MACOS (pronounced /ˌmækoʊˈɛs/ ; previously MAC OS X and later
OS X) is the current series of Unix-based graphical operating systems
developed and marketed by
Launched in 2001 as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family
Macintosh operating systems . Mac OS X succeeded "classic" Mac OS ,
which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac
OS 9 in 1999. An initial, early version of the system, Mac OS X Server
1.0 , was released in 1999. The first desktop version,
Mac OS X 10.0 ,
followed in March 2001. Releases were code named after big cats from
the original release up until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion . Beginning in
2013 with OS X 10.9 Mavericks , releases have been named after
macOS is based on technologies developed at
Apple also used to have a separate line of releases of Mac OS X designed for servers . Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion , the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store .
Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC
-based Macs from the time period. After Apple announced that they were
Part of a series on
* Transition to
* Hera (1.0) * Kodiak (Public Beta) * Cheetah (10.0) * Puma (10.1) * Jaguar (10.2) * Panther (10.3) * Tiger (10.4) * Leopard (10.5) * Snow Leopard (10.6) * Lion (10.7) * Mountain Lion (10.8) * Mavericks (10.9) * Yosemite (10.10) * El Capitan (10.11) * Sierra (10.12)
* Automator * Calculator * Calendar * Chess * Contacts * Dashboard * Dictionary * DVD Player * FaceTime * Finder * Grapher * iTunes (version history ) * Mac App Store * Mail * Messages * Photo Booth * Preview * QuickTime * Safari (version history ) * Stickies * TextEdit
Audio MIDI Setup
* v * t * e
* 1 History
* 1.1 Development
* 1.2 Mac OS X
* 1.2.1 Launch of Mac OS X * 1.2.2 Following releases
* 1.3 OS X * 1.4 macOS
* 2 Architecture
* 2.1 Software compatibility
* 2.2 Hardware compatibility
* 2.3 PowerPC–
* 3 Features
* 3.1 Aqua user interface * 3.2 Components * 3.3 Multilingual support * 3.4 Updating methods
* 4 Release history
* 4.1 Mac OS X Public Beta * 4.2 Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah * 4.3 Mac OS X 10.1 Puma * 4.4 Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar * 4.5 Mac OS X 10.3 Panther * 4.6 Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger * 4.7 Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard * 4.8 Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard * 4.9 Mac OS X 10.7 Lion * 4.10 OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion * 4.11 OS X 10.9 Mavericks * 4.12 OS X 10.10 Yosemite * 4.13 OS X 10.11 El Capitan * 4.14 macOS 10.12 Sierra * 4.15 macOS 10.13 High Sierra
* 5 Reception
* 5.1 Usage share * 5.2 Malware and spyware * 5.3 Promotion
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at
Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a
"next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the
Taligent , Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were
eventually abandoned. This led Apple to purchase
MAC OS X
Launch Of Mac OS X
Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of
Apple's operating system for
The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0 , was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS , though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility . Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API ; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.
The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0 . Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as 'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as 'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'.
Apple rapidly developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's
review of version 10.3, Panther , noted "It's strange to have gone
from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of
major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger ,
reportedly shocked executives at
In 2006, the first
As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS , with applications being added and removed. Targeting the consumer and media markets, Apple emphasized its new "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, integrated home entertainment through the Front Row media center and the Safari web browser. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the .Mac, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products. It also began selling third-party applications through the Mac App Store .
Newer versions of Mac OS X also included modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some applications began to use a brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version 10.4. In Leopard, Apple announced a unification of the interface, with a standardized gray-gradient window style.
A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from 2007 onwards. While Apple's previous iPod media players used a minimal operating system, the iPhone used an operating system based on Mac OS X, which would later be called "iPhone OS" and then iOS . The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks placed tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard . However, after Apple opened the iPhone to third-party developers its commercial success drew attention to Mac OS X, with many iPhone software developers showing interest in Mac development.
