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Ma Qi
Ma Qi
(23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) (simplified Chinese: 马麒; traditional Chinese: 馬麒; pinyin: Mǎ Qí; Wade–Giles: Ma Ch'i, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ چِ‎) was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th-century China.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Republican times 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Early life[edit] A Hui, Ma was born on 23 September 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia, Gansu, China. His father was Ma Haiyan, and his brother was Ma Lin. He was a senior commander in the Qinghai- Gansu
Gansu
region during the late Qing dynasty. Ma Sala was said to be his father.[1] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
led loyalist Muslim troops to crush Muslim rebels during the Dungan Revolt (1895).[2] During the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
Ma Qi
Ma Qi
served with his father Ma Haiyan in Gen. Dong Fuxiang's Kansu Braves
Kansu Braves
against the invading Eight Nation Alliance in Beijing. Ma Haiyan defeated the foreign army at the Battle of Langfang in 1900, and died while protecting the Imperial Family from the western forces.[3] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
succeeded him in all his posts and capacities. Ma Qi
Ma Qi
was 6 feet (183 cm) tall and maintained the mintuan militia in Xining
Xining
as his personal army, called the Ninghaijun.[2] He also directly defied his commanding officer, Muslim Gen. Ma Anliang, when Ma Wanfu, the Muslim brotherhood leader, was being shipped to Gansu
Gansu
from Xinjiang by Yang Zengxin to Ma Anliang, so Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
could execute Ma Wanfu. Ma Qi
Ma Qi
rescued Ma Wanfu by attacking the escort and brought him to Qinghai. Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
hated the Muslim brotherhood, which he banned earlier, and sentenced all its members to death and wanted to personally execute Ma Wanfu because he was its leader. During the Xinhai Revolution, Ma Qi
Ma Qi
easily defeated Gelaohui revolutionaries in Ningxia, sending their heads rolling, but when the Emperor abdicated Ma Qi
Ma Qi
declared support for the Republic of China.[4][5] Unlike the Mongols and Tibetans, the Muslims refused to secede from the Republic, and Ma Qi
Ma Qi
quickly used his diplomatic and military powers to make the Tibetan and Mongol nobles recognize the Republic of China government as their overlord, and sent a message to President Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
reaffirming that Qinghai
Qinghai
was securely in the Republic. He replaced "Long, Long, Long, Live the reigning Emperor", with "Long live the Republic of China" on inscriptions.[6] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
developed relations with Wu Peifu, who tried to turn Gansu military leaders against Feng Yuxiang. Feng's subordinate Liu Yufen expelled all the Han generals who opposed him, which resulted in Hui Generals Ma Hongbin, Ma Lin, Ma Tingxiang, and Han Gen. Bei Jianzhang, the commander of a Hui army, to stop fighting against Feng and seek an agreement.[7] Republican times[edit] In 1913 a Qinghai
Qinghai
wool and hide bureau was established by Ma Qi. It put an export tax on the wool trade with foreigners.[8] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
formed the Ninghai Army
Ninghai Army
in Qinghai
Qinghai
in 1915. He occupied Labrang monastery in 1917, the first time non-Tibetans had seized it.[9] After ethnic rioting between Muslims and Tibetans broke out in 1918, Ma Qi
Ma Qi
defeated the Tibetans. He heavily taxed the town for eight years. In 1921 he and his Muslim army decisively crushed the Tibetan monks of Labrang monastery when they tried to oppose him.[10] In 1925 a Tibetan rebellion broke out, with thousands of rebels driving out the Muslims. Ma Qi
Ma Qi
responded with 3,000 Chinese Muslim troops, who retook Labrang and machine-gunned thousands of Tibetan monks as they tried to flee.[11][12] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
besieged Labrang numerous times and the Tibetans and Mongols fought against his Muslim forces for control of Labrang, until he gave it up in 1927.[13] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
defeated the Tibetan forces with his Muslim troops.[14] His forces were praised by foreigners who traveled through Qinghai
Qinghai
for their fighting abilities.[15] After the founding of the Republic he was governor of Qinghai
Qinghai
from 1915-28 and the first chairman of the government of Qinghai
Qinghai
from 1929-31.[16] After Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
gained control nationwide, he became a brigade commander and then was promoted to commander of the 26th Division of the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
in the northwestern region. His civil posts also included director of the Gansu
Gansu
Bureau of Construction. Ma Qi's eldest son was Ma Buqing
Ma Buqing
and another son was Ma Bufang.[17] Ma Qi
Ma Qi
was the uncle of Ma Zhongying. He died on 5 August 1931 in Xining, Qinghai, China.[18] See also[edit]

