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MPEG-2
MPEG-2
(a.k.a. H.222/ H.262
H.262
as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".[1] It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth. While MPEG-2
MPEG-2
is not as efficient as newer standards such as H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
and H.265/HEVC, backwards compatibility with existing hardware and software means it is still widely used, for example in over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video
DVD-Video
standard.

Contents

1 Main characteristics

1.1 Systems 1.2 Video 1.3 Audio

1.3.1 MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 3 1.3.2 MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 7

2 ISO/IEC 13818 3 History 4 Filename extensions 5 Applications

5.1 DVD-Video 5.2 HDV 5.3 MOD and TOD 5.4 XDCAM 5.5 DVB 5.6 ATSC 5.7 ISDB-T 5.8 Blu-ray

6 Patent
Patent
pool 7 Patents (U.S. only) 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Main characteristics[edit] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. It also specifies the format of movies and other programs that are distributed on DVD
DVD
and similar discs. TV stations, TV receivers, DVD
DVD
players, and other equipment are often designed to this standard. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
was the second of several standards developed by the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) and is an international standard (ISO/IEC 13818). Parts 1 and 2 of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
were developed in a collaboration with ITU-T, and they have a respective catalog number in the ITU-T Recommendation Series. While MPEG-2
MPEG-2
is the core of most digital television and DVD
DVD
formats, it does not completely specify them. Regional institutions can adapt it to their needs by restricting and augmenting aspects of the standard. See Video profiles and levels. Systems[edit] See also: MPEG program stream and MPEG
MPEG
transport stream MPEG-2
MPEG-2
includes a Systems section, part 1, that defines two distinct, but related, container formats. One is the transport stream, a data packet format designed to transmit one data packet in four ATM data packets for streaming digital video and audio over fixed or mobile transmission mediums, where the beginning and the end of the stream may not be identified, such as radio frequency, cable and linear recording mediums, examples of which include ATSC/DVB/ISDB/SBTVD broadcasting, and HDV
HDV
recording on tape. The other is the program stream, an extended version of the MPEG-1
MPEG-1
container format with less overhead than transport stream. Program stream is designed for random access storage mediums such as hard disk drives, optical discs and flash memory. Transport stream file formats include M2TS, which is used on Blu-ray discs, AVCHD
AVCHD
on re-writable DVDs and HDV
HDV
on compact flash cards. Program stream files include VOB on DVDs and Enhanced VOB on the short lived HD DVD. The standard MPEG-2
MPEG-2
transport stream contains packets of 188 bytes. M2TS prepends each packet with 4 bytes containing a 2-bit copy permission indicator and 30-bit timestamp. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Systems is formally known as ISO/IEC 13818-1 and as ITU-T Rec. H.222.0.[2][3] ISO authorized the " SMPTE
SMPTE
Registration Authority, LLC" as the registration authority for MPEG-2
MPEG-2
format identifiers. The registration descriptor of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
transport is provided by ISO/IEC 13818-1 in order to enable users of the standard to unambiguously carry data when its format is not necessarily a recognized international standard. This provision will permit the MPEG-2 transport standard to carry all types of data while providing for a method of unambiguous identification of the characteristics of the underlying private data.[4] Video[edit] Main article: H.262/ MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 2 The Video section, part 2 of MPEG-2, is similar to the previous MPEG-1 standard, but also provides support for interlaced video, the format used by analog broadcast TV systems. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video is not optimized for low bit-rates, especially less than 1 Mbit/s at standard definition resolutions. All standards-compliant MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Video decoders are fully capable of playing back MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Video streams conforming to the Constrained Parameters Bitstream syntax. MPEG-2/Video is formally known as ISO/IEC 13818-2 and as ITU-T Rec. H.262.[5] With some enhancements, MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Video and Systems are also used in some HDTV transmission systems, and is the standard format for over-the-air ATSC
ATSC
digital television. Audio[edit] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
introduces new audio encoding methods compared to MPEG-1:[6] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 3[edit] Main article: MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 3 The MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Audio section, defined in Part 3 (ISO/IEC 13818-3) of the standard, enhances MPEG-1's audio by allowing the coding of audio programs with more than two channels, up to 5.1 multichannel. This method is backwards-compatible (also known as MPEG-2
MPEG-2
BC[7][8][9][10]), allowing MPEG-1
MPEG-1
audio decoders to decode the two main stereo components of the presentation.[11] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
part 3 also defined additional bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio Layer I, II and III.[12] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
BC (backward compatible with MPEG-1
MPEG-1
audio formats)[7][8][11]

