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MAAD A SINIG MAYSA WALI JAXATEH MANNEH (Serer proper : MAYSA WAALI MAANE, many variations : Maysa Waaly Dione, Maïssa Wali Dione, Maysa Wali Jon, MAISSA WALY MANé, etc.) was a king described in the oral tradition of the Serer pre-colonial Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
and the first of the Guelowar maternal dynasty to rule in Serer country . He reigned as Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
(king of Sine) from c . 1350 to 1370.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Reign

* 2.1 Jolof Empire
Jolof Empire
* 2.2 Legacy

* 3 References

HISTORY

Main articles: Serer history (medieval era to present)
Serer history (medieval era to present)
, Kingdom of Sine , Guelowar , and Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history

In Serer oral tradition, Maysa Wali was a member of the Guelowar family who had escaped Kaabu with some members of his family after their defeat at the Battle of Troubang (1335) by the powerful Ñaanco maternal dynasty of Kaabu. Oral history describes this as a dynastic war between the two powerful royal houses of Kaabu, the House of Guelowar and the House of Ñaanco. Many members of the Guelowar family were massacred in that battle. After their defeat, those members of the Guelowar who had survived the massacre headed to the Serer pre-colonial Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
where they were granted asylum by the Serer nobility – the Great Council of Lamanes .

In reporting this tradition, Henry Gravrand did not notice that this is actually a description of the 1867 (or 1865) Battle of Kansala although the departure of the Guelowar can probably be explained by a war or a conflict of succession. Whatever the reason, they apparently left Kaabu around 1335.

After serving this Council for fifteen years as legal advisor, Maysa Wali gained the trust and confidence of the Council and the Serer people of Sine, and was nominated, elected and crowned king of Sine. As a result of his election, Maysa Wali became the first Guelowar to be appointed Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
. His sisters and nieces who had escaped Kaabu with him were given in marriage to the Serer nobility, thereby sealing the union between Serer-Guelowar. As a result of these royal marriages, the old Serer paternal dynasties survived but the Wagadou maternal dynasty (Bagadou in Serer language ), collapsed.

The Wagadous were princesses from the Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
who had married into the Serer royal families i.e. the Joof family
Joof family
, Faye family, Ngom family, etc. After the demise of the Wagadous, they were replaced by the Guelowars. The Serer dynasties survived until 1969 when the last king of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
died.

Although many of the Serer nobility and common people supported the election of Maysa Wali, not every member of the Serer establishment were in support of his election. In this regard, Lamane
Lamane
Pangha Yaya Sarr , according to Serer tradition, stood out as one of the fervent opponent to Maysa Wali's election. According to the tradition, the Lamane
Lamane
viewed Maysa Wali as a foreign prince who did not have a Serer mother or father. In spite of Maysa Wali's long service to the noble Council, assimilation to Serer culture , his adherence to religion with even his own Pangool
Pangool
, Maysa Wali's reign was marred by a small section of Serer society in opposition to his reign.

The name Dione or Jon is even believed by some to be a derogatory reference to his long reign (20 years), used by his successors who were eager for him to abdicate so they could succeed to the throne. The result of that was, the Guelowar women married Serer men and the offspring of these marriages ruled the kingdoms of Sine and Saloum. After Maysa Wali's reign, none of his direct descendants ruled the Serer kingdoms. The children of the Serer men and Guelowar women became Serers with loyalty to the Serer kingdoms, Serer religion, Serer people
Serer people
and culture, and all ties with Kaabu were severed. Other sources also suggests that, Maysa Wali was once married to the Serer princess Lingeer Fatim Beye
Lingeer Fatim Beye
(of Sine). Lingeer Fatim Beye
Lingeer Fatim Beye
is the matriarch of the Joos Maternal Dynasty
Joos Maternal Dynasty
. This Serer dynasty was established in Waalo
Waalo
by her granddaughter Lingeer Ndoye Demba in the later half of the 14th century. Maysa Wali was not the paternal grandfather of Lingeer Ndoye Demba, which suggests Lingeer Fatim Beye's marriage to Maysa Wali was either a first marriage which ended in divorce, or most probably, per Senegambian culture , a second marriage after being made a widow.

