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The UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION STABILIZATION MISSION IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO or MONUSCO, an acronym based on its French name Mission de l'Organisation des Nations unies pour la stabilisation en République démocratique du Congo, is a United Nations peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which was established by the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
in resolutions 1279 (1999) and 1291 (2000) of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War , though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict
Ituri conflict
, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict . The mission was known as the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo or MONUC, an acronym of its French name Mission de l'Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo, until 2010 .

The initial UN presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, before the passing of Resolution 1291 , was a force of military observers to observe and report on the compliance on factions with the peace accords, a deployment authorised by the earlier Resolution 1258 (1999).

Since 1999, about US$8.74 billion has been spent to fund the UN peacekeeping effort in DRC. As of December 2015 , the total strength of UN peacekeeping troops in DRC exceed 23,000. More than thirty nations have contributed military and police personnel for peacekeeping effort, with India
India
being the single largest contributor. In June 2011, it was reported that India
India
is preparing to gradually scale back its military commitment to MONUSCO.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1990s

* 1.2 2000s

* 1.2.1 2000 * 1.2.2 2001 * 1.2.3 2002 * 1.2.4 2003 * 1.2.5 2004 * 1.2.6 2005 * 1.2.7 2006 * 1.2.8 2007 * 1.2.9 2008 * 1.2.10 2009 * 1.2.11 2010 * 1.2.12 2011 * 1.2.13 2012 * 1.2.14 2013 * 1.2.15 2014 * 1.2.16 2015

* 2 Organization

* 2.1 Force Commanders * 2.2 Sector headquarters * 2.3 Force numbers and fatalities

* 2.4 Staff and forces

* 2.4.1 Command staff * 2.4.2 Contributing countries

* 2.5 Civilians

* 3 Controversies * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

HISTORY

1990S

The origin of this second United Nations
United Nations
military presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(DRC) is found in the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement on 17 July 1999 and the following United Nations Security Council Resolution 1258 of 6 August 1999, authorizing the deployment of a maximum of 90 officers.

The first liaison officers arrived in the DRC on 3 September 1999. In November 1999 the number of liaison officers totaled 39, distributed in the capitals of the warring countries ( Rwanda , Uganda
Uganda
, Burundi
Burundi
, Zambia
Zambia
, Namibia
Namibia
, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
) including 24 who were stationed in Kinshasa. In January 2000 they reached the number of 79 and they were spread over the whole territory of DRC. Their mission was to liaise with all the warring factions, give a technical assistance and prepare the deployment of military observers.

2000S

2000

On 24 February 2000 with the resolution 1291, the U.N. Security Council authorized the deployment of a maximum of 5537 military personnel in the DRC, including 500 military observers. On 4 April 2000 the Senegalese Major General Mountago Diallo was appointed as the commander of MONUC's military force. The mandate is to monitor the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement and the redeployment of belligerent forces, to develop an action plan for the overall implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, to work with the parties to obtain the release of all prisoners of war, military captives and the return of the remains, to facilitate humanitarian assistance and to assist the Facilitator of the National Dialogue.

Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter the U.N. Security Council authorized MONUC
MONUC
to take the necessary action, in the areas of deployment of its infantry battalions, to protect UN personnel, facilities, installations and equipment, ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel, and to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.

In December 2000 there were 224 military personnel deployed, including 148 observers in 13 points around the country. The observers could only record the non-application of the Ceasefire, the violent fighting at Kisangani and in the Equateur
Equateur
and Katanga provinces as well as the presence of foreign troops in the DRC. The deployment of UN troops was impossible due to the security situation and the reluctance of the Congolese government.

2001

Czech soldier in MONUC, c. 2006

Even though the beginning of 2001 was still hampered by sporadic combat, the military observers could fulfill their mission in regards with the disengagement of forces and the withdrawal of some of the Rwandan and Ugandan forces.

In March 2001, the first Uruguayan guard unit arrived in Kalemie
Kalemie
. The force was deployed in four sectors at Kananga, Kisangani, Kalemie and Mbandaka
Mbandaka
. In July 2001, the force strength was of 2366 soldiers, including 363 military observers distributed in 22 cities and 28 teams monitoring the disengagement of forces. The contingent soldiers totaled 1869. They came from South Africa, Uruguay
Uruguay
, Morocco
Morocco
, Senegal and Tunisia
Tunisia
. Guard units protected MONUC
MONUC
installations in Kinshasa, Kananga, Kisangani, Kalemie, Goma
Goma
and Mbandaka. A Uruguayan riverine unit and a South African air medical evacuation team were also deployed. The deployed troops were only to protect the sites against looting and theft, the force had neither the mandate nor the strength to protect the civilian population, or even to extract MONUC personnel. Following the Security Council Resolution 1355 , the military observers, within their capacities, could also contribute to the voluntary disarmament, demobilization, repatriation and reintegration process of the armed groups.