low bitrate encoding with halved sampling rate ( MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer 1/2/3 LSF - a.k.a. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
LSF - "Low Sampling Frequencies") multichannel encoding with up to 5.1 channels, a.k.a. MPEG Multichannel

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Part 7[edit] Main article: Advanced Audio Coding Part 7 (ISO/IEC 13818-7) of the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standard specifies a rather different, non-backwards-compatible audio format[9] (also known as MPEG-2
MPEG-2
NBC[7][8][13]). Part 7 is referred to as MPEG-2
MPEG-2
AAC. AAC is more efficient than the previous MPEG
MPEG
audio standards, and is in some ways less complicated than its predecessor, MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio, Layer 3, in that it does not have the hybrid filter bank. It supports from 1 to 48 channels at sampling rates of 8 to 96 kHz, with multichannel, multilingual, and multiprogram capabilities.[6] Advanced Audio is also defined in Part 3 of the MPEG-4 standard. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
NBC (Non-Backward Compatible)[7][8]

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
AAC multichannel encoding with up to 48 channels

ISO/IEC 13818[edit] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards are published as parts of ISO/IEC 13818. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification.

Part 1 Systems – describes synchronization and multiplexing of video and audio. (It is also known as ITU-T Rec. H.222.0.[2]) See MPEG
MPEG
transport stream and MPEG
MPEG
program stream. Part 2 Video – video coding format for interlaced and non-interlaced video signals (Also known as ITU-T Rec. H.262). Part 3 Audio – audio coding format for perceptual coding of audio signals. A multichannel-enabled extension and extension of bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio Layer I, II and III of MPEG-1
MPEG-1
audio. Part 4 Describes procedures for testing compliance. Part 5 Describes systems for Software simulation. Part 6 Describes extensions for DSM-CC (Digital Storage Media Command and Control). Part 7 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC). Part 8 10-bit video extension. Primary application was studio video, allowing artifact-free processing without giving up compression. Part 8 has been withdrawn due to lack of interest by industry. Part 9 Extension for real time interfaces. Part 10 Conformance extensions for DSM-CC. Part 11 Intellectual property management (IPMP)

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Parts[14][15]

Part Number First public release date (First edition) Latest public release date (edition) Latest amend- ment Identical ITU-T Rec. Title Description

Part 1 ISO/IEC 13818-1 1996 2015 2016[16] H.222.0 Systems

Part 2 ISO/IEC 13818-2 1996 2013

H.262 Video

Part 3 ISO/IEC 13818-3 1995 1998

Audio MPEG-2
MPEG-2
BC - backwards compatible with MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio

Part 4 ISO/IEC 13818-4 1998 2004 2009[17]

Conformance testing

Part 5 ISO/IEC TR 13818-5 1997 2005

Software simulation

Part 6 ISO/IEC 13818-6 1998 1998 2001[18]

Extensions for DSM-CC extensions for Digital Storage Media Command and Control[19][20]

Part 7 ISO/IEC 13818-7 1997 2006 2007[21]

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) MPEG-2
MPEG-2
NBC Audio - Non-Backwards Compatible with MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio

Part 8 dropped

10-Bit Video The work began in 1995, but was terminated in 2007 because of low industry interest.[22][23]

Part 9 ISO/IEC 13818-9 1996 1996

Extension for real time interface for systems decoders

Part 10 ISO/IEC 13818-10 1999 1999

Conformance extensions for Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)