REIGN

JOLOF EMPIRE

Main article: Jolof Empire
Jolof Empire

The Jolof Empire
Jolof Empire
was founded by a voluntary confederacy of States. It was not an empire built on military conquest. Ndiadiane Ndiaye the possibly mythical founder of the Empire is said to have been nominated and elected by Maad a Sining Maysa Wali to rule the Jolof Empire
Jolof Empire
– his contemporary. According to the epics of both Ndiadiane and Maysa Wali, it was Maysa Wali who elected Ndiadiane Ndiaye and called upon all the Senegambian kings to co-operate with Ndiadiane and join the confederacy which they did. That was ten years after Maysa Wali sat on the throne - 1360 (the year of Ndiadiane's reign ). Maysa Wali is thus seen as a prominent figure in the formation of the Jolof Empire and the election of Ndiadiane. According to Charles Becker, Victor Martin the Jolof Empire
Jolof Empire
was probably founded in order to repulse the dominant power at the time (the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
). However, Maysa Wali is also viewed by the Serer establishment as the king who took the Serer Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
to this confederacy, a confederacy though initially voluntary, its disestablishment in 1549 was not.

LEGACY

Part of a series on

SERERS AND SERER RELIGION

Deities

* Roog
Roog
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Main doctrines

* Animism * Astronomy * Divination * Intercession of saints * Rainmaker

Sacred places

* Baol
Baol
* Cekeen Tumulus * Fandène
Fandène
* Fatick
Fatick
* Index of holy sites * Saloum
Saloum
* Senegambian stone circles
Senegambian stone circles
* Sine * Somb
Somb
* Tassili n\'Ajjer * Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
* Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
* Tukar
Tukar
* Yaboyabo
Yaboyabo

Related articles

* Lamane
Lamane
* Pangool
Pangool
* Saltigue
Saltigue
* Serer prehistory * Serer creation myth * Serer people
Serer people
* States headed by Serer Lamanes * Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history

Notable figures

* Amar Godomat
Amar Godomat
* Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof * Issa Laye Thiaw
Issa Laye Thiaw
* Maad Semou Njekeh Joof * Index of Serer patriarchs * Index of Serer matriarchs

Relations with other religions

* Serer views on incarnation * Serer history * Religious persecution * Serer views on interfaith marriage * Serer views on heaven and hell

Education

* Ndut initiation rite
Ndut initiation rite

See also

* Index of articles relating to Serer history * Index of articles relating to Serer religion
Serer religion
* Index of all articles relating to Serer people
Serer people

* SERER PEOPLE CATEGORY

* SERER RELIGION CATEGORY

* Serer people
Serer people
portal

* Serer religion
Serer religion
portal

* v * t * e

As the first Guelowar to rule in Serer country, Maysa Wali leaves a mixed legacy among the Serers and some scholars. It was previously believed that, the Guelowars, headed by Maysa Wali, launched a war in Serer country, defeated the Serer people
Serer people
and reduced them to a conquered race. That assumption was challenged in 1972 when Niokhobaye Diouf argued that there is nothing in the Serer oral tradition nor in the Guelowars' that speaks of a military conquest. Others suggest that the Guelowars' arrival in Serer country was probably due to a war or a conflict of succession. The incorporation of the Guelowars into the Serer royal families was based on marriage, not military conquest. The Guelowars were also not pure Mandinkas but a mixture of Mandinka, Bainuk and Jola . After the Mansa - Kaabu Tiramakhan Traore (of Mali
Mali
) conquered Kaabu, killing the last great Bainuk king – King Kikikor , he and his descendants married into the Bainuk nobility. The Mandinkas also changed their surnames and adopted Bainuk and Jola surnames i.e. Manneh and Sanneh (var : Mané and Sané). These surnames are Jola and Bainuk in origin, not Mandinka. It is from this heritage that the Guelowars of Kaabu came from. Thus, the previously held view that a group of people from the Mandinka race conquered and subjugated the Serers, is generally regarded as unfactual.

From a Serer perspective, Maysa Wali is usually regarded as one of the great kings of Sine who upheld the doctrines of Serer religion
Serer religion
, culture and traditions in spite of being a prince from a foreign land. He is also regarded as a fair king who passed judgments on legal cases in accordance with the principles of Serer law . During his reign, the Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
was well structured, politically, economically and socially. From a global perspective, when scholars of Serer history write about the history of the Guelowars in Serer country, it is his name which is evoked first before any of his successors. As such, Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh is synonymous with the word "Guelowar" even though none of his direct descendants succeeded him in Serer country. The Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
was not subjugated by Jolof during his reign nor after him. Serer oral tradition holds that Sine never paid tribute to Jolof but Sylviane Diouf states that "Each vassal kingdom—Walo, Takrur, Kayor, Baol, Sine, Salum, Wuli, and Niani—recognized the hegemony of Jolof and paid tribute."

