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The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party ( pt, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho, MPLA), is a left-wing
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or polic ...
that has ruled
Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante"() , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Luanda , religion = , religion_year = 2015 , religion_ref = , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_la ...
since the country's independence from
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
in 1975. The MPLA fought against the
Portuguese army The Portuguese Army ( pt, Exército Português) is the land component of the Armed Forces of Portugal and is also its largest branch. It is charged with the defence of Portugal, in co-operation with other branches of the Armed Forces. With its ori ...
in the
Angolan War of Independence The Angolan War of Independence (; 1961–1974), called in Angola the ''Luta Armada de Libertação Nacional'' ("Armed Struggle of National Liberation"), began as an uprising against forced cultivation of cotton, and it became a multi-facti ...
from 1961 to 1974, and defeated the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (
UNITA The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA, pt, União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola. Founded in 1966, UNITA fought alongside the Popular Movement for the Libe ...
) and the
National Liberation Front of Angola The National Front for the Liberation of Angola ( pt, Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola; abbreviated FNLA) is a political party and former militant organisation that fought for Angolan independence from Portugal in the war of independence, ...
(FNLA), two other anti-colonial movements, in the
Angolan Civil War The Angolan Civil War ( pt, Guerra Civil Angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The war was a ...
of 1975–2002.


