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MTV
MTV
(originally an initialism of MUSIC TELEVISION) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom
Viacom
Media Networks (a division of Viacom
Viacom
) and headquartered in New York City
New York City
. Launched on August 1, 1981, the channel originally aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys " (VJs). In its early years, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is primarily towards teenagers, particularly high school and college students. MTV
MTV
has toned down its music video programming significantly in recent years, and its programming now consists mainly of original reality , comedy and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. It has also become involved in promoting left-wing political issues and progressive social causes. The network received criticism towards this change of focus, both by certain segments of its audience and musicians. MTV's influence on its audience, including issues involving censorship and social activism , has also been a subject of debate for several years.

In recent years, MTV
MTV
had struggled with the secular decline of music-related cable media. Its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers increasingly shift towards digital media, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%; thus there was doubt of the lasting relevance of MTV
MTV
towards young audiences. In April 2016, MTV
MTV
announced it would start to return to its original music roots with the reintroduction of the classic MTV
MTV
series MTV
MTV
Unplugged . After nine years off air, TRL will be returning in October 2017.

MTV
MTV
has spawned numerous sister channels in the US and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent. As of January 2016, approximately 90.6 million US households have received MTV.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Previous concepts (1964–1977) * 1.2 Pre-history (1977–1981) * 1.3 Launch * 1.4 Original VJs and format (1981–1994) * 1.5 Breaking the "color barrier" (1981–1983) * 1.6 Video Music Awards (1984–present) * 1.7 Special, annual events (1986–present) * 1.8 Live concert broadcasts (1985–2005) * 1.9 Formatted music series (1986–2008) * 1.10 Rise of the directors (1990–1993) * 1.11 Alternative is mainstream (1991–1997) * 1.12 Electronica and pop (1997–1999) * 1.13 Return of the Rock (1997–2004) * 1.14 Total Request Live
Total Request Live
(1998–2008) * 1.15 Milestones and specials (1999–2011) * 1.16 Fewer music videos (1995–2008) * 1.17 FNMTV and AMTV (2008–present) * 1.18 Recent music programs (2009–present) * 1.19 Post-TRL live shows (2009–present)

* 2 Other programs

* 2.1 First format evolution (1985–1991) * 2.2 Reality programs (1992–present) * 2.3 Animated programs (1991–present) * 2.4 Comedy and drama programs (1989–present) * 2.5 Rebroadcast programs * 2.6 Impact and recognition (2010)

* 3 Logo and branding

* 4 Influence and controversies

* 4.1 Subsequent concepts * 4.2 Censorship
Censorship
* 4.3 Andrew Dice Clay
Andrew Dice Clay
* 4.4 Beavis and Butt-head
Beavis and Butt-head
* 4.5 Dude, This Sucks

* 4.6 Super Bowl XXXVIII
Super Bowl XXXVIII
halftime show

* 4.6.1 Nipplegate

* 4.7 Moral criticism * 4.8 Jersey Shore * 4.9 Resolutions for White Guys

* 5 Social activism
Social activism

* 5.1 Choose or Lose * 5.2 Rock the Vote * 5.3 MTV
MTV
Act and Power of 12 * 5.4 Elect This

* 6 Beyond MTV
MTV

* 6.1 Sister channels in the US * 6.2 Internet * 6.3 MTV
MTV
around the world

* 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Bibliography * 8.2 Further reading

* 9 External links

HISTORY

PREVIOUS CONCEPTS (1964–1977)

See also: Music video
Music video
§ History and development

Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s. The Beatles
The Beatles
had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day\'s Night , particularly the performance of the song "Can\'t Buy Me Love ", led MTV
MTV
later on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester
Richard Lester
with an award for "basically inventing the music video".

In his book The Mason Williams
Mason Williams
FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS
CBS
for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS
CBS
rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition " Classical Gas " on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour , where he was head writer. In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion , a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops , which had initially aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them regularly by the mid-1970s.

In 1974, Gary Van Haas , vice president of Televak Corporation , introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, and promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard . The channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television. The service was no longer active by the time MTV
MTV
launched in 1981.

PRE-HISTORY (1977–1981)

In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications
Warner Communications
and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio. The QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite songs and artists.

The original programming format of MTV
MTV
was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman , who later became president and chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV
MTV
Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album
Album
Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s.

Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips , a television series created by former Monkee -turned solo artist Michael Nesmith
Michael Nesmith
, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s. The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures , which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live.

LAUNCH

The first images shown on MTV
MTV
were a montage of the Apollo 11 moon landing Further information: First music videos aired on MTV

On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 am Eastern Time , MTV
MTV
launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia (which took place earlier that year) and of the launch of Apollo 11
Apollo 11
. Those words were immediately followed by the original MTV
MTV
theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept; Seibert said that they had originally planned to use Neil Armstrong 's "One small step" quote, but lawyers said that Armstrong owned his name and likeness and that he had refused, so the quote was replaced with a beeping sound. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster .

The first music video shown on MTV
MTV
was The Buggles
The Buggles
' "Video Killed the Radio Star ", originally only available to homes in New Jersey. This was followed by the video for Pat Benatar
Pat Benatar
's " You Better Run ". Sporadically, the screen would go black when an employee at MTV inserted a tape into a VCR
VCR
. MTV's lower third graphics that appeared near the beginning and end of music videos would eventually use the recognizable Kabel typeface for about 25 years. But these graphics differed on MTV's first day of broadcast; they were set in a different typeface and included information such as the year and record label name.

As programming chief, Robert W. Pittman recruited and managed a team for the launch that included Tom Freston (who succeeded Pittman as CEO of MTV
MTV
Networks), Fred Seibert , John Sykes , Carolyn Baker (original head of talent and acquisition), Marshall Cohen (original head of research), Gail Sparrow (of talent and acquisition), Sue Steinberg (executive producer), Julian Goldberg, Steve Lawrence, Geoff Bolton; studio producers and MTV News
MTV News
writers/associate producers Liz Nealon, Nancy LaPook and Robin Zorn; Steve Casey (creator of the name "MTV" and its first program director), Marcy Brafman, Ronald E. "Buzz" Brindle, and Robert Morton . Kenneth M. Miller is credited as being the first technical director to officially launch MTV
MTV
from its New York City-based network operations facility.

MTV's effect was immediate in areas where the new music video channel was carried. Within two months, record stores in areas where MTV
MTV
was available were selling music that local radio stations were not playing, such as Men at Work
Men at Work
, Bow Wow Wow
Bow Wow Wow
and the Human League . MTV sparked the Second British Invasion , with British acts, who had been accustomed to using music videos for half a decade, featuring heavily on the channel.

ORIGINAL VJS AND FORMAT (1981–1994)

MTV's original logo, used from August 1, 1981 to March 18, 2009. It is still used in other countries. Further information: List of MTV
MTV
VJs

The original purpose of MTV
MTV
was to be "music television", playing music videos 24 hours a day and seven days a week, guided by on-air personalities known as VJs , or video jockeys. The original slogans of the channel were "You'll never look at music the same way again", and "On cable. In stereo."

MTV's earliest format was modeled after AOR (album-oriented rock) radio; MTV
MTV
would transition to mimic a full Top 40 station in 1984. Fresh-faced young men and women were hired to host the channel's programming and to introduce music videos that were being played. The term VJ was coined, which was a play on the initialism DJ (disc jockey). Many VJs eventually became celebrities in their own right. The original five MTV
MTV
VJs in 1981 were Nina Blackwood , Mark Goodman , Alan Hunter , J.J. Jackson and Martha Quinn .

The VJs would record intro and outro voiceovers before broadcast, along with music news, interviews, concert dates and promotions. These segments would appear to air live and debut across the MTV
MTV
program schedule 24 hours a day and seven days a week, although the segments themselves were pre-taped within a regular work week at MTV's studios.

The early music videos that made up the bulk of MTV's programming in the 1980s were promotional videos (or "promos", a term that originated in the United Kingdom) that record companies had commissioned for international use or concert clips from any available sources.

Rock bands and performers of the 1980s who had airplay on MTV
MTV
ranged from new wave to hard rock or heavy metal bands such as Adam Ant
Adam Ant
, Bryan Adams
Bryan Adams
, Blondie , Eurythmics
Eurythmics
, Culture Club
Culture Club
, Mötley Crüe
Mötley Crüe
, Split Enz
Split Enz
, Prince , Ultravox
Ultravox
, Duran Duran
Duran Duran
, Van Halen
Van Halen
, Bon Jovi
Bon Jovi
, RATT
RATT
, Def Leppard
Def Leppard
, The Police
The Police
, and The Cars
The Cars
. The channel also rotated the music videos of "Weird Al" Yankovic
"Weird Al" Yankovic
, who made a career out of parodying other artists' videos. MTV
MTV
also aired several specials by "Weird Al" in the 1980s and 1990s under the title Al TV .