With Security Council Resolution 1376 , the Security Council launched the third phase of the deployment of MONUC
MONUC
troops, in the East of DRC. The site for the logistical base was planned to be Kindu
Kindu
.

2002

Members of Uruguayan Riverine Company on patrol on L. Tanganyika

In 2002, the 450 military observers, split in 95 teams, continued to monitor the Ceasefire along the ex-frontlines. The teams also investigated violations of the Ceasefire. Foreign troops continued to leave the country. The riverine units escorted the first ships on the Congo river , which was again open to commercial traffic. In June 2002 the UN troops' total number was 3804. Contingents from Ghana
Ghana
and Bolivia
Bolivia
joined the force, of which more than a third of the soldiers were Uruguayan. More than a thousand soldiers were deployed in Kisangani . On 14 May 2002, a military observer died near Ikela following the explosion of a mine under his vehicle.

On 30 July 2002, the different parties signed the Pretoria agreement . The nature of the mission of the peacekeepers changed. The military observers monitored the withdrawal of 20 000 Rwandan soldiers , but they also noted the rise of ethnic violence in Ituri . At the end of 2002 there were a total of 4200 UN soldiers in the DRC. By Resolution 1445 the Security Council authorized the increase of military personnel to 8500. The principle of two independent intervention forces was also approved. MONUC
MONUC
had to support the voluntary disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement (DDRRR) process, but without using force.

2003

Numerous DDRRR operations in collaboration with the civilian component were conducted in the beginning of 2003. Before the start of the transition, UN soldiers were deployed along the front lines. A vast redeployment to the East started. The four coordination centres and 22 bases in the western part of the country were shut down. Over a hundred observers were redeployed and Uruguayan contingents arrived in Bukavu
Bukavu
and Lubero . Observer teams monitored serious combat and human rights violations in Ituri. In April 2003, 800 Uruguayan soldiers were deployed in Bunia under Resolution 1484 . In the same month an observer died in a mine explosion. In May 2003 two military observers were savagely killed by a militia.

The withdrawal of 7000 Ugandan troops in April 2003 led to a deteriorating security situation in the Ituri region endangering the peace process. The U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
called for establishing and deploying a temporary multi-national force to the area until the weakened MONUC
MONUC
mission could be reinforced. In his second special report to the Security Council, the U.N. Secretary General proposed a reorientation of MONUC
MONUC
missions: to provide support to the transition and to maintain security in key areas of the country. Accordingly, he proposed the creation of a brigade in Ituri to support the peace process. An IDP camp around a base in Kitshanga

On 30 May 2003, the Security Council by its Resolution 1493 authorized the deployment of interim emergency multinational force in Bunia with a task to secure the airport, protect internally displaced persons in camps and the civilians in the town. Resolution 1493 authorized an increase of military personnel to 10 800, imposed and arms embargo and authorized MONUC
MONUC
to use all necessary means to fulfill its mandate in the Ituri district and, as it deemed it to be within its capabilities, also in North and South Kivu.

The French Government had already shown interest in leading the operation. It soon broadened to an EU-led mission with France
France
as the framework nation providing the bulk of the personnel and complemented by contributions from both EU and non-EU nations. The total force consisted of about 1800 personnel and was supported by French aircraft based at N\'Djamena and Entebbe
Entebbe
airfields. A small 80-man Swedish Special Forces group (SSG ) was also added.

The operation called Operation Artemis was launched on 12 June and the IMEF completed its deployment in the following three weeks. The force was successful in stabilising the situation in Bunia and enforcing the UN presence in the DRC. In September 2003, responsibility for the security of the region was handed over to the MONUC
MONUC
mission.

Growing military conflict in DRC caused the United Nations
United Nations
to seek additional military help from major powers. In July 2003, India announced that it would be sending an additional 300 personnel and combat aircraft from the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
to strengthen the UN peacekeeping effort in DRC.

In September 2003, the Ituri brigade was in place, including soldiers from Uruguay, Bangladesh , Nepal
Nepal
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, India
India
and Morocco
Morocco
. In November 2003, a total of 10,415 peacekeepers were in the DRC, comprising infantry units, engineer units, helicopter units, logistic units, medical units and riverine units.