In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion , Apple moved some applications to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS, at the same time simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use. This direction was, like brushed metal interfaces, unpopular with some users, although it continued a trend of greater animation and variety in the interface previously seen in design aspects such as the Time Machine backup utility, which presented past file versions against a swirling nebula, and the glossy translucent dock of Leopard and Snow Leopard . In addition, with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion , Apple ceased to release separate server versions of Mac OS X, selling server tools as a separate downloadable application through the Mac App Store. A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and simpler... shifting its focus from large businesses to small ones."
OS X logo from 2012-2013
In 2012, with the release of OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion , the name of the system was shortened from Mac OS X to OS X. That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall , and design was changed towards a more minimal direction. Apple's new user interface design, using deep color saturation, text-only buttons and a minimal, 'flat' interface, was debuted with iOS 7 in 2013. With OS X engineers reportedly working on iOS 7, the version released in 2013, OS X 10.9 Mavericks , was something of a transitional release, with some of the skeuomorphic design removed, while most of the general interface of Mavericks remained unchanged. The next version, OS X 10.10 Yosemite , adopted a design similar to iOS 7 but with greater complexity suitable for an interface controlled with a mouse.
From 2012 onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS . It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing upgrade fees altogether from 2013 onwards. Some journalists and third-party software developers have suggested that this decision, while allowing more rapid feature release, meant less opportunity to focus on stability, with no version of OS X recommendable for users requiring stability and performance above new features. Apple's 2015 update, OS X 10.11 El Capitan , was announced to focus specifically on stability and performance improvements.
In 2016, with the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra , the name was changed from OS X to macOS to streamline it with the branding of Apple's other primary operating systems: iOS , watchOS , and tvOS .
macOS 10.12 Sierra's main features are the introduction of
At the 2017 Worldwide Developers Conference Apple previewed macOS 10.13 High Sierra .
Main article: Architecture of macOS
At macOS's core is a
POSIX compliant operating system built on top of
XNU kernel , with standard
With its original introduction as Mac OS X, the system brought a
number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable
platform than its predecessor, the classic Mac OS . For example,
pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's
ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them
interrupting or corrupting each other. Many aspects of macOS's
architecture are derived from OPENSTEP , which was designed to be
portable, to ease the transition from one platform to another. For
NeXTSTEP was ported from the original
68k -based NeXT
workstations to x86 and other architectures before
The default macOS file system is HFS+ , which it inherited from the
classic Mac OS.
The Darwin subsystem in macOS is in charge of managing the file
system, which includes the
The architecture of macOS incorporates a layered design: the layered
frameworks aid rapid development of applications by providing existing
code for common tasks. Apple provides its own software development
tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called
Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that support several
programming languages including C ,
See also: List of
List of macOS versions and the software they run OPERATING SYSTEM SAFARI MAIL QUICKTIME ITUNES MESSAGES /ICHAT IWORK
10.12 "SIERRA" 10.1 10.3 10.4 12.6 10.0 2016
10.11 "EL CAPITAN"
10.10 "YOSEMITE" 9.1.3 ? 2014
10.9 "MAVERICKS" 7.3 10.3 8.0 2013
10.8 "MOUNTAIN LION" 6.1 ? 10.2 12.4 ? '09
10.7 "LION" ? 10.1 12.2.2 Beta or 6.0.1
10.6 "SNOW LEOPARD" 5.1.10 4.5 11.4 5.0
10.5 "LEOPARD" 5.0.6 3.6 7.7 10.6.3 4.0
10.4 "TIGER" 4.1.3 2.1.3 7.6.4 9.2.1 3.0
10.3 "PANTHER" 1.3.2 1.x 7.5 7.7.1 2.1 '05
10.2 "JAGUAR" 1.0.3 6.5.3 6.0.5 2.0 Keynote
10.1 "PUMA" N/A 6.3.1 4.7.1 N/A N/A
10.0 "CHEETAH" 5.0 2.0.4
* ^ Keynote 1.0 is the only iLife program that is compatible with Mac OS X 10.2 "Jaguar". Two minor updates, 1.1 and 1.1.1, can be applied to this version. * ^ iTunes 2.0.4 can only run if Classic is installed. Otherwise, Mac OS X 10.0 can only run iTunes 1.1.1 natively.