MTV
MTV
also played classic rock acts from the 1980s and earlier decades, including David Bowie
David Bowie
, Dire Straits
Dire Straits
(whose 1985 song and video "Money for Nothing " both referenced MTV
MTV
and also included the slogan "I want my MTV" in its lyrics), Journey , Rush , Linda Ronstadt
Linda Ronstadt
, Genesis , Billy Squier , Aerosmith
Aerosmith
, The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
, Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
, The Moody Blues
Blues
, John Mellencamp
John Mellencamp
, Daryl Hall newly solo acts such as Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
, Robert Plant
Robert Plant
, Phil Collins
Phil Collins
, Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
, David Lee Roth , and Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
; supergroup acts such as Asia , The Power Station , Yes , The Firm , and Traveling Wilburys
Traveling Wilburys
, as well as forgotten acts such as Michael Stanley Band , Shoes , Blotto , Ph.D. , Rockpile , Bootcamp , Silicon Teens and Taxxi . The hard rock band Kiss publicly appeared without their trademark makeup for the first time on MTV
MTV
in 1983. The first country-music video aired on MTV
MTV
was " Angel of the Morning
Angel of the Morning
" by Juice Newton , which first aired on MTV
MTV
in 1981.

During the early days of the channel, MTV
MTV
would occasionally let other stars take over the channel within an hour as "guest VJs"; these guests included musicians such as Adam Ant
Adam Ant
, Billy Idol
Billy Idol
, Phil Collins , Simon LeBon
Simon LeBon
, and Nick Rhodes
Nick Rhodes
of Duran Duran
Duran Duran
, Tina Turner
Tina Turner
; and comedians such as Eddie Murphy
Eddie Murphy
, Martin Short
Martin Short
, Dan Aykroyd
Dan Aykroyd
, and Steven Wright ; as they chose their favorite music videos.

The 1983 film Flashdance
Flashdance
was the first film in which its promoters excerpted musical segments from it and supplied them to MTV
MTV
as music videos, which the channel then aired in regular rotation.

In addition to bringing lesser-known artists into view, MTV
MTV
was instrumental in adding to the booming eighties dance wave. Videos' budgets increased, and artists began to add fully choreographed dance sections. Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
's music became synonymous with dance. In addition to learning the lyrics, fans also learned his choreography so they could dance along. Madonna capitalized on dance in her videos, using classically trained jazz and break-dancers. Along with extensive costuming and make-up, Duran Duran
Duran Duran
used tribal elements, pulled from Dunham technique, in "The Wild Boys ", and Kate Bush used a modern dance duet in " Running Up That Hill ". MTV
MTV
brought more than music into public view, it added to the ever-growing resurgence of dance in the early 1980s that has carried through to today.

In 1984, more record companies and artists began making video clips for their music than in the past, realizing the popularity of MTV
MTV
and the growing medium. In keeping with the influx of videos, MTV announced changes to its playlists in the November 3, 1984, issue of Billboard magazine, that would take effect the following week. The playlist categories would be expanded to seven, from three (light, medium, heavy); including New, Light, Breakout, Medium, Active, Heavy and Power. This would ensure artists with hit records on the charts would be get the exposure they deserved, with Medium being a home for the established hits still on the climb up to the top 10; and Heavy being a home for the big hits – without the bells and whistles – just the exposure they commanded.

In 1985, MTV
MTV
spearheaded a safe-sex initiative as a response to the AIDS epidemic that continues to influence sexual health currently. In this light, MTV
MTV
pushed teens to pay more attention to safe-sex because they were most likely more willing to hear this message from MTV
MTV
than their parents. This showed that MTV
MTV
was not always influencing youth negatively. Even though in other aspects, MTV
MTV
was provocative, they had this campaign to showcase their positive influence on youths and safe sex – a campaign that still is alive today: "Its Your Sex Life".

BREAKING THE "COLOR BARRIER" (1981–1983)

Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
, whose discography included music videos such as " Beat It ", " Billie Jean
Billie Jean
", and "Thriller "

During MTV's first few years on the air, very few black artists were included in rotation on the channel. The select few who were in MTV's rotation were Michael Jackson, Prince , Eddy Grant , Donna Summer
Donna Summer
, Tina Turner
Tina Turner
, Musical Youth , and Herbie Hancock
Herbie Hancock
. The very first people of color to perform on MTV
MTV
was the British band The Specials
The Specials
, which featured an integrated line-up of white and black musicians and vocalists. The Specials' video "Rat Race" was played as the 58th video on the station's first day of broadcasting.

MTV
MTV
rejected other black artists' videos, such as Rick James ' "Super Freak ", because they did not fit the channel's carefully selected album-oriented rock format at the time. The exclusion enraged James; he publicly advocated the addition of more black artists' videos on the channel. Rock legend David Bowie
David Bowie
also questioned MTV's lack of black artists during an on-air interview with VJ Mark Goodman in 1983. MTV's original head of talent and acquisition, Carolyn B. Baker, who was black, had questioned why the definition of music had to be so narrow, as had a few others outside the network. "The party line at MTV
MTV
was that we weren't playing black music because of the 'research'", said Baker years later. "But the research was based on ignorance ... we were young, we were cutting edge. We didn't have to be on the cutting edge of racism." Nevertheless, it was Baker who had personally rejected Rick James' video for Super Freak "because there were half-naked women in it, and it was a piece of crap. As a black woman, I did not want that representing my people as the first black video on MTV."

The network's director of music programming, Buzz Brindle, told an interviewer in 2006, " MTV
MTV
was originally designed to be a rock music channel. It was difficult for MTV
MTV
to find African American artists whose music fit the channel's format that leaned toward rock at the outset." Writers Craig Marks and Rob Tannenbaum noted that the channel "aired videos by plenty of white artists who didn't play rock." Andrew Goodwin later wrote, " denied racism, on the grounds that it merely followed the rules of the rock business." MTV
MTV
senior executive vice president Les Garland complained decades later, "The worst thing was that 'racism' bullshit ... there were hardly any videos being made by black artists. Record companies weren't funding them. They never got charged with racism." However, critics of that defense pointed out that record companies were not funding videos for black artists because they knew that they would have difficulty persuading MTV
MTV
to play them.

Before 1983, Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
also struggled to receive airtime on MTV. To resolve the struggle and finally "break the color barrier", the president of CBS
CBS
Records at the time, Walter Yetnikoff , denounced MTV
MTV
in a strong, profane statement, threatening to take away MTV's ability to play any of the record label's music videos. However, Les Garland, then acquisitions head, said he decided to air Jackson's " Billie Jean
Billie Jean
" video without pressure from CBS. This was contradicted by CBS
CBS
head of Business Affairs David Benjamin in Vanity Fair.

According to The Austin Chronicle
The Austin Chronicle
, Jackson's video for the song "Billie Jean" was "the video that broke the color barrier, even though the channel itself was responsible for erecting that barrier in the first place." But change was not immediate. "Billie Jean" was not added to MTV's "medium rotation" playlist (two to three airings per day) until after it had already reached #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. A month later, it was bumped up into "heavy rotation", one week before the MTV
MTV
debut of Jackson's " Beat It " video. Both videos were played several times a day for the next two months. By early summer, the channel had ceased playing either song. But the impact was permanent as by that point the videos by other black artists such as " Little Red Corvette " and "1999 " by Prince, "Electric Avenue " by Eddy Grant, and " She Works Hard for the Money " by Donna Summer
Donna Summer
were in heavy rotation on the channel . When Jackson's elaborate video for "Thriller " was released late in the year, which raised the ambition bar for what a video could be, the network's support for it was total; subsequently more pop and R Spankin' New Music Week, a week in the fall dedicated to brand new music videos; and week-long specials that culminated in a particular live event, such as Wanna be a VJ and the Video Music Awards.

At the end of each year, MTV
MTV
takes advantage of its home location in New York City
New York City
to broadcast live coverage on New Year's Eve in Times Square . Several live music performances are featured alongside interviews with artists and bands that were influential throughout the year. For many years from the 1980s to the 2000s, the channel upheld a tradition of having a band perform a cover song at midnight immediately following the beginning of the new year.

LIVE CONCERT BROADCASTS (1985–2005)

Throughout its history, MTV
MTV
has covered global benefit concert series live. For most of July 13, 1985, MTV
MTV
showed the Live Aid
Live Aid
concerts, held in London and Philadelphia and organized by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for famine relief in Ethiopia. While the ABC network showed only selected highlights during primetime, MTV broadcast 16 hours of coverage.