Ma clique

References[edit]

^ http://www.qh.xinhuanet.com/2014-11/25/c_1113390389.htm http://www.aboluowang.com/2016/0121/680227.html http://salars.cn/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=1434&page=1 http://bbs.tiexue.net/post2_4148140_1.html ^ a b Lipman, Jonathan N. (Jul 1984). "Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu". Sage Publications, Inc. p. 298. JSTOR 189017.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ http://www.quanxue.cn/ls_minguo/junfa/junfa15.html ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 182, 183. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Travels Of A Consular Officer In North-West China. CUP Archive. p. 188. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 43. ISBN 0-7425-1144-8. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (Jul 1984). "Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu". Sage Publications, Inc. p. 308. JSTOR 189017.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Millward, James A. "The Chinese Border Wool Trade of 1880-1937": 30. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ Charlene E. Makley (2007). The Violence of :iberation: Gender and Tibetan Buddhist Revival in Post-Mao China. University of California Press. p. 73. ISBN 0-520-25059-1. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Wulsin, Frederick Roelker; Fletcher, Joseph (1979). Alonso, Mary Ellen, ed. China's Inner Asian Frontier: Photographs of the Wulsin Expedition to Northwest China in 1923: from the archives of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, and the National Geographic Society (illustrated ed.). Peabody Museum. p. 43. ISBN 0674119681. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  ^ James Tyson; Ann Tyson (1995). Chinese Awakenings: Life Stories from the Unofficial China. Westview Press. p. 123. ISBN 0-8133-2473-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010. (Note, the google book link has gone haywire, but you should still be directed to page 123 when you go to the link, where you should see the paragraph the reference is from) ^ Paul Kocot Nietupski (1999). Labrang: A Tibetan Buddhist Monastery at the Crossroads of Four Civilizations. Snow Lion Publications. p. 87. ISBN 1-55939-090-5. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Paul Kocot Nietupski (1999). Labrang: a Tibetan Buddhist monastery at the crossroads of four civilizations. Snow Lion Publications. p. 90. ISBN 1-55939-090-5. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ University of Cambridge. Mongolia & Inner Asia Studies Unit (2002). Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1-2. The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge. p. 204. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ Frederick Roelker Wulsin; Joseph Fletcher (1979). Mary Ellen Alonso, ed. China's inner Asian frontier: photographs of the Wulsin expedition to northwest China in 1923 : from the archives of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, and the National Geographic Society. Peabody Museum. p. 43. ISBN 0-674-11968-1.  ^ Paul Allatson; Jo McCormack (2008). Exile cultures, misplaced identities. Rodopi. p. 65. ISBN 90-420-2406-2. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ 甘、寧、青三馬家族世系簡表 ^ 中国社会科学院近代史研究所 (2005). 民国人物传 第12卷. Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7-101-02993-0. 

External links[edit]

Rulers 民国军阀派系谈 (The Republic of China warlord cliques discussed) http://www.2499cn.com/junfamulu.htm

v t e

Warlord Era

1915–1922 1923–1932 Northern factions Southern factions

1915 Twenty-One Demands

1915–1916 Empire of China (Yuan Shikai) National Protection War

1916 Death of Yuan Shikai

1917 Manchu Restoration

1917–1922 Constitutional Protection Movement

1918–1920 Siberian Intervention

1919 Paris Peace Conference May Fourth Movement

1919–1921 Occupation of Outer Mongolia

1920 Zhili–Anhui War

1920–1921 Guangdong–Guangxi War

1921 1st National CPC Congress

1922 First Zhili–Fengtian War

1923–1927 First United Front

1924 Second Zhili–Fengtian War Beijing Coup

1925 Yunnan–Guangxi War May Thirtieth Movement

1925–1926 Anti-Fengtian War

1926 Zhongshan Warship Incident

1926–1928 Northern Expedition

1928 Jinan Incident Huánggūtun Incident Looting of the Eastern Mausoleum Flag Replacement of the Northeast

1929 Warlord Rebellion in northeastern Shandong Sino-Soviet conflict

1930 Central Plains War

1932 Han–Liu War

Beiyang Army

Yuan Shikai Anhui Zhili Communications Research

Regional

Fengtian (Zhili) Shanxi Guominjun Ma Xinjiang

Yunnan Old Guangxi New Guangxi Guangdong (Chen Jitang) Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) Communist Party (CPC) Sichuan

Republic of C

.