Apple offered two main APIs to develop software natively for macOS: Cocoa and Carbon . Cocoa was a descendant of APIs inherited from OPENSTEP with no ancestry from the classic Mac OS , while Carbon was an adaptation of classic Mac OS APIs, allowing Mac software to be minimally rewritten in order to run natively on Mac OS X.
The Cocoa API was created as the result of a 1993 collaboration
Apple's original plan with macOS was to require all developers to
rewrite their software into the Cocoa APIs. This caused much outcry
among existing Mac developers, who threatened to abandon the platform
rather than invest in a costly rewrite, and the idea was shelved. To
permit a smooth transition from
Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the Carbon
Application Programming Interface (API) was created. Applications
written with Carbon were initially able to run natively on both
classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, although this ability was later dropped
as Mac OS X developed. Carbon was not included in the first product
sold as Mac OS X: the little-used original release of Mac OS X Server
1.0 , which also did not include the Aqua interface. Apple limited
further development of Carbon from the release of Leopard onwards,
announcing Carbon applications would not receive the ability to run at
64-bit. As of 2015, a small number of older Mac OS X apps with
heritage dating back to the classic Mac OS still used Carbon,
Because macOS is
POSIX compliant, many software packages written for
Unix-like systems such as
Applications can be distributed to Macs and installed by the user from any source and by any method such as downloading (with or without code signing , available via an Apple developer account) or through the Mac App Store , a marketplace of software maintained by Apple by way of a process requiring the company's approval. Apps installed through the Mac App Store run within a sandbox , restricting their ability to exchange information with other applications or modify the core operating system and its features. This has been cited as an advantage, by allowing users to install apps with confidence that they should not be able to damage their system, but also as a disadvantage, by blocking the Mac App Store's use by professional applications that require elevated privileges. Applications without any code signature cannot be run by default except from a computer's administrator account.
Apple produces macOS applications, some of which are included and some sold separately. This includes iWork , Final Cut Pro , Logic Pro , iLife , and the database application FileMaker . Numerous other developers also offer software for macOS .
List of macOS versions, the supported systems on which they run, and their RAM requirements OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORTED SYSTEMS RAM REQUIREMENT
10.8 – 10.11
G4, G5 and
10.3 Macs with a New World ROM 128 MB
Tools such as
XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation
media have been developed by third parties to enable installation of
newer versions of macOS on systems not officially supported by Apple.
This includes a number of pre-G3 Power
As most Mac hardware components, or components similar to those,
In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of
Mac OS X code-named Marklar , which ran on
On June 6, 2005,
PowerPC-only software is supported with Apple's official emulation
software, Rosetta , though applications eventually had to be rewritten
to run properly on the newer versions released for
Support for the
AQUA USER INTERFACE
One of the major differences between the classic Mac OS and the current macOS was the addition of Aqua , a graphical user interface with water-like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology. ColorSync , a technology introduced many years before, was improved and built into the core drawing engine, to provide color matching for printing and multimedia professionals. Also, drop shadows were added around windows and isolated text elements to provide a sense of depth. New interface elements were integrated, including sheets (dialog boxes attached to specific windows) and drawers, which would slide out and provide options.
The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs , brought more texture and color to the user interface when compared to what Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Server 1.0 's "Platinum " appearance had offered. According to John Siracusa, an editor of Ars Technica , the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks." Bruce Tognazzini (who founded the original Apple Human Interface Group) said that the Aqua interface in Mac OS X 10.0 represented a step backwards in usability compared with the original Mac OS interface. Third-party developers started producing skins for customizable applications and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company says is derived from its copyrighted design.
Apple has continued to change aspects of the macOS appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar. Since 2012, Apple has sold many of its Mac models with high-resolution Retina displays , and macOS and its APIs have extensive support for resolution-independent development on supporting high-resolution displays. Reviewers have described Apple's support for the technology as superior to that on Windows.