Along with VH1
VH1
, MTV
MTV
broadcast the Live 8
Live 8
concerts, a series of concerts set in the G8 states and South Africa, on July 2, 2005. Live 8 preceded the 31st G8 summit and the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. MTV
MTV
drew heavy criticism for its coverage of Live 8. The network cut to commercials, VJ commentary, or other performances during performances. Complaints surfaced on the Internet over MTV interrupting the reunion of Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
. In response, MTV
MTV
president Van Toeffler stated that he wanted to broadcast highlights from every venue of Live 8
Live 8
on MTV
MTV
and VH1, and clarified that network hosts talked over performances only in transition to commercials, informative segments or other musical performances. Toeffler acknowledged that " MTV
MTV
should not have placed such a high priority on showing so many acts, at the expense of airing complete sets by key artists." He also blamed the Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
interruption on a mandatory cable affiliate break. MTV
MTV
averaged 1.4 million viewers for its original July 2 broadcast of Live 8. Consequently, MTV
MTV
and VH1
VH1
aired five hours of uninterrupted Live 8
Live 8
coverage on July 9, with each channel airing different blocks of artists.

FORMATTED MUSIC SERIES (1986–2008)

Further information: List of MTV
MTV
music programs

MTV
MTV
had debuted Dial MTV in 1986, a daily top ten music video countdown show for which viewers could call the toll-free telephone number 1-800-DIAL- MTV
MTV
to request a music video. The show would be replaced by MTV
MTV
Most Wanted in 1991, which ran until 1996, and later saw a spiritual successor in Total Request Live. The phone number remained in use for video requests until 2006.

Also in 1986, the channel introduced 120 Minutes
120 Minutes
, a show that would feature low-rotation, alternative rock and other "underground" videos for the next 14 years on MTV
MTV
and three additional years on sister channel MTV2
MTV2
. The program then became known as Subterranean on MTV2. Eight years later, on July 31, 2011, 120 Minutes
120 Minutes
was resurrected with Matt Pinfield taking over hosting duties once again and airing monthly on MTV2.

Another late night music video show was added in 1987, Headbangers Ball , which featured heavy metal music and news. Before its abrupt cancellation in 1995, it featured several hosts including Riki Rachtman and Adam Curry
Adam Curry
. A weekly block of music videos with the name Headbangers Ball
Headbangers Ball
aired from 2003 to 2011 on sister channel MTV2, before spending an additional two years as a web-only series on MTV2's website, until Headbangers Ball
Headbangers Ball
was discontinued once again in 2013.

In 1988, MTV
MTV
debuted Yo! MTV Raps , a hip hop/rap formatted program. The program continued until August 1995. It was renamed to simply Yo! and aired as a one-hour program from 1995 to 1999. The concept was reintroduced as Direct Effect in 2000, which became Sucker Free in 2006 and was cancelled in 2008, after briefly celebrating the 20th anniversary of Yo! MTV Raps throughout the months of April and May 2008. Despite its cancellation on MTV, a weekly countdown of hip hop videos known as Sucker Free still airs on MTV2
MTV2
through the present day.

In 1989, MTV
MTV
began to premiere music-based specials such as MTV Unplugged , an acoustic performance show, which has featured dozens of acts as its guests and has remained active in numerous iterations on various platforms for over 20 years.

To further cater to the growing success of R&B, MTV
MTV
introduced the weekly Fade to Black in the summer of 1991, which was hosted by Al B. Sure! . The show would be reformatted into the better known MTV
MTV
Jams the following year, which incorporated mainstream hip-hop into the playlist. Bill Bellamy would become the new and ongoing host. The show became so successful it spawned its own Most Wanted spinoff titled Most Wanted Jams.

RISE OF THE DIRECTORS (1990–1993)

By the early 1990s, MTV
MTV
was playing a combination of pop-friendly hard rock acts, chart-topping metal and hard rock acts such as Metallica
Metallica
, Nirvana and Guns N\' Roses , pop singers such as Michael Jackson , Madonna , 2 Unlimited , and New Kids on the Block
New Kids on the Block
, and R&B groups such as New Edition , En Vogue
En Vogue
, Bell Biv Devoe
Bell Biv Devoe
, SWV , Tony Toni Tone , TLC and Boyz II Men
Boyz II Men
, while introducing hit rappers Vanilla Ice
Vanilla Ice
and MC Hammer
MC Hammer
. MTV
MTV
progressively increased its airing of hip hop acts, such as LL Cool J
LL Cool J
, Queen Latifah
Queen Latifah
, Salt-n-Pepa
Salt-n-Pepa
, Naughty By Nature , Onyx
Onyx
, MC Lyte
MC Lyte
, and Sir-Mix-A-Lot
Sir-Mix-A-Lot
, and by 1993, the channel added West Coast rappers previously associated with gangsta rap , with a less pop-friendly sound, such as Tupac Shakur
Tupac Shakur
, Ice Cube
Ice Cube
, Warren G
Warren G
, Ice-T
Ice-T
, Dr. Dre
Dr. Dre
, Tone Loc , and Snoop Doggy Dogg .

To accompany the new sounds, a new form of music videos came about: more creative, funny, artistic, experimental, and technically accomplished than those in the 1980s. Several noted film directors got their start creating music videos. After pressure from the Music Video Production Association, MTV
MTV
began listing the names of the videos' directors at the bottom of the credits by December 1992. As a result, MTV's viewers became familiar with the names of Spike Jonze
Spike Jonze
, Michel Gondry , David Fincher
David Fincher
, Mary Lambert , Samuel Bayer
Samuel Bayer
, Matt Mahurin , Mark Romanek , Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris
Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris
, Anton Corbijn
Anton Corbijn
, Mark Pellington , Tarsem , Hype Williams , Jake Scott , Jonathan Glazer , Marcus Nispel , F. Gary Gray , Jim Yukich, Russell Mulcahy , Steve Barron
Steve Barron
, Marty Callner , and Michael Bay
Michael Bay
, among others.

As the PBS series Frontline explored, MTV
MTV
was a driving force that catapulted music videos to a mainstream audience, turning music videos into an art form as well as a marketing machine that became beneficial to artists. Danny Goldberg, chairman and CEO of Artemis Records, said the following about the art of music videos: "I know when I worked with Nirvana, Kurt Cobain cared as much about the videos as he did about the records. He wrote the scripts for them, he was in the editing room, and they were part of his art. And I think they stand up as part of his art, and I think that's true of the great artists today. Not every artist is a great artist and not every video is a good video, but in general having it available as a tool, to me, adds to the business. And I wish there had been music videos in the heyday of The Beatles, and The Rolling Stones. I think they would've added to their creative contribution, not subtracted from it."

ALTERNATIVE IS MAINSTREAM (1991–1997)

Nirvana led a sweeping transition into the rise of alternative rock music on MTV
MTV
in 1991 with their video for " Smells Like Teen Spirit
Smells Like Teen Spirit
". By late 1991 going into 1992, MTV
MTV
began frequently airing videos from their heavily promoted " Buzz Bin ", such as Nirvana , Pearl Jam
Pearl Jam
, Alice in Chains
Alice in Chains
, Soundgarden
Soundgarden
, Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails
, Tori Amos
Tori Amos
, PM Dawn , Arrested Development , Björk
Björk
, and Gin Blossoms
Gin Blossoms
. MTV
MTV
increased rotation of its weekly alternative music program 120 Minutes
120 Minutes
and added the daily Alternative Nation to play videos of these and other underground music acts. Subsequently, grunge and alternative rock had a rise in mainstream tastes, while 1980s-style glam bands and traditional rockers were phased out, with some exceptions such as Aerosmith
Aerosmith
and Tom Petty
Tom Petty
. Older acts such as R.E.M.
R.E.M.
and U2 remained relevant by making their music more experimental or unexpected.

They also played lots of hard rock acts such as Pantera
Pantera
, Death and other heavy/death metal acts at the time period.

In 1993, more hit alternative rock acts were on heavy rotation, such as Stone Temple Pilots
Stone Temple Pilots
, Soul Asylum
Soul Asylum
, Rage Against the Machine
Rage Against the Machine
, Marilyn Manson
Marilyn Manson
, Tool , Beck
Beck
, Therapy?
Therapy?
, Radiohead
Radiohead
, and The Smashing Pumpkins . Other hit acts such as Weezer
Weezer
, Collective Soul
Collective Soul
, Blind Melon , The Cranberries
The Cranberries
, Bush , and Silverchair
Silverchair
would follow in the next couple of years. Alternative bands that appeared on Beavis and Butt-Head included White Zombie .

