, since most new Macintosh
Macintosh
users had never used a mouse before, much less manipulated a graphical user interface.

Back case label of a Macintosh
Macintosh
made after November 1984

Models[edit] The computer was released in January 1984 as simply the Apple Macintosh. Following the release of the Macintosh 512K
Macintosh 512K
in September, which expanded the memory from 128 KB to 512 KB, the original Macintosh
Macintosh
was re-branded Macintosh
Macintosh
128K and nicknamed the "thin Mac." The new 512K model was nicknamed the "fat Mac." While functionally the same, as closed systems, the Macintosh
Macintosh
and Macintosh 128K were technically two different computers, with the re-badged 128K containing a completely redesigned logic board to easily accommodate both 128 KB and 512 KB RAM
RAM
configurations during manufacturing. Though the RAM
RAM
was still permanently soldered to the logic board, the new design allowed for easier (though unsanctioned) third-party upgrades to 512 KB. In addition, most of the newer models contained the 1984 revision B of the ROM to accommodate changes in the 400 KB floppy disk drive.[13] System software contains support for an unreleased Macintosh
Macintosh
256K.[14] The increased RAM
RAM
of the 512K was vitally important for the Macintosh as it finally allowed for more powerful software applications, such as the then-popular program Microsoft Multiplan. However, Apple continued to market the 128K for over a year as an entry-level computer, the mid-level 512K and high-end Lisa (and claiming that it could be easily expanded should the user ever need more RAM). Expansion[edit] Jobs stated that because "customization really is mostly software now ... most of the options in other computers are in Mac", unlike the Apple II
Apple II
the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K did not need slots, which he described as costly and requiring larger size and more power.[15] It was not upgradable by the user and only Apple service centers were permitted to open the case.[16] All accessories were external, such as the MacCharlie that added IBM PC compatibility.[17] There was no provision for adding internal storage, more RAM
RAM
or any upgrade cards, however some of the Macintosh
Macintosh
engineers objected to Jobs's ideas and secretly developed workarounds for them. As an example, the Macintosh
Macintosh
was supposed to have only 17 address lines on the motherboard, enough to support 128k of system RAM, but the design team added an additional two address lines without Jobs's knowledge, making it possible to expand the computer to 512k, although the actual act of upgrading system RAM
RAM
was difficult and required piggybacking additional RAM chips overtop the onboard 4164 chips. In September 1984, after months of complaints over the Mac's inadequate RAM, Apple released an official 512k machine. Although this had always been planned from the beginning, Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
maintained if the user desired more RAM
RAM
than the Mac 128 provided, he should simply pay extra money for a Mac 512 rather than upgrade the computer himself. When the Mac 512 was released, Apple rebranded the original model as " Macintosh
Macintosh
128k" and modified the motherboard to allow easier RAM
RAM
upgrades. Improving on the hard-wired RAM
RAM
thus required a motherboard replacement (which was priced similarly to a new computer), or a third-party chip replacement upgrade, which was not only expensive but would void Apple's warranty. The difficulty of fitting software into its limited free memory, coupled with the new interface and event driven programming model, discouraged software vendors from supporting it, leaving the 128K with a relatively small software library. Whereas the Macintosh
Macintosh
Plus, and to a lesser extent the Macintosh
Macintosh
512K, are compatible with much later software, the 128K is limited to specially crafted programs. A stock Mac 128K with the original 64K ROM is neither compatible with Apple's external 800 KB drive with HFS nor with Apple's Hard Disk 20. A Mac 128K that has been upgraded with the newer 128K ROM (called a Macintosh
Macintosh
128Ke) can use internal and external 800 KB drives with HFS, as well as the HD20. Both can print on an AppleShare network, but neither can do file sharing because of their limited RAM. OEM upgrades[edit] By early 1985 much Macintosh
Macintosh
software required 512K of memory. Apple sold an official memory upgrade for the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K, which included a motherboard replacement effectively making it a Macintosh
Macintosh
512K, for the price of US $995.[18][19][20] Additionally, Apple offered an 800 KB floppy disk drive kit, including updated 128K ROMs. Finally, a Mac 128K could be upgraded to a Macintosh
Macintosh
Plus by swapping the logic board as well as the case back (to accommodate the slightly different port configuration) and optionally adding the Macintosh
Macintosh
Plus extended keyboard. Any of the kits could be purchased alone or together at any time, for a partial or full upgrade for the Macintosh 128K. All upgrades were required to be performed by professional Apple technicians,[21] who reportedly refused to work on any Macintosh upgraded to 512K without Apple's official upgrade, which at US$700 was much more expensive than about $300 for third-party versions.[22] Credits[edit]