The human interface guidelines published by Apple for macOS are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts. In addition, new services for applications are included, which include spelling and grammar checkers, special characters palette, color picker, font chooser and dictionary; these global features are present in every Cocoa application, adding consistency. The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version 10.2, is called Quartz Extreme , a component of Quartz . Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the Portable Document Format (PDF) imaging model, making it easy to output PDF to multiple devices. As a side result, PDF viewing and creating PDF documents from any application are built-in features. Reflecting its popularity with design users, macOS also has system support for a variety of professional video and image formats and includes an extensive pre-installed font library, featuring many prominent brand-name designs.
Main article: List of macOS components
The Finder is a file browser allowing quick access to all areas of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of macOS. Quick Look is part of the Finder since version 10.5 . It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents without opening any other applications. Spotlight , a file searching technology which has been integrated into the Finder since version 10.4 , allows rapid real-time searches of data files; mail messages; photos; and other information based on item properties (metadata) and/or content. macOS makes use of a Dock , which holds file and folder shortcuts as well as minimized windows.
Apple added "Exposé" in version 10.3 (called Mission Control since
version 10.7 ), a feature which includes three functions to help
accessibility between windows and desktop. Its functions are to
instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation
to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the
current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop.
FileVault was introduced, which is an optional encryption of the
user's files with the 128-bit
Advanced Encryption Standard
Features introduced in version 10.4 include Automator , an application designed to create an automatic workflow for different tasks; Dashboard , a full-screen group of small applications called desktop widgets that can be called up and dismissed in one keystroke; and Front Row , a media viewer interface accessed by the Apple Remote . Moreover, the Sync Services were included, which is a system that allows applications to access a centralized extensible database for various elements of user data, including calendar and contact items. The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.
All system icons are scalable up to 512×512 pixels as of version 10.5 to accommodate various places where they appear in larger size, including for example the Cover Flow view, a three-dimensional graphical user interface included with iTunes , the Finder, and other Apple products for visually skimming through files and digital media libraries via cover artwork. That version also introduced Spaces , a virtual desktop implementation which enables the user to have more than one desktop and display them in an Exposé-like interface; an automatic backup technology called Time Machine , which provides the ability to view and restore previous versions of files and application data; and Screen Sharing was built in for the first time.
There are 34 system languages available in macOS for the user at the
moment of installation; the system language is used throughout the
entire operating system environment. Input methods for typing in
dozens of scripts can be chosen independently of the system language.
Recent updates have added increasing support for Chinese characters
and interconnections with popular social networks in
macOS can be updated using the Mac App Store application or the softwareupdate command line utility. Until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion , a separate Software Update application performed this functionality. In Mountain Lion and later, this was merged into the Mac App Store application, although the underlying update mechanism remains unchanged and is fundamentally different than the download mechanism used when purchasing an App Store application.
Main article: History of macOS § Releases Box/ Mac App Store artwork for every version of macOS. Left to right: Cheetah /Puma (1), Jaguar (2), Panther (3), Tiger (4), Leopard (5), Snow Leopard (6), Lion (7), Mountain Lion (8), Mavericks (9), Yosemite (10), El Capitan (11), Sierra (12).
Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS version information VERSION CODENAME DARWIN VERSION PROCESSOR SUPPORT APPLICATION SUPPORT KERNEL DATE ANNOUNCED RELEASE DATE MOST RECENT VERSION
Rhapsody Developer Release Grail1Z4 / Titan1U
32-bit PowerPC 32-bit PowerPC 32-bit Unknown August 31, 1997 DR2 (May 14, 1998)
Mac OS X Server 1.0 Hera
Unknown March 16, 1999 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)
Mac OS X Developer Preview Unknown
May 11, 1998 March 16, 1999 DP4 (April 5, 2000)
Mac OS X Public Beta Kodiak 1.2.1 Unknown September 13, 2000 N/A
Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah 1.3.1 Unknown March 24, 2001 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)
Mac OS X 10.1 Puma 1.4.1 / 5 July 18, 2001 September 25, 2001 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)
Mac OS X 10.3 Panther 7 32/ 64-bit PowerPC June 23, 2003 October 24, 2003 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion 12 64-bit February 16, 2012 July 25, 2012 10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)
OS X 10.9 Mavericks 13 June 10, 2013 October 22, 2013 10.9.5 (13F1112) (September 18, 2014)
OS X 10.10 Yosemite 14 June 2, 2014 October 16, 2014 10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015)
OS X 10.11 El Capitan 15 June 8, 2015 September 30, 2015 10.11.6 (15G31) (July 18, 2016)
macOS 10.12 Sierra 16 June 13, 2016 September 20, 2016 10.12.5 (16F73) (May 15, 2017)
macOS 10.13 High Sierra 17 June 5, 2017 Unknown
With the exception of
Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public
beta, OS X versions were named after big cats until OS X 10.9
Mavericks , when Apple switched to using
"Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse. Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005 a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.
MAC OS X PUBLIC BETA
Main article: Mac OS X Public Beta
On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95 "preview" version of Mac OS X internally codenamed Kodiak in order to gain feedback from users.
The "PB" as it was known marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.
MAC OS X 10.0 CHEETAH
Main article: Mac OS X 10.0 Screenshot of OS X 10.0
On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X 10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah). The initial version was slow, incomplete, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent.
MAC OS X 10.1 PUMA
Main article: Mac OS X 10.1
Later that year on September 25, 2001,
Mac OS X 10.1 (internally
codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and
provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1
as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed
version for people running
Mac OS 9 . It was discovered that the
upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9
systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs
in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation
on such systems. On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X
was to be the default operating system for all
MAC OS X 10.2 JAGUAR
Main article: Mac OS X 10.2
On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with
Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, the
first release to use its code name as part of the branding. It
brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many
powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple ),
including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI
MAC OS X 10.3 PANTHER
Main article: Mac OS X Panther
Mac OS X v10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003. In addition
to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most
extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many
or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an
updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user
switching , Exposé (Window manager),
FileVault , Safari , iChat AV
(which added videoconferencing features to iChat), improved Portable
Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater
MAC OS X 10.4 TIGER
Main article: Mac OS X Tiger Screenshot of Tiger
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that
Tiger contained more than 200 new features. As with Panther, certain
older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with 256
MB and a built-in
FireWire port. Among the new features, Tiger
introduced Spotlight , Dashboard , Smart Folders , updated Mail
program with Smart Mailboxes,
QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator ,
Core Image and
Core Video . The initial release of the
Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical
interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006,
Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update
to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the
PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the
exception of the
MAC OS X 10.5 LEOPARD
Main article: Mac OS X Leopard
Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was called
by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300
new features. Leopard supports both
MAC OS X 10.6 SNOW LEOPARD
Main article: Mac OS X Snow Leopard
Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009. Rather
than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user
functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard
focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance,
efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the
most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system
frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a
more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa , faster Time Machine
backups, more reliable and user friendly disk ejects, a more powerful
version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web
browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with
Snow Leopard also featured new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM , improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch , and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL .
MAC OS X 10.7 LION
Main article: Mac OS X Lion
Mac OS X 10.7 Lion was released on July 20, 2011. It brought
developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display
of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of
multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta ,
making it incompatible with
Changes made to the GUI include auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are being used, and Mission Control which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface. Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed, similar to iOS. Documents auto-save by default.
OS X 10.8 MOUNTAIN LION
Main article: OS X Mountain Lion
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012. It
incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include
Game Center ,
support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and
Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as
Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing
iWork documents in iCloud .