By the next few years, 1994 through 1997, MTV
MTV
began promoting new power pop acts, most successfully Green Day
Green Day
and The Offspring
The Offspring
, and ska-rock acts such as No Doubt
No Doubt
, The Mighty Mighty Bosstones and Sublime . Pop singers were added to the rotation with success as long as they were considered "alternative," such as Alanis Morissette
Alanis Morissette
, Jewel , Fiona Apple , and Sarah McLachlan
Sarah McLachlan
.

ELECTRONICA AND POP (1997–1999)

By 1997, MTV
MTV
focused heavily on introducing electronica acts into the mainstream, adding them to its musical rotation, including The Prodigy , The Chemical Brothers
The Chemical Brothers
, Moby
Moby
, Aphex Twin
Aphex Twin
, Pendulum , Daft Punk
Daft Punk
, The Crystal Method
The Crystal Method
, Butthole Surfers
Butthole Surfers
and Fatboy Slim
Fatboy Slim
. Some musicians who proceeded to experiment with electronica were still played on MTV including Madonna , U2 , David Bowie
David Bowie
, Radiohead
Radiohead
, and Smashing Pumpkins . That year, MTV
MTV
also attempted to introduce neo-swing bands, but they did not meet with much success.

However, in late 1997, MTV
MTV
began shifting more progressively towards pop music, inspired by the success of the Spice Girls and the rise of boy bands in Europe. Between 1998 and 1999, MTV's musical content consisted heavily of videos of boy bands such as Backstreet Boys
Backstreet Boys
and NSYNC , as well as teen pop "princesses" such as Britney Spears
Britney Spears
, Christina Aguilera
Christina Aguilera
, Lynda Thomas , Mandy Moore
Mandy Moore
, and Jessica Simpson . Airplay of rock, electronica, and alternative acts was reduced. Hip-hop music
Hip-hop music
continued in heavy rotation, through the likes of Puff Daddy , Jermaine Dupri
Jermaine Dupri
, Master P , DMX , Busta Rhymes
Busta Rhymes
, Lil\' Kim , Jay-Z , Missy Elliott
Missy Elliott
, Lauryn Hill
Lauryn Hill
, Eminem
Eminem
, Foxy Brown , Ja Rule
Ja Rule
, Nas
Nas
, Timbaland
Timbaland
, and their associates. R&B was also heavily represented with acts such as Aaliyah
Aaliyah
, Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
, Destiny\'s Child , 702 , Monica , and Brandy .

RETURN OF THE ROCK (1997–2004)

Beginning in late 1997, MTV
MTV
progressively reduced its airing of rock music videos, leading to the slogan among skeptics, "Rock is dead." The facts that at the time rock music fans were less materialistic, and bought less music based on television suggestion, were cited as reasons that MTV
MTV
abandoned its once staple music. MTV
MTV
instead devoted its musical airtime mostly to pop and hip hop/R"> 1515 Broadway in Times Square
Times Square
Main article: Total Request Live
Total Request Live

Also by 1997, MTV
MTV
was criticized heavily for not playing as many music videos as it had in the past. In response, MTV
MTV
created four shows that centered on music videos: MTV
MTV
Live , Total Request , Say What? , and 12 Angry Viewers . Also at this time, MTV
MTV
introduced its new studios in Times Square.

A year later, in 1998, MTV
MTV
merged Total Request and MTV
MTV
Live into a live daily top ten countdown show, Total Request Live
Total Request Live
, which would become known as TRL (the original host being Carson Daly
Carson Daly
) and secure its place as the channel's unofficial flagship program. In the fall of 1999, a live studio audience was added to the show. By spring 2000, the countdown reached its peak. The program enjoyed success playing the top ten pop, rock, R it later became MTV
MTV
Hits. Other programs were Direct Effect , Return of the Rock, MTV Jams , BeatSuite, MTV
MTV
Soul, and blocks of music videos hosted by VJs simply called Music Television in the spirit of the channel's original purpose.

During the September 11, 2001 terror attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon
The Pentagon
, MTV
MTV
suspended all of its programming, along with its sister cable channel VH1
VH1
, and it began simulcasting coverage from CBS
CBS
News (the news division of CBS
CBS
), which was acquired by MTV parent Viacom
Viacom
two years earlier) until about 11:00 pm. ET that night. The channels then played a looped set of music videos without commercial interruption until an MTV News
MTV News
special edition of TRL aired on September 14, 2001.

In 2002, Carson Daly
Carson Daly
left MTV
MTV
and TRL to pursue a late night talk show on NBC
NBC
. After his departure, the relevance and impact of Total Request Live slowly diminished. TRL ultimately remained a part of MTV's regular program schedule for ten years. The series came to an end with a special finale episode, Total Finale Live, which aired November 16, 2008, and featured all the show's hosts from over the years, many special guests from the history of the show, and played its last music video, "...Baby One More Time " by Britney Spears
Britney Spears
.

MILESTONES AND SPECIALS (1999–2011)

Around 1999 through 2001, as MTV
MTV
aired fewer music videos throughout the day, it regularly aired compilation specials from its then 20-year history to look back on its roots. An all-encompassing special, MTV Uncensored, premiered in 1999 and was later released as a book.

MTV
MTV
celebrated its 20th anniversary on August 1, 2001, beginning with a 12-hour long retrospective called MTV20: Buggles to Bizkit, which featured over 100 classic videos played chronologically, hosted by various VJs in reproductions of MTV's old studios. The day of programming culminated in a three-hour celebratory live event called MTV20: Live and Almost Legal, which was hosted by Carson Daly
Carson Daly
and featured numerous guests from MTV's history, including the original VJs from 1981. Various other related MTV20 specials aired in the months surrounding the event.

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
became the inaugural honoree of the "mtvICON " award, "an annual recognition of artists who have made significant contributions to music, music video and pop culture while tremendously impacting the MTV generation
MTV generation
." Subsequent recipients included Aerosmith
Aerosmith
, Metallica
Metallica
and The Cure
The Cure
.

Five years later, on August 1, 2006, MTV
MTV
celebrated its 25th anniversary. On their website, MTV.com, visitors could watch the very first hour of MTV, including airing the original promos and commercials from Mountain Dew
Mountain Dew
, Atari
Atari
, Chewels gum, and Jovan . Videos were also shown from The Buggles
The Buggles
, Pat Benatar
Pat Benatar
, Rod Stewart
Rod Stewart
, and others. The introduction of the first five VJs was also shown. Additionally, MTV.com put together a "yearbook" consisting of the greatest videos of each year from 1981 to 2006. MTV
MTV
itself only mentioned the anniversary once on TRL .

Although MTV
MTV
reached its 30th year of broadcasting in 2011, the channel itself passed over this milestone in favor of its current programming schedule. The channel instead aired its 30th anniversary celebrations on its sister networks MTV2
MTV2
and VH1
VH1
Classic . Nathaniel Brown, senior vice president of communications for MTV, confirmed that there were no plans for an on-air MTV
MTV
celebration similar to the channel's 20th anniversary. Brown explained, " MTV
MTV
as a brand doesn't age with our viewers. We are really focused on our current viewers, and our feeling was that our anniversary wasn't something that would be meaningful to them, many of whom weren't even alive in 1981."

FEWER MUSIC VIDEOS (1995–2008)

From 1995 to 2000, MTV
MTV
played 36.5% fewer music videos. MTV
MTV
president Van Toeffler explained: "Clearly, the novelty of just showing music videos has worn off. It's required us to reinvent ourselves to a contemporary audience." Despite targeted efforts to play certain types of music videos in limited rotation, MTV
MTV
greatly reduced its overall rotation of music videos by the mid-2000s. While music videos were featured on MTV
MTV
up to eight hours per day in 2000, the year 2008 saw an average of just three hours of music videos per day on MTV. The rise of social media and websites like YouTube as a convenient outlet for the promotion and viewing of music videos signaled this reduction.

As the decade progressed, MTV
MTV
continued to play some music videos instead of relegating them exclusively to its sister channels , but around this time, the channel began to air music videos only in the early morning hours or in a condensed form on Total Request Live
Total Request Live
. As a result of these programming changes, Justin Timberlake
Justin Timberlake
implored MTV to "play more damn videos!" while giving an acceptance speech at the 2007 Video Music Awards .

Despite the challenge from Timberlake, MTV
MTV
continued to decrease its total rotation time for music videos in 2007, and the channel eliminated its long-running special tags for music videos such as "Buzzworthy" (for under-represented artists), "Breakthrough" (for visually stunning videos), and "Spankin' New" (for brand new videos). Additionally, the historic Kabel typeface, which MTV
MTV
displayed at the beginning and end of all music videos since 1981, was phased out in favor of larger text and less information about the video's record label and director. The classic font can still be seen in "prechyroned" versions of old videos on sister network MTV
MTV
Classic , which had their title information recorded onto the same tape as the video itself.