2004

Deploying the Ituri brigade conducting cordon and search operations improved the security conditions in Ituri, but at the same time the peacekeepers became the target of the militias. On 12 February 2004, a military observer was killed in Ituri.

With the arrival of the Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo which included members of rebel movements, more than 900 Tunisian and Ghanaian UN troops contributed to the security of Kinshasa.

It was decided that the troops present in the Kivus will be assembled under the unified command of a brigade. In March the Nigerian General Samaila Iliya took over the command of the force.

In June 2004, Bukavu
Bukavu
was occupied by rebel general Laurent Nkunda . A military observer was killed. The 1000 MONUC
MONUC
troops could only protect their own installations. Demonstrations were held all over the country, forcing UN troops to open fire on looters in Kinshasa. MONUC soldiers were again targeted by Ituri militia at the end of 2004.

Though the Secretary General had asked for an increase of 13,100 soldiers, in October 2004 the Security Council by Resolution 1565 , authorized a reinforcement of 5,900 military personnel and defines the mandate which is still valid today. The strategic military objectives of the MONUC
MONUC
force were:

* proactively contributing to the pacification and general improvement of security in the country; * providing support for conflict resolution in politically volatile areas; * improving border security through regional confidence-building mechanisms, such as the Joint Verification Mechanism, and effective patrolling and monitoring of the arms embargo; * gathering and analysing military and other information on spoilers.

Following the UN resolution, the Indian Army
Indian Army
announced that it would be sending an additional 850 troops and four combat helicopters to aid the MONOU peacekeeping effort.

2005

By 2005, the strength of UN peacekeeping forces in Congo reached more than 16,000 troops, split almost equally between the Western Brigade and the Eastern Division.

In February 2005, the mission deplores the deaths of 9 Bangladeshi UN troops killed during an ambush in Ituri. The actions of the Ituri and Kivu Brigades become more robust and the pressure rises on all armed groups. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo
Thomas Lubanga Dyilo
, the leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots , and other militia leaders were arrested by Congolese authorities and imprisoned in Makala
Makala
, Kinshasa. Lubanga was accused of having ordered the killing of the peacekeepers in February 2005 and of being behind continuous insecurity in the area. On 10 February 2006, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Lubanga for the war crime of "conscripting and enlisting children under the age of fifteen years and using them to participate actively in hostilities". The Congolese national authorities transferred Lubanga to ICC custody on 17 March 2006.

On 1 March 2005, a vast cordon and search operation in Ituri was conducted by Nepalese, Pakistani and South African Infantry elements with the support of Indian attack helicopters, between 50 and 60 militiamen were killed.

Senegalese General Babacar Gaye was appointed force commander in March 2005 after Spanish General Vincente Diaz de Villegas resigned for personal reasons.

In May 2005, the U.N. Secretary General asked for a supplementary brigade for Katanga. Joint operations were conducted by the newly arrived integrated brigades of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC). UN troops were tasked with the support of the electoral process, contributing protection and transport. In Ituri over 15000 militiamen were disarmed.

In October 2005, by Resolution 1635, the U.N. Security Council authorized a temporary increase of 300 military personnel to permit a deployment to Katanga.

2006

On 25 April 2006, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 1671 , authorising the temporary deployment of a European Union force to support MONUC
MONUC
during the period encompassing the general elections in the DR Congo, which began on 30 July 2006.

The European Council approved the launching of the EU military operation, EUFOR RD Congo , and appointed Lieutenant General Karlheinz Viereck (Germany) Operation Commander and Major General Christian Damay (France) EU Force Commander. The Operational Headquarters was the German-nominated Armed Forces Operational Command – Einsatzführungskommando – at Potsdam
Potsdam
, Germany. The mission was tasked with:

* supporting and providing security to MONUC
MONUC
installations and personnel; * contributing to airport protection in Kinshasa
Kinshasa
; * contributing to the protection of civilians under imminent threat of physical violence; * evacuation operations in case of emergency.

This mission came to an end on 30 November 2006.

2007

In May 2007, India
India
announced that it would be sending an additional 70 Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
personnel to join the MONOU effort.

2008

Indian peacekeepers on duty, protecting aid workers.

In August 2008, an internal investigation led by the Indian Army
Indian Army
and other MONOU officers revealed that about ten Indian peacekeepers may have been involved in abuse and exploitation in Congo. Earlier in May 2008, the vice chief of the Indian Army
Indian Army
visited Congo to look into these allegations and by August 2008, the Indian Army
Indian Army
had launched an official probe to look into these allegations.