Formation

On December 10, 1956, in Estado Novo-ruled
Portuguese Angola Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it was known until 1951 as Portuguese West Africa (officially the State of West Africa). Init ...
, the tiny underground
Angolan Communist Party Angolan Communist Party (in Portuguese: ''Partido Comunista Angolano'') was an underground political party in Portuguese Angola (during the Estado Novo regime), founded in October 1955, under influence from the Portuguese Communist Party. PCA was l ...
(PCA) merged with the
Party of the United Struggle for Africans in Angola Party of the United Struggle for Africans in Angola (in Portuguese: ''Partido da Luta Unida dos Africanos de Angola''; abbreviated: PLUA) is the first political party in Angola to advocate Angolan independence from Portugal, campaigning from its fou ...
(PLUA) to form the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, with
Viriato da CruzViriato Clemente da Cruz (25 March 1928 – 13 June 1973) was an Angolan poet and politician, who was born in Kikuvo, Porto Amboim, Portuguese Angola, and died in Beijing, People's Republic of China. He is considered one of the most important Angolan ...
, the President of the PCA, as Secretary General. Later other groups merged into MPLA, such as
Movement for the National Independence of Angola The Movement for the National Independence of Angola (in Portuguese: ''Movimento para a Independência Nacional de Angola'') was a political party in Angola, formed in 1958. MINA later merged with other parties to form the Popular Movement for the ...
(MINA) and the
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Angola The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Angola (FDLA) was a political movement in colonial Angola. FDLA was set up as a parallel structure to the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), supported by the government of Congo-Brazzav ...
(FDLA). The MPLA's core base includes the
Ambundu The Ambundu or Mbundu (Mbundu: , singular: ) (distinct from the Ovimbundu) are a Bantu people living in Angola's North-West, North of the river Kwanza. The Ambundu speak Kimbundu, and mostly also the official language of the country, Portugue ...
ethnic group and the educated
intelligentsia The intelligentsia () ( la, intelligentia, pl, inteligencja, rus, интеллигенция, intyelligyentsiya, p=ɪntʲɪlʲɪˈɡʲentsɨjə) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead ...
of the capital city,
Luanda Luanda (), is the capital and largest city in Angola. It is Angola's primary port, and its major industrial, cultural and urban centre. Located on Angola's northern Atlantic coast, Luanda is Angola's administrative centre, its chief seaport, a ...
. The party formerly had links to European and
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
communist parties A communist party is a left-wing political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism. The term ''communist party'' was popularized by the title of ''The Manifesto of the Communist Party'' (1848) by Karl Marx and Frie ...
but is now a full-member of the
Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide organisation of political parties which seek to establish democratic socialism. It consists mostly of democratic socialist, social-democratic and labour political parties and other organisations. ...
grouping of
social democratic#REDIRECT Social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ... {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R f ...
parties. The armed wing of MPLA was the
People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola The People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola ( pt, Forças Armadas Populares de Libertação de Angola) or FAPLA was originally the armed wing of the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) but later (1975–1991) became Angola ...
(FAPLA). The FAPLA later became the national armed forces of the country. In 1961, the MPLA joined the
African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde ( pt, Partido Africano para a Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, PAIGC) is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. Originally formed to peacefully campaign for independence from Por ...
(PAIGC), its
fraternal party A fraternal party is a political party officially affiliated with another, often larger or international, political party or governmental party, or several of them, notably when these share a political ideology. They may express this 'fraternity' b ...
in
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau (; pt, Guiné-Bissau, ff, 𞤘𞤭𞤲𞤫 𞤄𞤭𞤧𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤮 Gine-Bisaawo, Mandinka: ߖߌߣߍ ߺ ߓߌߛߊߥߏ߫ ''Gine-Bisawo''), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau ( pt, República da Guiné-Bissau ), is a country ...
and
Cabo Verde , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese , national_languages = Cape Verdean Creole , capital = Praia , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , demonym = Cape Verdean or Cabo Verdean , ethnic_groups_year = 2017 , government_ty ...
, in direct combat against the
Portuguese empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies and territories governed ...
in Africa. The following year, the expanded umbrella group
Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese ColoniesThe Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies ( pt, Conferência das Organizações Nacionalistas das Colónias Portuguesas ''CONCP'') was an organization for coordination and cooperation between the national liberation moveme ...
(CONCP) replaced FRAIN, adding
FRELIMO FRELIMO (), from the Portuguese ( Liberation Front of Mozambique), is the dominant political party in Mozambique. Founded in 1962, FRELIMO began as a nationalist movement fighting for the independence of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Moza ...
of
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and ...
and the CLSTP, forerunner of the
Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as movement Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * "Movement", a short story by Nancy Fulda * ''T ...
(MLSTP). In the early 1970s, the MPLA's guerrilla activities were more and more reduced, due to the counter-insurgency campaigns of the
Portuguese military The Portuguese Armed Forces ( pt, Forças Armadas) are the military of Portugal. They include the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the other unified bodies and the three service branches: Portuguese Navy, Portuguese Army and Portuguese Air Force ...
. At the same time, internal conflicts caused the movement to temporarily split up into three factions (Ala Presicencialista, Revolta Activa and Revolta do Leste) – a situation which was overcome in 1974/75, but left profound scars.


Independence and civil war

The
Carnation Revolution The Carnation Revolution ( pt, Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April ( pt, 25 de Abril, links=no), was initially a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime. The revolution began as a co ...
in
Lisbon Lisbon (; Portuguese: Lisboa; ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's administrati ...
,
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
in 1974 established a military government that promptly ceased anti-independence fighting in Angola and agreed to hand over power to a coalition of three pro-independence Angolan movements. The coalition quickly broke down and the newly independent Angola broke into a state of
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or t ...
. Maintaining control over Luanda and the lucrative oil fields of the Atlantic coastline,
Agostinho Neto António Agostinho Neto (17 September 1922 – 10 September 1979) was an Angolan politician and poet. He served as the 1st President of Angola (1975–1979), having led the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the war for in ...