FNMTV AND AMTV (2008–PRESENT)

Prior to its finale in 2008, MTV's main source of music videos was Total Request Live, airing four times per week, featuring short clips of music videos along with VJs and guests. MTV
MTV
was experimenting at the time with new ideas for music programs to replace the purpose of TRL but with a new format.

In mid-2008, MTV
MTV
premiered new music video programming blocks called FNMTV and a weekly special event called FNMTV Premieres, hosted from Los Angeles by Pete Wentz of the band Fall Out Boy
Fall Out Boy
, which was designed to premiere new music videos and have viewers provide instantaneous feedback.

The FNMTV Premieres event ended before the 2008 Video Music Awards in September. With the exception of a holiday themed episode in December 2008 and an unrelated Spring Break
Spring Break
special in March 2009 with the same title, FNMTV Premieres never returned to the channel's regular program schedule, leaving MTV
MTV
without any music video programs hosted by VJs for the first time in its history. AMTV , the name of MTV's music video programming from 2009 to 2013

Music video
Music video
programming returned to MTV
MTV
in March 2009 as AMTV , an early morning block of music videos that originally aired from 3 am to 9 am on most weekdays. It was renamed Music Feed in 2013 with a reduced schedule. Unlike the FNMTV block that preceded it, Music Feed features many full-length music videos, including some older videos that have been out of regular rotation for many years on MTV. It also features music news updates, interviews, and performances. Music Feed is the only current program on MTV's main channel that is dedicated to music videos.

During the rest of the day, MTV
MTV
also plays excerpts from music videos in split screen format during the closing credits of most programs, along with the address of a website to encourage the viewer to watch the full video online. MTV
MTV
has positioned its website, MTV.com, as its primary destination for music videos.

RECENT MUSIC PROGRAMS (2009–PRESENT)

MTV
MTV
again resurrected the long-running series MTV Unplugged
MTV Unplugged
in 2009 with performances from acts such as Adele
Adele
and Paramore
Paramore
. However, unlike past Unplugged specials, these new recordings usually only aired in their entirety on MTV's website, MTV.com. Nevertheless, short clips of the specials are shown on MTV
MTV
during the AMTV block of music videos in the early morning hours. On June 12, 2011, MTV
MTV
aired a traditional television premiere of a new installment of MTV
MTV
Unplugged instead of a web debut. The featured artist was rapper Lil Wayne
Lil Wayne
and the show debuted both on MTV
MTV
and MTV2. The channel followed up with a similar television premiere of MTV Unplugged
MTV Unplugged
with Florence and the Machine on April 8, 2012.

MTV
MTV
launched 10 on Top in May 2010, a weekly program airing on Saturdays and hosted by Lenay Dunn , that counts down the top 10 most trending and talked about topics of the week (generally focused on entertainment). Dunn also appeared in segments between MTV's shows throughout the day as a recognizable personality and face of the channel in the absence of traditional VJs aside from its MTV
MTV
News correspondents.

The animated series Beavis and Butt-head
Beavis and Butt-head
returned to MTV
MTV
in October 2011, with new episodes. As with the original version of the series that ran from 1993 to 1997, the modern-day Beavis and Butt-head features segments in which its main characters watch and criticize music videos.

Sometime in 2012, MTV
MTV
debuted Clubland, which previously existed as an hour of EDM videos during the AMTV video block. The show has no host, but most editorial content is pushed online by the show's Tumblr and other social media outlets like Facebook and Twitter.

MTV
MTV
launched a new talk show based on hip hop music on April 12, 2012, called Hip Hop POV, hosted by Amanda Seales , Bu Thiam, Charlamagne , Devi Dev , and Sowmya Krishnamurthy. The show featured hosted commentary on the headlines in hip hop culture, providing opinions on new music, granting insider access to major events, and including artist interviews. Hip Hip POV lasted several episodes before going on hiatus. The show was supposed to return in Fall 2012, but was moved to MTV2
MTV2
instead, where it was rebranded and merged with Sucker Free Countdown. The new show debuted as The Week in Jams on October 28, 2012.

POST-TRL LIVE SHOWS (2009–PRESENT)

MTV
MTV
launched a live talk show, It\'s On with Alexa Chung
Alexa Chung
, on June 15, 2009. The host of the program, Alexa Chung
Alexa Chung
, was described as a "younger, more Web 2.0
Web 2.0
" version of Jimmy Fallon
Jimmy Fallon
. Although it was filmed in the same Times Square
Times Square
studio where TRL used to be broadcast, the network stated that "the only thing the two shows have in common is the studio location." It's On was cancelled in December of the same year, which again eliminated the only live in-studio programming from MTV's schedule, just one year after TRL was also cancelled.

Shortly after Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
died on June 25, 2009, the channel aired several hours of Jackson's music videos, accompanied by live news specials featuring reactions from MTV
MTV
personalities and other celebrities. The temporary shift in MTV's programming culminated the following week with the channel's live coverage of Jackson's memorial service. MTV
MTV
aired similar one-hour live specials with music videos and news updates following the death of Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
on February 11, 2012, and the death of Adam Yauch
Adam Yauch
of the Beastie Boys
Beastie Boys
on May 4, 2012.

The channel tried its hand again at live programming with the premiere of a half-hour program called The Seven in September 2010. The program counted down seven entertainment-related stories of interest to viewers (and included some interview segments among them), having aired weekdays at 5 pm with a weekend wrap-up at 10 am ET. Shortly after its debut, the show was slightly retooled as it dropped co-host Julie Alexandria but kept fellow co-host Kevin Manno ; the Saturday recap show was eliminated as well. The Seven was cancelled on June 13, 2011. Manno's only assignment at MTV
MTV
post-Seven was conducting an interview with a band which only aired on MTV.com. Manno is no longer employed with MTV
MTV
and has since appeared as an occasional correspondent on the LXTV -produced NBC
NBC
series 1st Look.

Presently, MTV
MTV
airs sporadic live specials called MTV
MTV
First. The short program, produced by MTV
MTV
News, debuted in early 2011 and continues to air typically once every couple of weeks on any given weekday. The specials usually begin at 7:53 pm. ET, led by one of MTV News' correspondents who will conduct a live interview with a featured artist or actor who has come to MTV
MTV
to premiere a music video or movie trailer. MTV
MTV
starts its next scheduled program at 8:00 pm, while the interview and chat with fans continues on MTV.com for another 30 to 60 minutes. Since its debut in 2011, MTV
MTV
First has featured high-profile acts such as Lady Gaga
Lady Gaga
, Katy Perry
Katy Perry
, Usher and Justin Bieber
Justin Bieber
. In the absence of daily live programs such as TRL, It's on with Alexa Chung and The Seven to facilitate such segments, the channel now uses MTV First as its newest approach to present music video premieres and bring viewers from its main television channel to its website for real-time interaction with artists and celebrities.

On April 21, 2016, MTV
MTV
announced that new Unplugged episodes will begin airing as well as a weekly performance series called Wonderland. On that same day, immediately after the death of Prince , MTV interrupted its usual programming to air Prince's music videos. However, Wonderland was short lived. In 2017, the network shifted focus away from scripted to reality while keeping the notion from 2016 to incorporate more music. In July 2017, it was announced that TRL would be returning to the network on October 2, 2017.

OTHER PROGRAMS

MTV
MTV
HD logo

As MTV
MTV
expanded, music videos were no longer the centerpiece of its programming. Conventional television shows came to replace the VJ-guided music video programming. Today, MTV
MTV
presents a wide variety of non-music-related television shows aimed primarily at the 12- to 18-year-old demographic.

FIRST FORMAT EVOLUTION (1985–1991)

Further information: List of programs broadcast by MTV and List of MTV
MTV
award shows

In 1985, Viacom
Viacom
bought Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment , which owned MTV
MTV
and Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon
, renaming the company MTV Networks
MTV Networks
and beginning this expansion. Before 1987, MTV
MTV
featured almost exclusively music videos, but as time passed, they introduced a variety of other shows, including some that were originally intended for other channels. Ken Ober
Ken Ober
, host of the early MTV
MTV
game show Remote Control

Non-music video programming began in the late 1980s, with the introduction of a music news show The Week in Rock, which was also the beginning of MTV's news division, MTV
MTV
News. Around this time, MTV
MTV
also introduced a fashion news show, House of Style ; a dance show, Club MTV
MTV
; and a game show, Remote Control . Programs like these did not feature music videos, but they were still largely based around the world of music.