Notification Center , which makes its
debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS
5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner
of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of
the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features
including support for
Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ
163.com and 126.com services for Mail , Contacts and Calendar ,
Starting with Mountain Lion, Apple software updates (including the OS) are distributed via the App Store . This updating mechanism replaced the Apple Software Update utility. A screenshot of OS X Mavericks
OS X 10.9 MAVERICKS
Main article: OS X Mavericks
OS X 10.9 Mavericks was released on October 22, 2013. It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor. Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.
OS X 10.10 YOSEMITE
Main article: OS X Yosemite
OS X 10.10 Yosemite was released on October 16, 2014. It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7 , intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely saturated colors . Apple's showcase new feature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8.1 or later to answer phone calls, receive and send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone emails on their Mac. As of OS X 10.10.3, Photos replaced iPhoto and Aperture .
OS X 10.11 EL CAPITAN
Main article: OS X El Capitan Screenshot of El Capitan
OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as containing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection . The Metal API , first introduced in iOS 8 , was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012".
MACOS 10.12 SIERRA
Main article: macOS Sierra
macOS 10.12 Sierra was released to the public on September 20, 2016.
New features include the addition of
MACOS 10.13 HIGH SIERRA
Main article: macOS High Sierra
macOS 10.13 High Sierra was announced on June 5, 2017. High Sierra
uses the new Apple
See also: Usage share of operating systems
As of July 2016, macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose
desktop client operating system in use on the
World Wide Web following
Microsoft Windows , with a 4.90% usage share according to statistics
compiled by the
Wikimedia Foundation . It is the most successful
Unix-like desktop operating system on the web, estimated at
approximately 5 times the usage of
MALWARE AND SPYWARE
In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of
malware and spyware that have affected
Microsoft Windows users.
macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows, but it also has
traditionally more secure
As a devices company, most large-scale Apple promotion for macOS has
been part of the sale of Macs, with promotion of macOS updates
generally focused on existing users, promotion at
* Apple portal
Macintosh operating systems
Classic Mac OS (1984–2001)
* Comparison of
* ^ "What\'s New in Swift".
Apple Developer (Video). June 14, 2016.
At 2:40. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
* ^ "Apple squashes bugs with releases of iOS 10.3.3, macOS Sierra
10.12.6, tvOS 10.2.2, watchOS 3.2.3 ". AppleInsider. Retrieved
* ^ Clover, Juli (August 7, 2017). "Apple Seeds Fifth Beta of macOS
High Sierra to Developers". MacRumors. Archived from the original on
August 8, 2017.
* ^ "New Beta Downloads Now Available". Apple Developer. Apple Inc.
August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
* ^ A B "macOS – How to Upgrade – Apple". Apple . Retrieved
September 28, 2016.
* ^ Apple Events -
WWDC Keynote June 2016. Event occurs at 36:28.
* ^ "Desktop Operating System Market Share". Net Applications.
* ^ "Top 8 Operating Systems from Sept 2011 to Aug 2015".
* ^ Ha, Anthony (June 10, 2013). "Apple Has A New, California-Based
Naming Scheme For OS X, Starting With OS X Mavericks". TechCrunch.
Retrieved June 10, 2013.
* ^ A B "Mac OS X Version 10.5 on Intel-based
* ^ Siracusa, John. "OS X Panther review".
Ars Technica . Retrieved
30 November 2015.
* ^ Gregg Keizer (January 29, 2007). "Microsoft\'s Vista Had Major
Mac Envy, Company E-Mails Reveal". Information Week. Retrieved
February 28, 2013.
* ^ "Mac OS X versions (builds) for computers – Apple Support".
support.apple.com. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
* ^ "Apple – Press Info – Apple to Ship
Mac OS X Leopard on
October 26". www.apple.com. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
* ^ "Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard".