* Serer portal * Senegal
Senegal
portal * Gambia portal * History portal * Monarchy portal

REFERENCES

* ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine. p 4 (p 705-6) * ^ A B C (in French) Institut français d\'Afrique noire , Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 17. IFAN, (1955), p 317 * ^ Gravrand, Henry, "La Civilisation Sereer – Pangool", vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990), p 484, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 * ^ A B C Gravrand, Henry , "La Civilisation Sereer – Pangool", vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990), P 344, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1 * ^ A B C D E F Sarr, Alioune , "Histoire du Sine- Saloum
Saloum
", (Sénégal), Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87. p 19 * ^ A B C D Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine. p 3-4 (p 703-5) * ^ A B Sarr, Alioune , Histoire du Sine- Saloum
Saloum
(Sénégal) Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. 1986-87, p 19 * ^ A B C D E (Babacar Sédikh Diouf) Ngom, Biram "La question Gelwaar et l’histoire du Siin", Dakar, Université de Dakar, 1987, p 69 * ^ Gravrand, Henry, La Civilisation Sereer – Cosaan, Les origines, pp 295–6. Nouvelles Editions africaines, 1983. ISBN 2-7236-0877-8 * ^ Phillips, Lucie Colvin, "Historical dictionary of Senegal", Scarecrow Press, 1981, pp 52–71 ISBN 0-8108-1369-6 * ^ Institut Fondamental d\'Afrique Noire , Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 38. IFAN, 1976. pp 557–504 * ^ Sheridan, Michael J., & Nyamweru, Celia, ""African sacred groves: ecological dynamics Dieng, Bassirou. Les épopées d'Afrique noire. (Le myth de Ndiadiane Ndiaye) (from p. 252). KARTHALA Editions, 2009. ISBN 2811102108

* ^ Fage, John D. , Oliver, Roland , "The Cambridge history of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790", p 486. ISBN 0521209811 * ^ « Diouf, Niokhobaye, Chronique du royaume du Sine », Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972), p 757 (p 38) * ^ West Africa, Issues 3600-3616. West Africa Pub. Co. Ltd., 1986. p 2359 * ^ Ngom, Biram: "La question Gelwaar et l’histoire du Siin", Dakar, Université de Dakar (1987) * ^ Diouf, Sylviane , Servants of Allah: African Muslims enslaved in the Americas (New York: New York University Press, 1998), 19

Preceded by The Lamanic class MAAD A SINIG 1350–1370 Succeeded by Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Tassé Faye

* v * t * e

Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung
Junjung
* Lamane
Lamane
* Sadax * Saltigue
Saltigue
* Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
* Koox
Koox
* Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
* Roog
Roog
(main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar
Takhar
* Tiurakh
Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

* Pangool
Pangool

* list

SACRED SITES

* * Fatick
Fatick
* Sine River
Sine River
* Sine- Saloum
Saloum
* Somb
Somb
* Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
* Tattaguine
Tattaguine
* Tukar
Tukar
* Yaboyabo
Yaboyabo

* History * Philosophy * Science * Law * Geography * Politics

HISTORY

* Cekeen Tumulus * Khasso
Khasso
* Kingdom of Baol
Baol
* Kingdom of Biffeche * kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
* Kingdom of Sine
Kingdom of Sine
* Serer ancient history
Serer ancient history
* Serer history (medieval era to present)
Serer history (medieval era to present)
* States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes
* The Battle of Fandane- Thiouthioune
Thiouthioune
* The Battle of Logandème * Timeline of Serer history
Timeline of Serer history
* Western Sahara
Western Sahara

Philosophy

* Science * Law

* Medicine

* medicinal plants

* CEMETRA

* Loup (healer)

* Saltigues and Loup practitioners

* MALANGO * Philosophy of beauty * Jom principle * Cosmology * Customary law

Geography Politics

* Farba Kaba * Jaraff * Serer countries

* Demographics * Culture

DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia * Mauritania * Senegal
Senegal

LANGUAGE

* * Cangin * Lehar * Ndut * Noon * Palor * Safen * Serer

CULTURE

* Birth * Chere * Death * Inheritance * Marriage * Mbalax
Mbalax
* Njuup
Njuup
* Sabar
Sabar
* Tama * Tassu * Njom

ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane
Lamane
Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Mahecor Joof * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh * Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof
Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof
* Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye
Lingeer Fatim Beye
* Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans
Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family
Faye family
* Guelowar * Joof family
Joof family
* Joos Maternal Dynasty
Joos Maternal Dynasty
* The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof * The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

* Buumi
Buumi
* Faye family
Faye family
* Joof family
Joof family
* Lamane
Lamane
* Lingeer * Loul
Loul
* Maad Saloum
Saloum
* Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
* Njie family * Sarr family * Sene family * Teigne * Thilas
Thilas

* SERER PEOPLE CATEGORY

* SERER RELIGION CATEGORY

* Serer people
Serer people
portal

* Serer religion
Serer religion
portal

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