Agostinho Neto
, the leader of the MPLA, declared the independence of the Portuguese
Overseas Province of Angola Overseas may refer to: *''Overseas'' (album), a 1957 album by pianist Tommy Flanagan and his trio *Overseas (band), an American indie rock band *"Overseas" (song), a 2018 song by American rappers Desiigner and Lil Pump *"Overseas" (Tee Grizzley song ...
as the
People's Republic of Angola The People's Republic of Angola () was the self-declared socialist state which governed Angola from its independence in 1975 until 25 August 1992, during the Angolan Civil War. History The regime was established in 1975, after Portuguese Angola, ...
on November 11, 1975, in accordance with the Alvor Accords. UNITA and FNLA together declared Angolan independence in
Huambo Huambo, formerly Nova Lisboa (English: ''New Lisbon''), is the third largest city in Angola, after the capital city Luanda and Lubango, with a population of 595,304 in the city and a population of 713,134 in the municipality of Huambo (Census 2014 ...

Huambo
. These differences reignited civil war between UNITA & FNLA and the MPLA, with the latter winning the upper hand. Agostinho Neto became the first president upon independence, and he was succeeded after his death by
José Eduardo dos Santos José Eduardo dos Santos (; born 28 August 1942)W. Martin James and Susan Herlin Broadhead, ''Historical Dictionary of Angola'' (2004), Scarecrow Press, page 145. is an Angolan politician who served as President of Angola from 1979 to 2017. As Pr ...
in 1979. In 1974/76,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities: e ...
intervened militarily in favor of FNLA and UNITA, and
Zaire Zaire (), officially the Republic of Zaire (french: République du Zaïre ), was the name of a sovereign state between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa that is now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was, by area, the largest c ...
and the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
also heavily aided the two groups.
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Car ...
deployed thousands of troops in 1975 to aid the MPLA against South African intervention, with the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
aiding both Cuba and the MPLA government during the war. In November 1980, the MPLA had all but pushed UNITA into the bush, and the South African forces withdrew. The
United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washingto ...
barred further U.S. military involvement in the country against the wishes of President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and became a highly influential voice of modern conservatism. Prior to his presidency ...
, fearing another
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...
-style quagmire. In 1976 the FNLA withdrew its troops to their bases in Zaire, while part of them joined the 32 Battalion formed by South Africa in order to receive anti-MPLA Angolans. At its first congress, in 1977, the MPLA adopted
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's popu ...
as the party ideology and added ''Partido do Trabalho'' (Labour Party) to its name. After
Nito Alves Nito Alves (1945Fauvet, Paul. "Angola: The Rise and Fall of Nito Alves". ''Review of African Political Economy'', No. 9, Southern Africa. (May – Aug., 1977), pp. 88–104.–1977) was an Angolan politician who served as the Interior Minister of ...
's attempted ''coup'' in 1977, Neto ordered the killing of suspected followers and sympathisers of "orthodox communism" inside and outside the party. During the coup, Cuban forces stationed in Angola sided with the MPLA leadership against the coup organizers. Estimates for the number of Nito Alves followers killed by Cuban and MPLA troops in the aftermath, range from 2,000 to 70,000 dead, with some placing the death toll at 18,000 killed. After the violent internal conflict called
Fractionism Fractionism (Angolan Portuguese: ''fraccionismo'') was a political movement in Angola during the 1970s. Description Fractionism culminated in the attempted coup d'etat on 27 May 1977 against Agostinho Neto, led by a leading figure of the MPLA ('' ...
, it made it clear that it would follow the socialist, not the communist, model. However, it maintained close ties with the Soviet Union and the Communist bloc, establishing
socialist Socialism is a political, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production.Arnold, N. Scott (1998). ''The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socia ...
economic policies and a
one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are e ...
. Several thousand Cuban troops remained in the country to combat UNITA fighters and bolster the regime's security. When the Cold War ended in 1991, the MPLA abandoned its Marxist–Leninist ideology, and on its third congress in December, the party declared
social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy#REDIRECT Social democracy {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
to be its official ideology. The MPLA emerged victorious in Angola's 1992 general election, but eight opposition parties rejected the election as rigged. UNITA sent negotiators to the Luanda, where they were killed. As a consequence, hostilities erupted in the city, and immediately spread to other parts of the country. Tens of thousands of UNITA and FNLA sympathizers were subsequently killed nationwide by MPLA forces, in what is known as the Halloween Massacre, and the civil war resumed.Historical Dictionary of Angola by W. Martin James, Susan Herlin Broadhead
on Google Books
The war continued until 2002, when UNITA leader
Jonas Savimbi Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (; 3 August 1934 – 22 February 2002) was an Angolan revolutionary politician and military leader who founded and led the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). UNITA waged a guerrilla war against Po ...