Signatures inside the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K case

The original Macintosh
Macintosh
was unusual in that it included the signatures of the Macintosh
Macintosh
Division as of early 1982 molded on the inside of the case. The names were Peggy Alexio, Colette Askeland, Bill Atkinson, Steve Balog, Bob Belleville, Mike Boich, Bill Bull, Matt Carter, Berry Cash, Debi Coleman, George Crow, Donn Denman, Christopher Espinosa, Bill Fernandez, Martin Haeberli, Andy Hertzfeld, Joanna Hoffman, Rod Holt, Bruce Horn, Hap Horn, Brian Howard, Steve Jobs, Larry Kenyon, Patti King, Daniel Kottke, Angeline Lo, Ivan Mach, Jerrold Manock, Mary Ellen McCammon, Vicki Milledge, Mike Murray, Ron Nicholson Jr., Terry Oyama, Benjamin Pang, Jef Raskin, Ed Riddle, Brian Robertson, Dave Roots, Patricia Sharp, Burrell Smith, Bryan Stearns, Lynn Takahashi, Guy "Bud" Tribble, Randy Wigginton, Linda Wilkin, Steve Wozniak, Pamela Wyman and Laszlo Zidek. The Macintosh
Macintosh
128/512K models also included an Easter egg in the OS ROM. If the user went to the system debugger and typed G 4188A4, a graphic reading "Stolen from Apple Computers" would appear in the upper left corner of the screen. This was designed to prevent unauthorized cloning of the Macintosh
Macintosh
after numerous Apple II
Apple II
clones appeared, many of which simply stole Apple's copyrighted system ROMs. Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
allegedly planned that if a Macintosh
Macintosh
clone appeared on the market and a court case happened, he could access this Easter egg on the computer to prove that it was using pirated Macintosh ROMs.[citation needed] Reception[edit] Erik Sandberg-Diment of The New York Times
The New York Times
in January 1984 stated that Macintosh
Macintosh
"presages a revolution in personal computing". Although preferring larger screens and calling the lack of color a "mistake", he praised that the "refreshingly crisp and clear" display and lack of fan noise.[23] While unsure whether it would become "a second standard to Big Blue", Ronald Rosenberg of The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
wrote in February of "a euphoria that Macintosh
Macintosh
will change how America computes. Anyone that tries the pint-size machine gets hooked by its features".[24] Gregg Williams of BYTE that month found the h ardware and software design (which it predicted would be "imitated but not copied") impressive, but criticized the lack of a standard second disk drive. He predicted that the computer would popularize the 3½-inch floppy disk drive standard, that the Macintosh
Macintosh
would improve Apple's reputation, and that it "will delay IBM's domination of the personal computer market." Williams concluded that the Macintosh
Macintosh
was "the most important development in computers in the last five years. [It] brings us one step closer to the ideal of computer as appliance."[16] In a follow-up article in the May 1984 issue of BYTE, Williams added, "Initial reaction to the Macintosh
Macintosh
has been strongly, but not overpoweringly, favorable. A few traditional computer users see the mouse, the windows, and the desktop metaphor as silly, useless frills, and others are outraged at the lack of color graphics, but most users are impressed by the machine and its capabilities. Still, some people have expressed concern about the relatively small 128K-byte RAM (randomaccess read/write memory) size, the lack of any computer language sent as part of the basic unit, and the inconvenience of the single disk drive."[25] Jerry Pournelle, also of BYTE, added that "The Macintosh
Macintosh
is a bargain only if you can get it at the heavily discounted price offered to faculty and students of the favored 24 universities in the Macintosh consortium." He noted, however, that the Macintosh
Macintosh
attracted people "who previously hated computers ... There is, apparently, something about mice and pull-down menus and icons that appeal to people previously intimidated by A> and the like".[26] Timeline of compact Macintosh
Macintosh
models See also: Timeline of Macintosh
Macintosh
models

See also: Compact Macintosh See also[edit]

Technical information on the Mac 128K

References[edit]

^ Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. p. 113. ISBN 1-59327-010-0.  ^ "The Macintosh
Macintosh
Product Introduction Plan". Stanford University Libraries & Academic Information Resources. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010.  ^ " Macintosh
Macintosh
128K: Technical Specifications". apple.com. Retrieved March 27, 2015.  ^ "Official Apple Support". apple.com.  ^ "Byte Magazine Volume 09 Number 02 - Benchmarks". Internet Archive.  ^ Burnham, David (March 4, 1984). "The computer, the consumer and privacy". The New York Times. Washington, D.C. Retrieved March 27, 2015.  ^ Polsson, Ken (July 29, 2009). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Archived from the original on July 10, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2009.  ^ " Macintosh
Macintosh
/ Macintosh
Macintosh
128K". The Mac 512. Retrieved 20 December 2016.  ^ "History of computer design: Apple Macintosh". landsnail.com.  ^ "The Fanny Mac System Saver fan for 1984 Macintosh
Macintosh
128k 512k Plus M0001 Rare!". Worthpoint.com. Retrieved February 1, 2014.  ^ "Mac GUI". macgui.com.  ^ "Mac GUI". macgui.com.  ^ "400K Drive Problem/Cure: Fails to Read/Write or MacTest". apple.com.  ^ Small, David (1989). Spectre GCR. Gadgets by Small. p. 75.  ^ "An Interview: The Macintosh
Macintosh
Design Team". BYTE. Interview with Lemmons, Phil. February 1984. pp. 58–80. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ a b Williams, Gregg (February 1984). "The Apple Macintosh
Macintosh
Computer". BYTE. p. 30. Retrieved October 22, 2013.  ^ Sandberg-Diment, Erik (September 24, 1985). "Linking Mac to the IBM PC". The New York Times
The New York Times
(review). Retrieved October 27, 2013.  ^ Sandberg-Diment, Erik (1985-03-19). "Apple Might Learn a Thing or Two from I.B.M." The New York Times. p. C4. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ "Mac GUI". macgui.com.  ^ "Mac GUI". macgui.com.  ^ Macintosh
Macintosh
Plus: Description (Discontinued) The Macintosh
Macintosh
Plus Logic Board Kit ^ Webster, Bruce (September 1985). "West Coast Faire, Mac Stuff, and the Amiga". BYTE. p. 401. Retrieved 20 March 2016.  ^ Sandberg-Diment, Erik (1984-01-24). "Personal Computers; Hardware Review: Apple Weighs in with Macintosh". The New York Times.  ^ Rosenberg, Ronald (1984-02-28). "Doubts Raised About PCjr". The Boston Globe.  ^ "Update on Apple Macintosh
Macintosh
and Lisa 2" (PDF).  ^ Pournelle, Jerry (Aug 1984). "Between Conventions". BYTE. p. 313. Retrieved 24 February 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Macintosh
Macintosh
128K.

Full Macintosh
Macintosh
128K specifications (Apple Computer) at the Wayback Machine (archived May 14, 2008) Macintosh
Macintosh
128K profile, Low End Mac. Mac 128K Information page at Mac512.com Original Review of the Macintosh
Macintosh
by Lawrence J. Magid (January 29, 1984) at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived September 20, 2008) Online attempt at simulating Macintosh
Macintosh
System 1 Mac Essentials, Lost 1984 Videos "The Vintage Mac Museum: Mac 128K Slideshows". Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved 2016-01-06.  Apple Macintosh
Macintosh
before System 7
System 7
Macintosh
Macintosh
128K Hardware Tips For the 128K Support For 128K Diehard Users The M0001 Registry Owners of Vintage Macintosh Inside the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K The Original Macintosh, anecdotes and the people who made it

v t e

Apple hardware before 1998

Computers

Apple

Apple I Apple II
Apple II
series

II II Plus IIe IIc IIc Plus IIGS

Apple III

Compact Macintosh

128K 512K 512Ke Plus SE SE/30 Classic Classic II Color Classic

Macintosh
Macintosh
II

II IIx IIcx IIci IIfx IIsi IIvi IIvx

Macintosh
Macintosh
LC

LC LC II LC III LC 475 LC 500 series LC 630 5200 LC Macintosh
Macintosh
TV

Macintosh
Macintosh
Quadra

700 900 950 800 840AV 600 series

610 650 660AV 605 630

PowerBook

Macintosh
Macintosh
Portable 68k-based PowerBooks

100 series

100 140 170 160 180 150 190

200 series

210 230

500 series

PowerPC-based PowerBooks

2300c 5300 1400 3400c 2400c

Power Macintosh

4400 and 7220 5000 series

5200 LC and 5300 LC 5260 5400 5500

6000 series

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8000 series

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Miscellaneous

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Card ( Macintosh
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PDS) Apple Workgroup Server

9150

Apple Network Server Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh

Peripherals

Displays

Monitor III Monitor II AppleColor Composite IIe AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Macintosh
Macintosh
Color AudioVision 14 Multiple Scan 14 ColorSync 750

External drives

Disk II Macintosh ProFile Hard Disk 20 Hard Disk 20SC AppleCD PowerCD Tape Drive 40SC

Input devices

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serial cards Apple Modem LocalTalk Apple Communication Slot GeoPort

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Paladin Interactive Television Box Pippin

Apple h

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