Part 11 ISO/IEC 13818-11 2004 2004

IPMP on MPEG-2
MPEG-2
systems Intellectual Property Management and Protection on the MPEG-2 system[24][25] (XML IPMP messages are also defined in ISO/IEC 23001-3[26])

History[edit] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
evolved out of the shortcomings of MPEG-1. MPEG-1's known weaknesses:

An audio compression system limited to two channels (stereo). No standardized support for interlaced video with poor compression when used for interlaced video Only one standardized "profile" (Constrained Parameters Bitstream), which was unsuited for higher resolution video. MPEG-1
MPEG-1
could support 4k video but there was no easy way to encode video for higher resolutions, and identify hardware capable of supporting it, as the limitations of such hardware were not defined. Support for only one chroma subsampling, 4:2:0.

Sakae Okubo of NTT was also the ITU-T coordinator for developing the H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2
H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2
video coding standard and the requirements chairman in MPEG
MPEG
for the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
set of standards.[27]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

Filename extensions[edit] .mpg, .mpeg, .m2v, .mp2, mp3 are some of a number of filename extensions used for MPEG-1
MPEG-1
or MPEG-2
MPEG-2
audio and video file formats. Applications[edit] DVD-Video[edit] Main article: DVD-Video The DVD-Video
DVD-Video
standard uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video, but imposes some restrictions:

Allowed Dimensions

720 × 480, 704 × 480, 352 × 480, 352 × 240 pixel (NTSC) 720 × 576, 704 × 576, 352 × 576, 352 × 288 pixel (PAL)

Allowed Aspect ratios (Display AR)

4:3 (for letterboxed widescreen and non-widescreen frames) 16:9 (for anamorphic widescreen[dvdaspect 1])

^ 1.85:1 and 2.35:1, among others, are often listed as valid DVD aspect ratios, but are wider film aspects with letterbox style padding to create a 16:9 image

Allowed frame rates

29.97 interlaced frame/s (NTSC) 23.978 progressive frame/s (for NTSC 2:3 pull-down to 29.97[dvdrates 1]) 25 interlaced frame/s (PAL)

^ By using a pattern of REPEAT_FIRST_FIELD flags on the headers of encoded pictures, pictures can be displayed for either two or three fields and almost any picture display rate (minimum ⅔ of the frame rate) can be achieved. This is most often used to display 23.976 (approximately film rate) video on NTSC. See telecine for more information on how this works.

Audio + video bitrate

Video peak 9.8 Mbit/s Total peak 10.08 Mbit/s Minimum 300 kbit/s

YUV 4:2:0 Additional subtitles possible Closed captioning (NTSC only) Audio

Linear Pulse Code Modulation (LPCM): 48 kHz or 96 kHz; 16- or 24-bit; up to six channels (not all combinations possible due to bitrate constraints) MPEG
MPEG
Layer 2 (MP2): 48 kHz, up to 5.1 channels (required in PAL players only) Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
(DD, also known as AC-3): 48 kHz, 32–448 kbit/s, up to 5.1 channels Digital Theater Systems
Digital Theater Systems
(DTS): 754 kbit/s or 1510 kbit/s (not required for DVD
DVD
player compliance) NTSC DVDs must contain at least one LPCM
LPCM
or Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
audio track. PAL DVDs must contain at least one MPEG
MPEG
Layer 2, LPCM, or Dolby Digital audio track. Players are not required to play back audio with more than two channels, but must be able to downmix multichannel audio to two channels.

GOP structure (Group Of Pictures)

Sequence header must be present at the beginning of every GOP Maximum frames per GOP: 18 (NTSC) / 15 (PAL), i.e. 0.6 seconds both Closed GOP required for multi-angle DVDs

HDV[edit] Main article: HDV HDV
HDV
is a format for recording and playback of high-definition MPEG-2 video on a DV cassette tape. MOD and TOD[edit] Main article: MOD and TOD (video format) MOD and TOD are recording formats for use in consumer digital file-based camcorders. XDCAM[edit] Main article: XDCAM XDCAM
XDCAM
is a professional file-based video recording format. DVB[edit] Application-specific restrictions on MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video in the DVB standard: Allowed resolutions for SDTV:

720, 640, 544, 528, 480 or 352 × 480 pixel, 24/1.001, 24, 30/1.001 or 30 frame/s 352 × 240 pixel, 24/1.001, 24, 30/1.001 or 30 frame/s 720, 704, 544, 528, 480 or 352 × 576 pixel, 25 frame/s 352 × 288 pixel, 25 frame/s

For HDTV:

720 x 576 x 50 frame/s progressive (576p50) 1280 x 720 x 25 or 50 frame/s progressive (720p50) 1440 or 1920 x 1080 x 25 frame/s progressive (1080p25 = film mode) 1440 or 1920 x 1080 x 25 frame/s interlace (1080i50)

ATSC[edit] Main article: ATSC
ATSC
standards The ATSC
ATSC
A/53 standard used in the United States, uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video at the Main Profile @ High Level (MP@HL), with additional restrictions such as the maximum bitrate of 19.4 Mbit/s for broadcast television and 38.8 Mbit/s for cable television, 4:2:0 chroma subsampling format, and mandatory colorimetry information. ATSC
ATSC
allows the following video resolutions, aspect ratios, and frame/field rates:

1920 × 1080 pixel (16:9, square pixels), at 30p, 29.97p, 24p, 23.976p, 60i, 59.94i. 1280 × 720 pixel (16:9, square pixels), at 60p, 59.94p, 30p, 29.97p, 24p, or 23.976p 704 × 480 pixel (4:3 or 16:9, non-square pixels), at 60p, 59.94p, 30p, 29.97p, 24p, 23.976p, 60i, or 59.94i 640 × 480 pixel (4:3, square pixels), at 60p, 59.94p, 30p, 29.97p, 24p, 23.976p, 60i, or 59.94i

ATSC
ATSC
standard A/63 defines additional resolutions and aspect rates for 50 Hz (PAL) signal. The ATSC
ATSC
specification and MPEG-2
MPEG-2
allow the use of progressive frames, even within an interlaced video sequence. For example, a station that transmits 1080i60 video sequence can use a coding method where those 60 fields are coded with 24 progressive frames and metadata instructs the decoder to interlace them and perform 3:2 pulldown before display. This allows broadcasters to switch between 60 Hz interlaced (news, soap operas) and 24 Hz progressive (prime-time) content without ending the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
sequence and introducing a several seconds of delay as the TV switches formats. This is the reason why 1080p30 and 1080p24 sequences allowed by the ATSC
ATSC
specification are not used in practice. The 1080-line formats are encoded with 1920 × 1088 pixel luma matrices and 960 × 540 chroma matrices, but the last 8 lines are discarded by the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
decoding and display process. ATSC
ATSC
A/72 is the newest revision of ATSC
ATSC
standards for digital television, which allows the use of H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
video coding format and 1080p60 signal. MPEG-2
MPEG-2
audio was a contender for the ATSC
ATSC
standard during the DTV "Grand Alliance" shootout, but lost out to Dolby AC-3. ISDB-T[edit] Technical features of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
in ATSC
ATSC
are also valid for ISDB-T, except that in the main TS has aggregated a second program for mobile devices compressed in MPEG-4 H.264 AVC for video and AAC-LC for audio, mainly known as 1seg. Blu-ray[edit] Main article: Blu-ray Commercial Blu-ray
Blu-ray
discs encode the first 10 second long "FBI anti-piracy warning" in MPEG-2
MPEG-2
regardless of the rest of the disc's encoding.[citation needed] The feature film can also be in MPEG-2, which was common on early Blu-ray
Blu-ray
releases, but recent releases most often use H.264 or VC-1. Patent
Patent
pool[edit]

Parts of this article (those related to this section) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Last update: 2012 (June 2016)

All MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patents is officially expired and can be used freely.[28] MPEG
MPEG
LA, a private patent licensing organization, has acquired rights from over 20 corporations and one university to license a patent pool of approximately 640 worldwide patents, which it claims are the "essential" to use of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
technology, although many of the patents have since expired.[29][30] Where software patentability is upheld, the use of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
requires the payment of licensing fees to the patent holders. Other patents are licensed by Audio MPEG, Inc.[31] The development of the standard itself took less time than the patent negotiations.[32][33] Patent
Patent
pooling between essential and peripheral patent holders in the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
pool is the subject of a study by the University of Wisconsin.[34] Over half of the patents expired in 2012.[35] According to the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
licensing agreement any use of MPEG-2 technology is subject to royalties.[36] MPEG-2
MPEG-2
encoders are subject to a royalty of $2.00 per unit, decoders are subject to a royalty of $2.00 per unit, and royalty-based sales of encoders and decoders are subject to different rules and $2.50 per unit.[36] Also, any packaged medium (DVDs/Data Streams) is subject to licence fees according to length of recording/broadcast.[36] A criticism of the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patent pool is that even though the number of patents will decrease from 1,048 to 416 by June 2013 the license fee has not decreased with the expiration rate of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patents.[37][38][39][40] Since January 1, 2010, the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patent pool has remained at $2 for a decoding license and $2 for an encoding license.[36][38][39] By 2015 more than 90% of the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patents will have expired but as long as there are one or more active patents in the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patent pool in either the country of manufacture or the country of sale the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
license agreement requires that licensees pay a license fee that does not change based on the number of patents that have expired.[36][37][38][39][40] Patents (U.S. only)[edit] Main article: List of United States MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patents The last United States patent expired on 13 February 2018.[41] See also[edit]

MPEG
MPEG
encoding MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2) MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Audio Layer III (MP3) DVD DVB-S2 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

References[edit]