Jonas Savimbi
was killed. The two parties promptly agreed to a ceasefire, and a plan was laid out for UNITA to demobilize and become a political party. Over 500,000 civilians were killed during the civil war. Human rights observers have accused the MPLA of "genocidal atrocities," "systematic extermination," "war crimes" and "crimes against humanity during the civil war." Political scientist
Rudolph Rummel Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was a political scientist and professor at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaiʻi. He spent his career studying data on collective violence and war with a view ...
estimated that the MPLA were responsible for between 100,000 and 200,000 deaths in
democide Democide is a concept proposed by U.S. political scientist Rudolph Rummel to describe "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high co ...
from 1975 to 1987.


Human rights record

The MPLA government of Angola has been accused of
human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for certain standards of human ...
violations such as
arbitrary arrest and detention Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law o ...
and torture by international organisations, including
Amnesty International Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization with its headquarters in the United Kingdom focused on human rights. The organization says it has more than seven million members and supporters around t ...
and
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization, headquartered in New York City, that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. The group pressures governments, policy makers, companies, and individual human r ...
. In response, the MPLA government hired Samuels International Associates Inc in 2008 to help improve Angola's global image.


Party organizations

At present, major mass organizations of the MPLA-PT include the
Angolan Women's Organization The Organization of Angolan Women (Portuguese: Organização Mulher Angolana (OMA)) is a political organisation in Angola, which was founded in 1962 to target women to support the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola. History The Organi ...
(''Organização da Mulher Angolana''), National Union of Angolan Workers (''União Nacional dos Trabalhadores Angolanos''), Agostinho Neto Pioneer Organization (''Organização de Pioneiros de Agostinho Neto''), and the
Youth of MPLA The Youth of MPLA (in Portuguese, ''Juventude do MPLA'', JMPLA) is a major mass organization within the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour, along with the Organização da Mulher Angolana (Angolan Women's Organization), ...
(''Juventude do MPLA'').


Foreign support

During both the
Portuguese Colonial War The Portuguese Colonial War ( pt, Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War () or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (), was a thirteen year long conflict fought between Portugal's military and the emergi ...
and the
Angolan Civil War The Angolan Civil War ( pt, Guerra Civil Angolana) was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The war was a ...
, the MPLA received military and humanitarian support primarily from the governments of
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Other languag ...
, the
Bulgarian People's Republic The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; bg, Народна Република България (НРБ), ''Narodna Republika Bălgariya (NRB)'') was the official name of Bulgaria, when it was a socialist republic that existed from 1946 to 1990 ru ...
,
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, the period when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the ...
,
Cape Verde Islands , national_anthem = () , official_languages = Portuguese , national_languages = Cape Verdean Creole , capital = Praia , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , demonym = Cape Verdean or Cabo Verdean , ethnic_groups_year = 2017 , government_ty ...
,
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech and sk, Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 to 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Unio ...
, the Congo,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Car ...
,
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau (; pt, Guiné-Bissau, ff, 𞤘𞤭𞤲𞤫 𞤄𞤭𞤧𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤮 Gine-Bisaawo, Mandinka: ߖߌߣߍ ߺ ߓߌߛߊߥߏ߫ ''Gine-Bisawo''), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau ( pt, República da Guiné-Bissau ), is a country ...
,
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Moro ...
, the Mozambican People's Republic,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It borders Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlanti ...
,
North Korea North Korea (Korean: /, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or DPR Korea; Korean: /, ''Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Kong ...
, the
Polish People's Republic The Polish People's Republic ( pl, Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 and the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland. With a population of approximately 37.9 million near t ...
,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
, the
Romanian Socialist Republic The Socialist Republic of Romania ( ro, Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a Marxist–Leninist one-party communist state that existed officially in Romania from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's ...
,
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe (; ), (English: Saint Thomas and Prince) officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe ( pt, República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe), is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western ...
,
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
, the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
,
Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, ...
,
Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes regio ...
,
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībīyā), officially the State of Libya, ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībīyā) is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the sout ...
and
SFR Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in ...
. While China did briefly support the MPLA, it also actively supported the MPLA's enemies, the FNLA and later UNITA, during the war for independence and the civil war. The switch was the result of tensions between China and the Soviet Union for dominance of the communist bloc, which almost led to war.


