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macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a
proprietary {{Short pages monitor
ImageSize = width:350 height:550 PlotArea = width:200 height:530 left:50 bottom:10 DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy Period = from:01/01/1997 till:01/01/2021 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:1 start:01/01/1997 ScaleMinor = unit:month increment:3 start:01/01/1997 PlotData= bar:macos mark:(line,black) fontsize:10 at:12/11/2020 shift:(20,-2) text:"
macOS 11 Big Sur macOS Big Sur (version 11) is the 17th and current software versioning, major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s operating system for Macintosh computers, and is the successor to macOS Catalina (version 10.15). It was announced at Apple's Apple Wor ...
(12/11/2020)" at:07/10/2019 shift:(20,-2) text:"macOS Catalina, macOS 10.15 Catalina (07/10/2019)" at:24/09/2018 shift:(20,-2) text:"macOS Mojave, macOS 10.14 Mojave (24/09/2018)" at:25/09/2017 shift:(20,-2) text:"macOS High Sierra, macOS 10.13 High Sierra (25/09/2017)" at:20/09/2016 shift:(20,-2) text:"macOS Sierra, macOS 10.12 Sierra (20/09/2016)" at:30/09/2015 shift:(20,-2) text:"OS X El Capitan, OS X 10.11 El Capitan (30/09/2015)" at:16/10/2014 shift:(20,-2) text:"OS X Yosemite, OS X 10.10 Yosemite (16/10/2014)" at:22/10/2013 shift:(20,-2) text:"OS X Mavericks, OS X 10.9 Mavericks (22/10/2013)" at:25/07/2012 shift:(20,-2) text:"OS X Mountain Lion, OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion (25/07/2012)" at:20/07/2011 shift:(20,-2) text:"Mac OS X Lion, Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (20/07/2011)" at:28/08/2009 shift:(20,-2) text:" Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard (28/08/2009)" at:26/10/2007 shift:(20,-2) text:" Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard (26/10/2007)" at:29/04/2005 shift:(20,-2) text:" (29/04/2005)" at:24/10/2003 shift:(20,-2) text:"Mac OS X Panther, Mac OS X 10.3 Panther (24/10/2003)" at:24/08/2002 shift:(20,-2) text:"Mac OS X Jaguar, Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar (24/08/2002)" at:25/09/2001 shift:(20,-2) text:"Mac OS X 10.1 Puma (25/09/2001)" at:24/04/2001 shift:(20,-7) text:" Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah (24/04/2001)" at:13/09/2000 shift:(20,-7) text:"Mac OS X Public Beta Kodiak (13/09/2000)" at:16/03/1999 shift:(20,2) text:" Mac OS X Server 1.0 Hera (16/03/1999)~Mac OS X Developer Preview (16/03/1999)" at:31/08/1997 shift:(20,-2) text:"Rhapsody (operating system), Rhapsody Developer Release (31/08/1997)"
Timeline of versions
With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public beta, OS X versions were named after
big cat The term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus '' Panthera'', namely the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the non- pantherine cheetah and cougar. Except for the latter thr ...

big cat
s until OS X Mavericks, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, when Apple switched to using
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
locations. Prior to its release, Mac OS X v10.0, Mac OS X 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and Mac OS X v10.1, Mac OS X 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". After the immense buzz surrounding Mac OS X v10.2, Mac OS X 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. Mac OS X Panther, Mac OS X 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", Mac OS X Tiger, Mac OS X 10.4 as "Tiger", Mac OS X Leopard, Mac OS X 10.5 as "Leopard", Mac OS X Snow Leopard, Mac OS X 10.6 as "Snow Leopard", Mac OS X Lion, Mac OS X 10.7 as "Lion", OS X Mountain Lion, OS X 10.8 as "Mountain Lion", and OS X Mavericks, OS X 10.9 as "Mavericks". "Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse. Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005, a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.


Mac OS X Public Beta

On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95 "preview" version of Mac OS X, internally codenamed Kodiak, to gain feedback from users. The "PB", as it was known, marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.


Mac OS X 10.0 (Cheetah)

On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X 10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah). The initial version was slow, incomplete, and had very few applications available at launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks.


Mac OS X 10.1 (Puma)

Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X 10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running
Mac OS 9 Mac OS 9 is the ninth major release of Apple Inc., Apple's classic Mac OS operating system which was succeeded by OS X. Introduced on October 23, 1999, it was promoted by Apple as "The Best Internet Operating System Ever", highlighting Sherlock ( ...
. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.


Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar

On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, the first release to use its code name as part of the branding. It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple ), including Quartz Compositor, Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Technologies, ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce 2 Series, GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book (application), Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat. The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.


Mac OS X 10.3 Panther

Mac OS X v10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003. It significantly improved performance and incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Mac OS X), Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari (web browser), Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing, video conferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters ...
interoperability. Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.


Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger

Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features. As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with 256 MB and a built-in FireWire port. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight (software), Spotlight, Dashboard (Mac OS), Dashboard, Virtual folder, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari (web browser), Safari 2, Automator (software), Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release lacking support for the Classic environment.


Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard

Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 new features. Leopard supports both
PowerPC PowerPC (with the backronym A backronym, or bacronym, is an acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Orga ...

PowerPC
- and X86, Intel x86-based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of Random-access memory, RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine (macOS), Time Machine, Spaces (software), Spaces, Boot Camp (software), Boot Camp pre-installed, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail (OS X), Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Single UNIX Specification, Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first Berkeley Software Distribution, BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification. Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications. It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture.


Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard

Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of , Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder (software), Finder rewritten in Cocoa (API), Cocoa, faster Time Machine (macOS), Time Machine backups, more reliable and user-friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari (web browser), Safari web browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with Intel CPUs, required at least 1 GB of Random-access memory, RAM, and dropped default support for applications built for the
PowerPC PowerPC (with the backronym A backronym, or bacronym, is an acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Orga ...

PowerPC
architecture (Rosetta (software), Rosetta could be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications). Snow Leopard also featured new 64-bit computing, 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of Random-access memory, RAM, improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch, and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL. The 10.6.6 update introduced support for the
Mac App Store The App Store (also known as the Mac App Store) is a digital distribution Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distributi ...
, Apple's digital distribution platform for macOS applications.


OS X 10.7 Lion

OS X 10.7 Lion was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad (Mac OS X), Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta (software), Rosetta, making it incompatible with PowerPC applications. Changes made to the GUI include auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are used, and Mission Control (macOS), Mission Control which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface. Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed, similar to iOS. Documents auto-save by default.


OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012. Following the release of Lion the previous year, it was the first of the annual rather than two-yearly updates to OS X (and later macOS), which also closely aligned with the annual iOS operating system updates. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages (Apple), Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents in
iCloud iCloud is a cloud storage Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools, said to be on "the cloud". The physical storage spans multiple servers (sometimes in multiple locations), and ...

iCloud
. Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari (web browser), Safari search engine, Tencent QQ, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail (OS X), Mail, Address Book (application), Contacts and iCal, Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets. Starting with Mountain Lion, Apple software updates (including the OS) are distributed via the Mac App Store, App Store. This updating mechanism replaced the Apple Software Update utility.


OS X 10.9 Mavericks

OS X 10.9 Mavericks was released on October 22, 2013. It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor. Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Apple Maps, Maps and Apple Books, iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.


OS X 10.10 Yosemite

OS X 10.10 Yosemite was released on October 16, 2014. It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7, intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely Colorfulness, saturated colors. Apple's showcase new feature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8.1 or later to answer phone calls, receive and send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone emails on their Mac. As of OS X 10.10.3, Photos (Apple), Photos replaced iPhoto and Aperture (software), Aperture.


OS X 10.11 El Capitan

OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as emphasizing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance". Refinements include public transport built into the Apple Maps, Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes (Apple), Notes application, adopting San Francisco (2014 typeface), San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection. The Metal (API), Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012". According to Apple, Metal accelerates system-level rendering by up to 50 percent, resulting in faster graphics performance for everyday apps. Metal also delivers up to 10 times faster draw call performance for more fluid experience in games and pro apps.


macOS 10.12 Sierra

macOS 10.12 Sierra was released to the public on September 20, 2016. New features include the addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes.


macOS 10.13 High Sierra

macOS 10.13 High Sierra was released to the public on September 25, 2017. Like
OS X El Capitan OS X El Capitan ( ) () is the twelfth major release of macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system developed and marketed ...
and
OS X Mountain Lion OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system developed and m ...
, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few new features visible to the user, including updates to Safari, Photos, and Mail, among other changes. The major change under the hood is the switch to the Apple File System, optimized for the solid-state storage used in most new Mac computers.