^ ISO/IEC 13818 MPEG-2
MPEG-2
at the ISO Store. ^ a b ITU-T. "H.222.0 : Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems". Retrieved 2010-06-03.  ^ ITU-T (May 2006). "H.222.0 Summary". Archived from the original on 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2010-06-03.  ^ SMPTE
SMPTE
Registration Authority, LLC - registration authority for MPEG-2
MPEG-2
format identifiers Archived 2010-01-28 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2009-07-06 ^ "H.262 : Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Video". ITU-T Website. International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). February 2000. Retrieved 2009-08-13.  ^ a b D. Thom, H. Purnhagen, and the MPEG
MPEG
Audio Subgroup (October 1998). " MPEG
MPEG
Audio FAQ Version 9 - MPEG
MPEG
Audio". Retrieved 2009-10-31. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d ISO (October 1998). " MPEG
MPEG
Audio FAQ Version 9 - MPEG-1
MPEG-1
and MPEG-2
MPEG-2
BC". ISO. Retrieved 2009-10-28.  ^ a b c d MPEG.ORG. "AAC". Retrieved 2009-10-28.  ^ a b ISO (2006-01-15), ISO/IEC 13818-7, Fourth edition, Part 7 - Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) (PDF), retrieved 2009-10-28  ^ ISO (2004-10-15), ISO/IEC 13818-7, Third edition, Part 7 - Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-13, retrieved 2009-10-19  ^ a b Werner Oomen; Leon van de Kerkhof. " MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Audio Layer I/II". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2009-12-29.  ^ Predrag Supurovic, MPEG
MPEG
Audio Frame Header Archived 2015-02-08 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on 2009-07-11 ^ ISO (March 1996). "Florence Press Release". ISO. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08. Retrieved 2009-10-28.  ^ MPEG. " MPEG
MPEG
standards". chiariglione.org. Retrieved 2014-07-24.  ^ ISO. " ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2017-08-30.  ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-1:2015/Amd 6:2016, Carriage of Quality Metadata in MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Systems". Retrieved 2017-08-30.  ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-4:2004/Amd 3:2009, Level for 1080@50p/60p conformance testing". Retrieved 2017-08-30.  ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-6:1998/Amd 3:2001, Transport buffer model in support of synchronized user-to-network download protocol". Retrieved 2017-08-30.  ^ MPEG
MPEG
(1997-02-21). " DSM-CC FAQ Version 1.0". MPEG. Retrieved 2010-08-01.  ^ IEEE (1996). "An Introduction to Digital Storage Media - Command and Control (DSM-CC)". MPEG. Retrieved 2010-08-01.  ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-7:2006/Amd 1:2007, Transport of MPEG
MPEG
Surround in AAC". Retrieved 2017-08-30.  ^ chiariglione.org (2010-02-04). "Riding the Media Bits, The development of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
- Part A". Archived from the original on 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2010-02-09.  ^ Van der Meer, Jan (2014). Fundamentals and Evolution of MPEG-2 Systems: Paving the MPEG
MPEG
Road.  ^ " MPEG
MPEG
Intellectual Property Management and Protection". MPEG. April 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-01.  ^ IPMP in MPEG
MPEG
– W3C DRM workshop 22/23 January 2001 (PPT), retrieved 2010-08-01  ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23001-3:2008, Information technology -- MPEG
MPEG
systems technologies -- Part 3: XML IPMP messages". Retrieved 2009-10-29.  ^ "Sakae Okubo". ITU. Retrieved 2017-01-27.  ^ http://mobile.osnews.com/story.php/24954/US_Patent_Expiration_for_MP3_MPEG-2_H_264 ^ Mpeg La Archived 2008-06-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ audioMPEG.com - - - US Patents ^ "Sisvel - We protect ideas - Home". Archived from the original on 2013-01-02.  ^ "Audio/Video - GNU Project - Free-Software Foundation".  ^ [1] Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Quint, Dan; Amit Gandhi. "Economics of Patent
Patent
Pools When Some (but not all) Patents are Essential". Working Paper. Retrieved 2009-10-11.  ^ "Half of MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Patents Expire in 2012".  ^ a b c d e " MPEG-2
MPEG-2
License Agreement". MPEG
MPEG
LA. 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-05-19.  ^ a b " Patent
Patent
Pools May Create Anticompetitive Effects, New Report Finds". Business Wire. 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-06-06.  ^ a b c Steve Pociask (2013-05-13). "Consumer tech rip-off from patent pools". The Daily Caller. Retrieved 2013-05-19.  ^ a b c Bret Swanson (2013-04-30). " MPEG-LA
MPEG-LA
Shows Need to Rebuild IP Foundations". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-05-19.  ^ a b Steve Forbes
Forbes
(2013-03-18). "America's patent system is all wrong for today's high-tech world". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 2013-06-05.  ^ Richard Chirgwin (15 February 2018). "Waddawewant? Free video codecs! When dowe .. oh, look, the last MPEG-2
MPEG-2
patent expired!". The Register. 

External links[edit]

A Beginners Guide for MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Standard MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Overview (figures are lost) MPEG-2
MPEG-2
video compression MIT 6.344 – Slides from lectures on video compression at MIT. A Discrete Cosine Transform tutorial IPTV MPEG
MPEG
and Quality of Experience Testing OpenIPMP: Open Source DRM Project for MPEG-2 ISO/IEC 13818 – MPEG-2
MPEG-2
at the ISO Store. MPEG
MPEG
Books - A list of MPEG
MPEG
reference books.

v t e

MPEG
MPEG
(Moving Picture Experts Group)

MPEG-1 2 3 4 7 21 A B C D E V M U H

MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Parts

Part 1: Systems

Program stream

Part 2: Video

based on H.261

Part 3: Audio

Layer I Layer II Layer III

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Parts

Part 1: Systems (H.222.0)

Transport stream Program stream

Part 2: Video (H.262) Part 3: Audio

Layer I Layer II Layer III MPEG
MPEG
Multichannel

Part 6: DSM CC Part 7: Advanced Audio Coding

MPEG-4 Parts

Part 2: Video

based on H.263

Part 3: Audio Part 6: DMIF Part 10: Advanced Video Coding (H.264) Part 11: Scene description Part 12: ISO base media file format Part 14: MP4 file format Part 17: Streaming text format Part 20: LASeR Part 22: Open Font Format