Electoral history

In the 1992 elections, MPLA-PT won 53.74% of the votes and 129 out of 227 seats in parliament; however, eight opposition parties rejected the 1992 elections as rigged election, rigged.National Society for Human Rights, ''Ending the Angolan Conflict'', Windhoek, Namibia, July 3, 2000 In the Angolan parliamentary election, 2008, next election, delayed until 2008 due to the civil war, the MPLA won 81.64% of the vote and 191 out of 220 parliamentary seats. In the Angolan legislative election, 2012, 2012 legislative election, the party won 71.84% of the vote and 175 of 220 parliamentary seats."Eleicoes Gerais 2012: Resultados"
Comissao Nacional Eleitoral Angola. Retrieved November 29, 2012.


Presidential elections


National Assembly elections


In popular culture

In 1976, reggae singer Tapper Zukie dedicated the song and album titled "MPLA" to the movement, and in the same year, Pablo Moses dedicated the song "We Should be in Angola" which appeared on his album ''Revolutionary Dream''. The Sex Pistols singer John Lydon referred to the MPLA in the lyrics of "Anarchy in the U.K.". The reggae band The Revolutionaries also devoted an extended Dub music, dub mix record to the movement entitled ''MPLA'', recorded at Channel One Studios, Channel One, engineered by King Tubby and released on the "Well Charge" label. The bass line and rhythm was based on "Freedom Blues" by Little Richard. In the same year, The Revolutionaries released an extended discomix entitled "Angola". Both tracks were later released on the ''Revolutionary Sounds'' album, featuring Sly and Robbie and recorded at Channel One. The video game "Call of Duty: Black Ops II, Call of Duty: Black Ops 2" also featured the MPLA in a level where the player fought alongside the UNITA.


See also

*African independence movements *Cuban intervention in Angola *History of Angola *List of current Angolan ministers (all MPLA members) *Mário Pinto de Andrade *Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem


References


Further reading

*David Birmingham, ''A Short History of Modern Angola'', Hurst 2015. *Inge Brinkmann, ''War, Witches and Traitors: Cases from the MPLA's Eastern Front in Angola (1966–1975)'', ''Journal of African History'', 44, 2003, pp. 303–325 *Mario Albano, ''Angola: una rivoluzione in marcia'', Jaca Book, Milano, 1972 * Lúcio Lara, ''Um amplo movimento: Itinerário do MPLA através de documentos e anotações'', vol. I, ''Até Fevereiro de 1961'', 2ª ed., Luanda: Lúcio & Ruth Lara, 1998, vol. II, ''1961-1962'', Luanda: Lúcio Lara, 2006, vol. III, ''1963-1964'', Luanda: Lúcio Lara, 2008


External links


MPLA official siteMPLA campaign site
{{Authority control MPLA, Angolan nationalism History of Angola Military history of Angola Collaborators with the Soviet Union Parties of one-party systems Political parties in Angola Portuguese Angola Separatism in Angola Separatism in Portugal Paramilitary organizations based in Angola Formerly ruling communist parties