Following the success of the MTV Video Music Awards
MTV Video Music Awards
, in an effort to branch out from music into movies and broader pop culture, MTV
MTV
started the MTV Movie Awards
MTV Movie Awards
in 1992, which continues presently. MTV
MTV
also created an award show for Europe after the success of the Video Music Awards. The MTV Europe Music Awards
MTV Europe Music Awards
, or the EMAs, were created in 1994, ten years after the debut of the VMAs.

These new shows would be just the beginning of new genres of shows to make an impact on MTV. As the format of the network continued to evolve, more genres of shows began to appear. In the early 1990s, MTV debuted its first reality shows, The Real World
The Real World
and Road Rules .

REALITY PROGRAMS (1992–PRESENT)

Christina, a contestant on the pilot episode of MTV\'s Fear

During the latter half of the 1990s and early 2000s, MTV
MTV
placed a stronger focus on reality shows and related series, building on the success of The Real World
The Real World
and Road Rules. The first round of these shows came in the mid-1990s, with game shows such as Singled Out , reality-based comedy shows such as Buzzkill , and late-night talk shows such as The Jon Stewart Show and Loveline .

The next round of these shows came in approximately the late 1990s, as MTV
MTV
shifted its focus to prank/comedic shows such as The Tom Green Show and Jackass , and game shows such as The Challenge (aka Real World/ Road Rules Challenge), The Blame Game , webRIOT , and Say What? Karaoke . A year later, in 2000, MTV\'s Fear became one of the first scare-based reality shows and the first reality show in which contestants filmed themselves.

MTV
MTV
continued to experiment with late night talk shows in the early 2000s with relatively short-lived programs such as Kathy\'s So-Called Reality , starring Kathy Griffin
Kathy Griffin
, and The New Tom Green Show .

Some of the reality shows on the network also followed the lives of musicians. The Osbournes , a reality show based on the everyday life of Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath
frontman Ozzy Osbourne
Ozzy Osbourne
, his wife Sharon , and two of their children, Jack and Kelly , premiered on MTV
MTV
in 2002. The show went on to become one of the network's biggest-ever successes and was also recognized for the Osbourne family members' heavy use of profanity, which MTV
MTV
censored for broadcast. It also kick-started a musical career for Kelly Osbourne , while Sharon Osbourne went on to host her own self-titled talk show on US television. Production ended on The Osbournes in November 2004. In the fall of 2004, Ozzy Osbourne's reality show Battle for Ozzfest aired; the show hosted competitions between bands vying to play as part of Ozzfest
Ozzfest
, a yearly heavy metal music tour across the United States
United States
hosted by Osbourne.

In 2003, MTV
MTV
added Punk\'d , a project by Ashton Kutcher
Ashton Kutcher
to play pranks on various celebrities, and Pimp My Ride
Pimp My Ride
, a show about adding aesthetic and functional modifications to cars and other vehicles. Another show was Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica , a reality series that followed the lives of pop singers Jessica Simpson
Jessica Simpson
and Nick Lachey
Nick Lachey
, a music celebrity couple. It began in 2003 and ran for four seasons, ending in early 2005; the couple later divorced. The success of Newlyweds was followed in June 2004 by The Ashlee Simpson Show , which documented the beginnings of the music career of Ashlee Simpson
Ashlee Simpson
, Jessica Simpson's younger sister.

In 2005 and 2006, MTV
MTV
continued its focus on reality shows, with the debuts of shows such as 8th "> Pauly D and The Situation of Jersey Shore in 2011

In late 2009, MTV
MTV
shifted its focus back to Real World-style reality programming with the premiere of Jersey Shore , a program that brought high ratings to the channel and also caused controversy due to some of its content.

With backlash towards what some consider too much superficial content on the network, a 2009 New York Times article also stated the intention of MTV
MTV
to shift its focus towards more socially conscious media, which the article labels " MTV
MTV
for the Obama era." Shows in that vein included T.I.\'s Road to Redemption and Fonzworth Bentley 's finishing school show From G\'s to Gents .

The channel also aired a new show around this time titled 16 and Pregnant , which documented the lives of teenagers expecting babies. This had a follow-up show after the first season titled Teen Mom , which follows some of the teens through the first stages with their newborns.

MTV
MTV
found further success with The Buried Life , a program about four friends traveling across the country to check off a list of "100 things to do before I die" and helping others along the way. Another recent reality program is MTV's Hired, which follows the employment interviewing process; candidates meet with career coach Ryan Kahn from University of Dreams and at the end of each episode one candidate lands the job of their dreams.

In 2011, MTV
MTV
premiered an amateur video clip show Ridiculousness , in the vein of Tosh.0 on sister network Comedy Central
Comedy Central
. In 2012, Punk\'d returned with a revolving door of new hosts per episode. Meanwhile, spin-offs from Jersey Shore such as The Pauly D Project and Snooki & JWoww were produced. MTV
MTV
announced plans to re-enter the late-night comedy space in 2012, with Nikki "> One of many MTV
MTV
station IDs used during the 1980s; this one was designed by Henry Selick
Henry Selick
.

MTV's now-iconic logo was designed in 1981 by Manhattan Design (a collective formed by Frank Olinsky, Pat Gorman and Patty Rogoff) under the guidance of original creative director Fred Seibert . The block letter "M" was sketched by Rogoff, with the scribbled word "TV" spraypainted by Olinksky. The primary variant of MTV's logo at the time had the "M" in yellow and the "TV" in red. But unlike most television networks' logos at the time, the logo was constantly branded with different colors, patterns and images on a variety of station IDs. The only constant aspects of MTV's logo at the time were its general shape and proportions, with everything else being dynamic.

MTV
MTV
launched on August 1, 1981, with an extended network ID featuring the first landing on the moon (with still images acquired directly from NASA ), which was a concept of Seibert's executed by Buzz Potamkin and Perpetual Motion Pictures . The ID then cut to the American flag planted on the moon's surface changed to show the MTV logo on it, which rapidly changed into different colors and patterns several times per second as the network's original guitar-driven jingle was played for the first time. After MTV's launch, the "moon landing" ID was edited to show only its ending, and was shown at the top of every hour until early 1986, when the ID was scrapped in light of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
. The ID ran "more than 15,000 times each year" according to Seibert.

The channel's iconic "I want my MTV!" advertising campaign was launched in 1982. It was developed by George Lois and was based on a cereal commercial from the 1950s with the slogan "I want my Maypo!" that George created. The campaign featured popular artists and celebrities, including Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
, Pat Benatar
Pat Benatar
, Adam Ant
Adam Ant
, David Bowie , The Police
The Police
, Kiss , Culture Club
Culture Club
, Billy Idol
Billy Idol
, Hall "> Comparison of MTV's original 1980s branding and its 2010 branding

From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, MTV
MTV
updated its on-air appearance at the beginning of every year and each summer, creating a consistent brand across all of its music-related shows. This style of channel-wide branding came to an end as MTV
MTV
drastically reduced its number of music-related shows in the early to mid 2000s. Around this time, MTV
MTV
introduced a static and single color digital on-screen graphic to be shown during all of its programming.

Starting with the premiere of the short-lived program FNMTV in 2008, MTV
MTV
started using a revised and chopped down version of its original logo during most of its on-air programming. It became MTV's official logo on February 8, 2010 and officially debuted on its website. The channel's full name "Music Television" was officially dropped, with the revised logo largely the same as the original logo, but without the initialism, the bottom of the "M" being cropped and the "V" in "TV" being branched off. This change was most likely made to reflect MTV's more prominent focus on reality and comedy programming and less on music-related programming. However, much like the original logo, the new logo was designed to be filled in with a seemingly unlimited variety of images. It is used worldwide, but not everywhere existentially. The new logo was first used on MTV Films
MTV Films
logo with the 2010 film Jackass 3D . MTV's rebranding was overseen by Popkern .

On June 25, 2015, MTV International rebranded its on-air look with a new vaporwave and seapunk -inspired graphics package. It included a series of new station IDs featuring 3D renderings of objects and people, much akin to vaporwave and seapunk "aesthetics". Many have derided MTV's choice of rebranding, insisting that the artistic style was centered on denouncing corporate capitalism (many aesthetic pieces heavily incorporate corporate logos of the 1970s, 80s and 90s, which coincidentally include MTV's original logo) rather than being embraced by major corporations like MTV. Many have also suggested that MTV
MTV
made an attempt to be relevant in the modern entertainment world with the rebrand. In addition to this, the rebrand was made on exactly the same day that the social media site Tumblr introduced Tumblr TV , an animated GIF
GIF
viewer which featured branding inspired by MTV's original 1980s on-air look. Tumblr has been cited as a prominent location of aesthetic art, and thus many have suggested MTV
MTV
and Tumblr "switched identities". The rebrand also incorporated a modified version of MTV's classic "I Want My MTV!" slogan, changed to read "I Am My MTV". Vice has suggested that the slogan change represents "the current generation's movement towards self-examination, identity politics and apparent narccism." MTV
MTV
also introduced MTV
MTV
Bump , a website that allows Instagram
Instagram
and Vine
Vine
users to submit videos to be aired during commercial breaks, as well as MTV
MTV
Canvas , an online program where users submit custom IDs to also be aired during commercial breaks.