MPEG-7
MPEG-7
Parts

Part 2: Description definition language

MPEG-21 Parts

Parts 2, 3 and 9: Digital Item Part 5: Rights Expression Language

MPEG-D Parts

Part 1: MPEG
MPEG
Surround Part 3: Unified Speech and Audio Coding

MPEG-H Parts

Part 1: MPEG
MPEG
media transport Part 2: High Efficiency Video Coding Part 3: MPEG-H 3D Audio Part 12: High Efficiency Image File
File
Format

Other

MPEG-DASH

v t e

Multimedia
Multimedia
compression and container formats

Video compression

ISO/IEC

MJPEG Motion JPEG 2000 MPEG-1 MPEG-2

Part 2

MPEG-4

Part 2/ASP Part 10/AVC

MPEG-H

Part 2/HEVC

ITU-T

H.120 H.261 H.262 H.263 H.264 H.265

SMPTE

VC-1 VC-2 VC-3 VC-5

Alliance for Open Media

AV1

Others

Apple Video AVS Bink Cinepak Daala Dirac DV DVI FFV1 Huffyuv Indeo Lagarith Microsoft Video 1 MSU Lossless OMS Video Pixlet ProRes 422 ProRes 4444 QuickTime

Animation Graphics

RealVideo RTVideo SheerVideo Smacker Sorenson Video, Spark Theora Thor VP3 VP6 VP7 VP8 VP9 WMV XEB YULS

Audio compression

ISO/IEC

MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer III (MP3) MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer II

Multichannel

MPEG-1
MPEG-1
Layer I AAC

HE-AAC AAC-LD

MPEG
MPEG
Surround MPEG-4 ALS MPEG-4 SLS MPEG-4 DST MPEG-4 HVXC MPEG-4 CELP MPEG-D USAC MPEG-H 3D Audio

ITU-T

G.711 (A-law, µ-law) G.718 G.719 G.722 G.722.1 G.722.2 G.723 G.723.1 G.726 G.728 G.729 G.729.1

IETF

Opus iLBC

3GPP

AMR AMR-WB AMR-WB+ EVRC EVRC-B EVS GSM-HR GSM-FR GSM-EFR

Others

ACELP AC-3 AC-4 ALAC Asao ATRAC CELT Codec2 DRA DTS FLAC iSAC Monkey's Audio TTA

True Audio

MT9 Musepack OptimFROG OSQ QCELP RCELP RealAudio RTAudio SD2 SHN SILK Siren SMV Speex SVOPC TwinVQ VMR-WB Vorbis VSELP WavPack WMA MQA aptX LDAC

Image compression

IEC, ISO, ITU-T, W3C, IETF

CCITT Group 4 GIF HEIF HEVC JBIG JBIG2 JPEG JPEG-LS JPEG
JPEG
2000 JPEG
JPEG
XR JPEG
JPEG
XT PNG TIFF TIFF/EP TIFF/IT

Others

APNG BPG DjVu EXR FLIF ICER MNG PGF QTVR WBMP WebP

Containers

ISO/IEC

MPEG-ES

MPEG-PES

MPEG-PS MPEG-TS ISO base media file format MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) Motion JPEG 2000 MPEG-21 Part 9 MPEG
MPEG
media transport

ITU-T

H.222.0 T.802

IETF

RTP

Others

3GP and 3G2 AMV ASF AIFF AVI AU BPG Bink

Smacker

BMP DivX Media Format EVO Flash Video GXF IFF M2TS Matroska

WebM

MXF Ogg QuickTime File
File
Format RatDVD RealMedia RIFF

WAV

MOD and TOD VOB, IFO and BUP

Collaborations

NETVC MPEG-LA

See Compression methods for methods and Compression software for codecs

v t e

High-definition (HD)

Concepts

High-definition television High-definition video Ultra-high-definition television

Analog broadcast (All defunct)

819 line system HD MAC MUSE (Hi-Vision)