macOS 10.14 Mojave

macOS 10.14 Mojave was released on September 24, 2018. The update introduced a system-wide dark mode and several new apps lifted from iOS, such as Apple News. It was the first version to require a GPU that supports Metal. Mojave also changed the system software update mechanism from the App Store (where it had been since
OS X Mountain Lion OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system developed and m ...
) to a new panel in System Preferences. App updates remain in the App Store.


macOS 10.15 Catalina

macOS 10.15 Catalina was released on October 7, 2019. Updates included enhanced voice control, and bundled apps for music, video, and podcasts that together replace the functions of iTunes, and the ability to use an iPad as an external monitor. Catalina officially dropped support for 32-bit applications.


macOS 11 Big Sur

macOS Big Sur macOS Big Sur (version 11) is the 17th and current software versioning, major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s operating system for Macintosh computers, and is the successor to macOS Catalina (version 10.15). It was announced at Apple's Apple Wor ...
was announced during the WWDC keynote speech on June 22, 2020, and it was made available to the general public on November 12, 2020. This is the first time the major version number of the operating system has been incremented since the Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000. It brings AArch64, ARM support, new icons, and aesthetic Graphical user interface, user interface changes to the system.


macOS 12 Monterey

macOS Monterey macOS Monterey (version 12) is the 18th and current software versioning, major release of macOS, Apple Inc., Apple's desktop operating system for Macintosh computers. The successor to macOS Big Sur, it was announced at WWDC 2021 on June 7, 2021, ...
was announced during the WWDC keynote speech on June 7, 2021 and released on October 25, 2021, introducing Universal Control (which allows input devices to be used with multiple devices simultaneously), Focus (which allows selectively limiting notifications and alerts depending on user-defined user/work modes), Shortcuts (a task automation framework previously available only on
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch; the t ...

iOS
and expected to replace List of macOS components#Automator, Automator), a redesigned Safari (web browser), Safari Web browser, and updates and improvements to FaceTime.


Reception


Usage share

As of July 2016, macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose desktop client operating system used on the World Wide Web following
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters ...
, with a 4.90% usage share according to statistics compiled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is the second-most widely used desktop operating system (for web browsing), after Windows, and is estimated at approximately five times the usage of Linux (which has 1.01%). Usage share generally continues to shift away from the desktop and toward mobile operating systems such as
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch; the t ...

iOS
and Android (operating system), Android.


Malware and spyware

In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that have affected
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters ...
users. macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows. Computer worm, Worms, as well as potential vulnerabilities, were noted in 2006, which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware. Increasing market share coincided with additional reports of a variety of attacks. In early 2011, Mac OS X experienced a large increase in malware attacks, and malware such as Mac Defender, MacProtector, and MacGuard was seen as an increasing problem for Mac users. At first, the malware installer required the user to enter the administrative password, but later versions installed without user input. Initially, Apple support staff were instructed not to assist in the removal of the malware or admit the existence of the malware issue, but as the malware spread, a support document was issued. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated 100,000 users were affected. Apple releases security updates for macOS regularly, as well as signature files containing signature-based detection, malware signatures for Xprotect, an anti-malware feature part of File Quarantine present since Mac OS X Snow Leopard.


Promotion

As a device company, Apple has mostly promoted macOS to sell Macs, with promotion of macOS updates focused on existing users, promotion at Apple Store and other retail partners, or through events for developers. In larger scale advertising campaigns, Apple specifically promoted macOS as better for handling media and other home-user applications, and Get a Mac#North American campaign, comparing Mac OS X (especially versions Tiger and Leopard) with the heavy criticism
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells Software, computer software, consumer electroni ...

Microsoft
received for the long-awaited Windows Vista operating system.


See also

* Dock (macOS) * Classic Mac OS (1984–2001) * Comparison of BSD operating systems * Comparison of operating systems * List of operating systems * List of Macintosh software * Macintosh operating systems


References


External links

* – official site
macOS Support
– official support page {{DEFAULTSORT:macOS MacOS, Macintosh operating systems, * 1999 software Apple Inc. operating systems Apple Inc. software Computer-related introductions in 1999 Mach (kernel) X86-64 operating systems ARM operating systems