INFLUENCE AND CONTROVERSIES

The channel has been a target of criticism by various groups about programming choices, social issues, political correctness , sensitivity, censorship, and a perceived negative social influence on young people. Portions of the content of MTV's programs and productions have come under controversy in the general news media and among social groups that have taken offense. Some within the music industry criticized what they saw as MTV's homogenization of rock 'n' roll, including the punk band the Dead Kennedys
Dead Kennedys
, whose song "M.T.V. – Get Off the Air" was released on their 1985 album Frankenchrist
Frankenchrist
, just as MTV's influence over the music industry was being solidified. MTV
MTV
was also the major influence on the growth of music videos during the 1980s.

SUBSEQUENT CONCEPTS

HBO
HBO
also had a 30-minute program of music videos called Video Jukebox , that first aired around the time of MTV's launch and would last until late 1986. Also around this time, HBO, as well as other premium channels such as Cinemax
Cinemax
, Showtime and The Movie Channel
The Movie Channel
, would occasionally play one or a few music videos between movies.

SuperStation WTBS launched Night Tracks
Night Tracks
on June 3, 1983, with up to 14 hours of music video airplay each late night weekend by 1985. Its most noticeable difference was that black artists received airplay that MTV
MTV
initially ignored. The program ran until the end of May 1992.

A few markets also launched music-only channels including Las Vegas' KVMY (channel 21), which debuted in the summer of 1984 as KRLR-TV and branded as "Vusic 21". The first video played on that channel was "Video Killed the Radio Star", following in the footsteps of MTV.

Shortly after TBS began Night Tracks, NBC
NBC
launched a music video program called Friday Night Videos
Friday Night Videos
, which was considered network television's answer to MTV. Later renamed simply Friday Night, the program ran from 1983 to 2002. ABC's contribution to the music video program genre in 1984, ABC Rocks , was far less successful, lasting only a year.

TBS founder Ted Turner
Ted Turner
started the Cable Music Channel in 1984, designed to play a broader mix of music videos than MTV's rock format allowed. But after one month as a money-losing venture, Turner sold it to MTV, who redeveloped the channel into VH1.

Shortly after its launch, The Disney Channel
Disney Channel
aired a program called D-TV , a play on the MTV
MTV
acronym. The program used music cuts, both from current and past artists. Instead of music videos, the program used clips of various vintage Disney
Disney
cartoons and animated films to go with the songs. The program aired in multiple formats, sometimes between shows, sometimes as its own program, and other times as one-off specials. The specials tended to air both on The Disney Channel and NBC
NBC
. The program aired at various times between 1984 and 1999. In 2009, Disney Channel
Disney Channel
revived the D-TV concept with a new series of short-form segments called Re-Micks.

CENSORSHIP

Main article: Censorship on MTV

MTV
MTV
has edited a number of music videos to remove references to drugs, sex, violence, weapons, racism, homophobia and/or advertising. Many music videos aired on the channel were either censored, moved to late-night rotation, or banned entirely from the channel.

In the 1980s, parent media watchdog groups such as the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) criticized MTV
MTV
over certain music videos that were claimed to have explicit imagery of satanism . As a result, MTV developed a strict policy on refusal to air videos that may depict Satanism
Satanism
or anti-religious themes. This policy led MTV
MTV
to ban music videos such as " Jesus Christ Pose
Jesus Christ Pose
" by Soundgarden
Soundgarden
in 1991 and "Megalomaniac " by Incubus in 2004; however, the controversial band Marilyn Manson
Marilyn Manson
was among the most popular rock bands on MTV
MTV
during the late 1990s and early 2000s.

On September 28, 2016, on an AfterBuzz TV live stream, Scout Durwood said that MTV
MTV
had a "no appropriation policy " that forbid her from wearing her hair in cornrows in an episode of Mary + Jane . She said, "I wanted to cornrow my hair, and they were like, 'That's racist.'"

ANDREW DICE CLAY

During the 1989 MTV Video Music Awards
MTV Video Music Awards
ceremony, comedian Andrew Dice Clay did his usual "adult nursery rhymes" routine (which he had done in his stand-up acts), after which the network executives imposed a lifetime ban. Billy Idol
Billy Idol
's music video for the song "Cradle of Love " originally had scenes from Clay's film The Adventures of Ford Fairlane when it was originally aired; scenes from the film were later excised. During the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards
MTV Video Music Awards
, Clay was in attendance where he confirmed that the channel lifted the ban.

BEAVIS AND BUTT-HEAD

Main article: Beavis and Butt-head
Beavis and Butt-head
§ Allegations of promoting dangerous behavior

In the wake of controversy that involved a child burning down his house after allegedly watching Beavis and Butt-head, MTV
MTV
moved the show from its original 7 pm time slot to an 11 pm time slot. Also, Beavis' insane tendency to flick a lighter and yell "fire" was removed from new episodes, and controversial scenes were removed from existing episodes before their rebroadcast. Some extensive edits were noted by series creator Mike Judge after compiling his Collection DVDs , saying that "some of those episodes may not even exist actually in their original form."

DUDE, THIS SUCKS

A pilot for a show called Dude, This Sucks was canceled after teens attending a taping at the Snow Summit Ski Resort in January 2001 were sprayed with liquidized fecal matter by a group known as "The Shower Rangers". The teens later sued, with MTV
MTV
later apologizing and ordering the segment's removal.

SUPER BOWL XXXVIII HALFTIME SHOW

Main article: Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy

After Viacom
Viacom
's purchase of CBS
CBS
, MTV
MTV
was selected to produce the Super Bowl XXXV
Super Bowl XXXV
halftime show in 2001, airing on CBS
CBS
and featuring Britney Spears
Britney Spears
, NSYNC and Aerosmith
Aerosmith
. Due to its success, MTV
MTV
was invited back to produce another halftime show in 2004, which would spark a nationwide debate and controversy that would drastically change Super Bowl halftime shows, MTV's programming, and radio censorship.

When CBS
CBS
aired Super Bowl XXXVIII
Super Bowl XXXVIII
in 2004, MTV
MTV
was again chosen to produce the halftime show, with performances by such artists as Nelly , Diddy , Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
, and Justin Timberlake
Justin Timberlake
. The show became controversial, however, after Timberlake tore off part of Jackson's outfit while performing " Rock Your Body " with her, revealing her right breast. All involved parties apologized for the incident, and Timberlake referred to the incident as a "wardrobe malfunction ".

Michael Powell , former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission , ordered an investigation the day after broadcast. In the weeks following the halftime show, MTV
MTV
censored much of its programming. Several music videos, including "This Love " and "I Miss You ", were edited for sexual content. In September 2004, the FCC ruled that the halftime show was indecent and fined CBS
CBS
$550,000. The FCC upheld it in 2006, but federal judges reversed the fine in 2008.

The Super Bowl itself would not feature another modern act for its halftime show until The Black Eyed Peas
The Black Eyed Peas
performed at Super Bowl XLV in 2011.

Nipplegate

Timberlake and Jackson's controversial event gave way to a "wave of self-censorship on American television unrivaled since the McCarthy era". After the sudden event, names surfaced such as nipplegate , Janet moment, and boobgate , and this spread politically, furthering the discussion into the 2004 presidential election surrounding "moral values " and "media decency".

MORAL CRITICISM

The Christian right
Christian right
organization American Family Association
American Family Association
has also criticized MTV
MTV
from perceptions of negative moral influence, brutally describing MTV
MTV
as promoting a "pro-sex, anti-family, pro-choice, drug culture".

In 2005, the Parents Television Council (PTC) released a study titled " MTV
MTV
Smut Peddlers", which sought to expose excessive sexual, profane, and violent content on the channel, based on MTV's spring break programming from 2004. Jeanette Kedas, an MTV
MTV
network executive, called the PTC report "unfair and inaccurate" and "underestimating young people's intellect and level of sophistication", while L. Brent Bozell III , then-president of the PTC, stated: "the incessant sleaze on MTV
MTV
presents the most compelling case yet for consumer cable choice", referring to the practice of cable and satellite companies to allow consumers to pay for channels à la carte .

In April 2008, PTC released The Rap
Rap
on Rap, a study covering hip-hop and R&B music videos rotated on programs 106 Fight For Your Rights, encompassing anti-violence and anti-discrimination causes; think MTV; and MTV
MTV
Act and Power of 12, the newest umbrellas for MTV's social activism.