Digital broadcast

ATSC DMB-T/H DVB ISDB SBTVD

Audio

Dolby Digital Surround sound DSD DXD DTS

Filming and storage

DCI HDV

HD media and compression

Blu-ray CBHD D-VHS DVD-Audio H.264 H.265 HD DVD HD VMD MPEG-2 MVC Super Audio CD Ultra HD Blu-ray Uncompressed VC-1

Connectors

Component DisplayPort DVI HDMI VGA

Deployments

List of digital television deployments by country

v t e

List of International Electrotechnical Commission
International Electrotechnical Commission
standards

IEC standards

IEC 60027 IEC 60034 IEC 60038 IEC 60062 IEC 60063 IEC 60068 IEC 60112 IEC 60228 IEC 60269 IEC 60297 IEC 60309 IEC 60320 IEC 60364 IEC 60446 IEC 60559 IEC 60601 IEC 60870

IEC 60870-5 IEC 60870-6

IEC 60906-1 IEC 60908 IEC 60929 IEC 60958

AES3 S/PDIF

IEC 61030 IEC 61131

IEC 61131-3

IEC 61158 IEC 61162 IEC 61334 IEC 61346 IEC 61355 IEC 61400 IEC 61499 IEC 61508 IEC 61511 IEC 61850 IEC 61851 IEC 61883 IEC 61960 IEC 61968 IEC 61970 IEC 62014-4 IEC 62056 IEC 62061 IEC 62196 IEC 62262 IEC 62264 IEC 62304 IEC 62325 IEC 62351 IEC 62365 IEC 62366 IEC 62379 IEC 62386 IEC 62455 IEC 62680 IEC 62682 IEC 62700

ISO/IEC standards

ISO/IEC 646 ISO/IEC 2022 ISO/IEC 4909 ISO/IEC 5218 ISO/IEC 6429 ISO/IEC 6523 ISO/IEC 7810 ISO/IEC 7811 ISO/IEC 7812 ISO/IEC 7813 ISO/IEC 7816 ISO/IEC 7942 ISO/IEC 8613 ISO/IEC 8632 ISO/IEC 8652 ISO/IEC 8859 ISO/IEC 9126 ISO/IEC 9293 ISO/IEC 9592 ISO/IEC 9593 ISO/IEC 9899 ISO/IEC 9945 ISO/IEC 9995 ISO/IEC 10021 ISO/IEC 10116 ISO/IEC 10165 ISO/IEC 10179 ISO/IEC 10646 ISO/IEC 10967 ISO/IEC 11172 ISO/IEC 11179 ISO/IEC 11404 ISO/IEC 11544 ISO/IEC 11801 ISO/IEC 12207 ISO/IEC 13250 ISO/IEC 13346 ISO/IEC 13522-5 ISO/IEC 13568 ISO/IEC 13818 ISO/IEC 14443 ISO/IEC 14496 ISO/IEC 14882 ISO/IEC 15288 ISO/IEC 15291 ISO/IEC 15408 ISO/IEC 15444 ISO/IEC 15445 ISO/IEC 15504 ISO/IEC 15511 ISO/IEC 15693 ISO/IEC 15897 ISO/IEC 15938 ISO/IEC 16262 ISO/IEC 17024 ISO/IEC 17025 ISO/IEC 18000 ISO/IEC 18004 ISO/IEC 18014 ISO/IEC 19752 ISO/IEC 19757 ISO/IEC 19770 ISO/IEC 19788 ISO/IEC 20000 ISO/IEC 21000 ISO/IEC 21827 ISO/IEC 23000 ISO/IEC 23003 ISO/IEC 23008 ISO/IEC 23270 ISO/IEC 23360 ISO/IEC 24707 ISO/IEC 24727 ISO/IEC 24744 ISO/IEC 24752 ISO/IEC 26300 ISO/IEC 27000 ISO/IEC 27000-series ISO/IEC 27002 ISO/IEC 27040 ISO/IEC 29119 ISO/IEC 33001 ISO/IEC 38500 ISO/IEC 42010 ISO/IEC 80000

Related

International Electrotechnica

.