* ^ Raymond, Eric Steven. "The Elements of Operating-System Style". Retrieved November 5, 2008. * ^ A B "Cocoa Fundamentals Guide: A Bit of History". ADC Reference Library. Apple Developer Connection . Retrieved December 15, 2008. * ^ Swapnil Bhartiya (January 13, 2015). "Linus Torvalds: Apple\'s HFS+ is probably the worst file system ever". CIO. * ^ "CVE-2014-9390 aka "Git on case-insensitive filesystems"I did not give the…". google.com. * ^ Robin Harris. "WWDC\'s biggest disappointment". ZDNet. * ^ "Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. * ^ Griffiths, Rob (February 2005). "Prevent Mac Disasters". Macworld . IDG . Retrieved February 8, 2009. * ^ Frakes, Dan (August 2006). "Repairing permissions: what you need to know". Macworld . IDG . Retrieved February 8, 2009. * ^ Frakes, Dan (June 2008). "Five Mac maintenance myths". Macworld . IDG . Retrieved February 8, 2009. * ^ "About the Technologies for Developing Mac OS X Software". Apple . Retrieved April 4, 2012. * ^ Zepko, Tom (November 6, 2003). "Why Cocoa?". Retrieved April 15, 2009. * ^ "Adopting Universal Binaries on Mac OS X". Apple . February 22, 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2008. * ^ Productions, Nyhthawk. "AppleScript: Graphic User Interface (GUI) Scripting". www.macosxautomation.com. Retrieved 2017-01-03. * ^ " AppleScript Introduction". whitefiles.org. Retrieved 2017-01-03. * ^ "The really simple guide to Automator in OS X on the Mac RAW Mac". www.rawinfopages.com. Retrieved 2017-01-03. * ^ "iTunes - Download iTunes Now". Apple. June 1, 2016. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ "iTunes - Download iTunes Now". Apple. September 16, 2015. Archived from the original on September 16, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ Kim, Arnold (February 17, 2012). "After Beta, Messages Will Be Exclusive to OS X Mountain Lion". MacRumors. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
* ^ "Safari 5.1.10 for Snow Leopard". Apple. September 12, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ "Mac OS X v10.6: "You can‘t use this version of Mail…" alert after installing Security Update 2012-004". Apple. March 23, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ "iTunes 11.4 for OS X 10.6". Apple. September 9, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ "iTunes 10.6.3". Apple. June 11, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2017. * ^ "iTunes 9.2.1". Apple. July 19, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
* ^ "iTunes 7.7.1 for Panther". Official Apple Support Communities.
August 25, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
* ^ "iChat AV 2.1". Apple. March 23, 2004. Archived from the
original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
* ^ "Introduction to Cocoa-Java Integration Guide". ADC Reference
Apple Developer Connection . Retrieved April 8, 2006.
* ^ A B Nack, John. "Photoshop, Lightroom, and Adobe\'s 64-bit
Adobe Systems . Retrieved March 30, 2016.
* ^ "Looking back at OS X\'s origins". Macworld. Retrieved
* ^ Steele, Billy. "NASA WISE Deputy Project Scientist Amy
Mainzer". Engadget. As an astrophysicist, having the
* ^ Michael Larabel (May 28, 2011). "X.Org Server 1.10.2 Brings A
Bunch Of Bug-Fixes". phoronix. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
* ^ Slivka, Eric (February 17, 2012). "Apple Removes X11 in OS X
Mountain Lion, Shifts Support to Open Source XQuartz". MacRumors.
Retrieved February 23, 2012.
* ^ Counsell, Dan. "Not on the Mac App Store". Retrieved 1 December
* ^ "Distributing Apps Outside the Mac App Store". Apple Developer.
Apple. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
* ^ Kazmucha, Allyson. "How to open apps from an unidentified
developer in OS X Mountain Lion". IMore. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
* ^ "About Gatekeeper". Apple. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
* ^ Andrew Cunningham (June 5, 2017). "Anything that can run macOS
Sierra can also run macOS High Sierra".
Ars Technica .
* ^ A B "System requirements for
OS X Lion and Mac OS X v10.6".
* ^ A B "Mac OS X: System Requirements". Apple . April 28, 2005.
Retrieved December 20, 2006.
* ^ "iMac - Tech Specs - Apple".
* Official website
* v * t * e
History · Architecture ·