CHOOSE OR LOSE

MTV
MTV
Choose or Lose logo

In 1992, MTV
MTV
started a pro-democracy campaign called Choose or Lose, to encourage over 20 million people to register to vote, and the channel hosted a town hall forum for then-candidate Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
.

In recent years, other politically diverse programs on MTV
MTV
have included True Life , which documents people's lives and problems, and MTV News
MTV News
specials, which center on very current events in both the music industry and the world. One special show covered the 2004 US Presidential election, airing programs focused on the issues and opinions of young people, including a program where viewers could ask questions of Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
. MTV
MTV
worked with P. Diddy
P. Diddy
's "Vote or Die " campaign, designed to encourage young people to vote.

Additionally, MTV
MTV
aired a documentary covering a trip by the musical group Sum 41
Sum 41
to the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
, documenting the conflict there. The group ended up being caught in the midst of an attack outside of the hotel and were subsequently flown out of the country.

The channel also began showing presidential campaign commercials for the first time during the 2008 US presidential election . This has led to criticism, with Jonah Goldberg
Jonah Goldberg
opining that " MTV
MTV
serves as the Democrats\' main youth outreach program."

ROCK THE VOTE

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (September 2016)

Campaign to motivate young adults to register and vote.

MTV
MTV
ACT AND POWER OF 12

In 2012, MTV
MTV
launched MTV
MTV
Act and Power of 12, its current social activism campaigns. MTV
MTV
Act focuses on a wide array of social issues, while Power of 12 was a replacement for MTV's Choose or Lose and focused on the 2012 US presidential election .

ELECT THIS

In 2016, MTV
MTV
continued its pro-democracy campaign with Elect This, an issue-oriented look at the 2016 election targeting Millennials. Original content under the "Elect This" umbrella includes "Infographica," short animations summarizing MTV News
MTV News
polls; "Robo-Roundtable," a digital series hosted by animatronic robots; "The Racket," a multi-weekly digital series; and "The Stakes," a weekly political podcast.

BEYOND MTV

Since its launch in 1981, the brand "MTV" has expanded to include many additional properties beyond the original MTV
MTV
channel, including a variety of sister channels in the US, dozens of affiliated channels around the world, and an Internet presence through MTV.com and related websites.

SISTER CHANNELS IN THE US

Further information: MTV Networks
MTV Networks

MTV
MTV
operates a group of channels under MTV Networks
MTV Networks
– a name that continues to be used for the individual units of the now Viacom
Viacom
Media Networks , a division of corporate parent Viacom
Viacom
. In 1985, MTV
MTV
saw the introduction of its first true sister channel, VH1
VH1
, which was originally an acronym for "Video Hits One" and was designed to play adult contemporary music videos. Today, VH1
VH1
is aimed at celebrity and popular culture programming which include many reality shows. Another sister channel, CMT , targets the country music and southern culture market.

The advent of satellite television and digital cable brought MTV greater channel diversity, including its current sister channels MTV2 and MTV
MTV
Tr3́s (now Tr3́s ), which initially played music videos exclusively but now focus on other programming. MTV
MTV
also broadcasts MTVU
MTVU
, a college-oriented channel on campus at various universities.

In the 2000s, MTV
MTV
launched MTV
MTV
HD, a 1080i
1080i
high definition simulcast feed of MTV. Until Viacom's main master control was upgraded in 2013, only the network's original series after 2010 (with some pre-2010 content) are broadcast in high definition, while music videos, despite being filmed for high definition presentation, were presented in 4:3 standard definition , forcing them into a windowboxing type of presentation; since that time all music videos are presented in HD when available, depending on director's preference. Jersey Shore, despite being shot with widescreen HD cameras, is also presented with SD windowboxing. Pay television providers such as DirecTV
DirecTV
, Dish Network , Comcast
Comcast
, Time Warner Cable , AT"> MTV.com in 2008

In the late 1980s, before the World Wide Web , MTV
MTV
VJ Adam Curry began experimenting on the Internet. He registered the then-unclaimed domain name "MTV.com" in 1993 with the idea of being MTV's unofficial new voice on the Internet. Although this move was sanctioned by his supervisors at MTV Networks
MTV Networks
at the time, when Curry left to start his own web-portal design and hosting company, MTV
MTV
subsequently sued him for the domain name, which led to an out-of-court settlement.

The service hosted at the domain name was originally branded "MTV Online" during MTV's first few years of control over it in the mid-1990s. It served as a counterpart to the America Online
America Online
portal for MTV
MTV
content, which existed at AOL keyword MTV
MTV
until approximately the end of the 1990s. After this time, the website became known as simply "MTV.com" and served as the Internet hub for all MTV
MTV
and MTV
MTV
News content.

MTV.com experimented with entirely video-based layouts between 2005 and 2007. The experiment began in April 2005 as MTV
MTV
Overdrive, a streaming video service that supplemented the regular MTV.com website. Shortly after the 2006 Video Music Awards , which were streamed on MTV.com and heavily utilized the MTV
MTV
Overdrive features, MTV introduced a massive change for MTV.com, transforming the entire site into a Flash video-based entity. Much of users' feedback about the Flash-based site was negative, demonstrating a dissatisfaction with videos that played automatically, commercials that could not be skipped or stopped, and the slower speed of the entire website. The experiment ended in February 2006 as MTV.com reverted to a traditional HTML
HTML
-based website design with embedded video clips, in the style of YouTube and some other video-based websites.

From 2006 to 2007, MTV
MTV
operated an online channel, MTV
MTV
International , targeted to the broad international market. The purpose of the online channel was to air commercial-free music videos once the television channels started concentrating on shows unrelated to music videos or music-related programming.

The channel responded to the rise of the Internet as the new central place to watch music videos in October 2008 by launching MTV
MTV
Music (later called MTV Hive ), a website that featured thousands of music videos from MTV
MTV
and VH1
VH1
's video libraries, dating back to the earliest videos from 1981.

A newly created division of the company, MTV
MTV
New Media, announced in 2008 that it would produce its own original web series, in an attempt to create a bridge between old and new media. The programming is available to viewers via personal computers, cell phones, iPods , and other digital devices.

In the summer of 2012, MTV
MTV
launched a music discovery web site called Artists. MTV
MTV
. MTV
MTV
stated, "While technology has made it way easier for artists to produce and distribute their own music on their own terms, it hasn't made it any simpler to find a way to cut through all the Internet noise and speak directly to all of their potential fans. The summer launch of Artists. MTV
MTV
is an attempt to help music junkies and musicians close the gap by providing a one-stop place where fans can listen to and buy music and purchase concert tickets and merchandise."

Today, MTV.com remains the official website of MTV, and it expands on the channel's broadcasts by bringing additional content to its viewers. The site's features include an online version of MTV
MTV
News, podcasts, a commercial streaming service, movie features, profiles and interviews with recording artists and from MTV's television programs.

MTV
MTV
AROUND THE WORLD

Further information: List of MTV channels
List of MTV channels

MTV Networks
MTV Networks
has launched numerous native-language regional variants of MTV-branded channels to countries around the world.

SEE ALSO

* United States
United States
portal * Television portal

* Censorship on MTV * First music videos aired on MTV * List of MTV award shows * List of MTV channels
List of MTV channels
* List of MTV VJs * List of programs broadcast by MTV * MTV Generation
MTV Generation
* MTV News
MTV News
* MTV Europe
MTV Europe
* Viacom
Viacom
Media Networks * Music industry
Music industry

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Blackwood, Nina/Goodman, Mark/Hunter, Alan/Quinn, Martha/Edwards, Gavin (2013). VJ: The Unplugged Adventures of MTV's First Wave. Atria. ISBN 1-4516-7812-6 . * Denisoff, R. Serge (1988). Inside MTV. Transaction. ISBN 0-88738-864-7 . * McGrath, Tom (1996). MTV: The Making of a Revolution. Running Pr. ISBN 1-56138-703-7 . * MTV
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(2001). MTV
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Uncensored. MTV. ISBN 0-7434-2682-7 . * Prato, Greg (2011). MTV
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Ruled the World: The Early Years of Music Video. Createspace. ISBN 0-578-07197-5 . * Tannenbaum, Rob/Marks, Craig (2012). I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution. Plume. ISBN 0-452-29856-3 .

FURTHER READING

* Merchants of Cool (PBS)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official website * Directory of MTV
MTV
sites * MTV
MTV
on Google+
Google+

* v * t * e

Viacom
Viacom

CORPORATE DIRECTORS

* Bob Bakish (CEO) * Ellen V. Futter *

.