On 26 October 2008 Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD) forces of Laurent Nkunda seized a major military camp, along with Virunga National Park for use as a base to launch attacks from. This occurred after a peace treaty failed, with the resultant fighting displacing thousands. The park was taken due to its strategic location on a main road leading to the city of Goma
Goma
.

On 27 October 2008 riots began around the United Nations
United Nations
compound in Goma
Goma
, and civilians pelted the building with rocks and threw Molotov cocktails , claiming that the UN forces had done nothing to prevent the RCD advance. The Congolese national army also retreated under pressure from the rebel army in a "major retreat".

Meanwhile, United Nations
United Nations
gunships and armoured vehicles were used in an effort to halt the advance of the rebels, who claim to be within 7 miles (11 km) of Goma. Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for DRC Alan Doss
Alan Doss
explained the necessity of engaging the rebels, stating that "... can't allow population centres to be threatened... had to engage."

Indian Army
Indian Army
personnel were asked to deploy themselves from Goma
Goma
to adjoining North Kivu
North Kivu
province, after the Uruguayan battalion deployed in the region fled. However, after that several Uruguayan battalions were playing a crucial role in the buffer zone between the retreating government soldiers and the advancing rebels.

On 29 October 2008, a French request for an EU reinforcement of 1,500 troops was refused by several countries and appeared unlikely to materialize; however, the UN forces stated they would act to prevent takeovers of population centres.

In November 2008, India
India
announced that it would sending 3rd battalion of the elite 3rd Gurkha regiment to join the peace-keeping effort in Congo. India
India
made the decision to send its elite forces amidst rising concerns that Indian peace-keepers were getting caught in the cross-fire between DRC government troops and rebels.

On 18 November a draft resolution spearheaded by the French Foreign Ministry was presented before the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
. The resolution, signed by 44 different organizations and with the backing of the British Foreign Office minister Mark Malloch Brown , asked the UN to send 3,000 more peacekeepers to reinforce the 17,000-strong garrison in the Congo, which is the largest garrison of its kind. This was similar to the pleas of Human Rights Watch and other humanitarian aid groups in the region, who were also asking for reinforcements to bring stability to the area. In a shared statement, the coalition of organizations stated that " would help to prevent the atrocities that continue to be committed against civilians on an ever greater scale here in North Kivu
North Kivu
, on the border of Rwanda and Uganda... Since August 28, fighting has intensified in many areas, causing deaths, rapes, lootings, forced recruitment and further displacements of civilian populations. The population has thus been immersed in unspeakable suffering. In the last few days, fighting has drawn closer to large populated areas, such as the town of Goma. Fighting has also invaded and torn apart the region of Rutshuru , particularly in the town of Kiwanja, where hundreds of civilian deaths have now been recorded." Local groups in the Congo also requested help from the European Union , as they would be able to deploy soldiers sooner, working as a "bridging force" until the UN reinforcements arrived. British EU spokeswoman Catriona Little stated that they were "not ruling in or out EU forces".

On 20 November, the UN voted unanimously to send 3,085 more peacekeepers, citing "extreme concern at the deteriorating humanitarian situation and in particular the targeted attacks against civilian population, sexual violence, recruitment of child soldiers and summary executions." However, it did not extend MONUC's mandate in the Congo, which expires at the end of 2008. The decision was made despite the rebel commitment to pulling back from the front lines and allowing aid to reach the thousands of people still isolated, according to aid groups.

However, a week after the UN vote, the DRC government requested the UN to not deploy any more Indian troops in the east of the country, arguing that there was a need to "redress the balance" of the make-up of the 17,000-strong UN force in the country.

2009

On 17 February, Egypt
Egypt
announced that it will send around 1,325 soldiers from the Egyptian Army to support the UN mission in Congo. Egypt
Egypt
also announced that it will send a police force to help in protecting the UN mission in Congo. The Egyptian armed force will work to give support and technical advice to the Congo Army beside operating armed mission in the conflict zones and medical assistant and support. According to the Foreign affairs in Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
will send a Mechanized Unit, Special Forces, Field Engineers, and Paratroops. Egypt
Egypt
already has a small unit in Congo consisting of 13 policemen and 23 observers.

In March 2009, the Indian Army
Indian Army
questioned more than 100 Indian troops deployed in DRC regarding the abuse allegations against them. After a thorough investigation, which included examination of statements by alleged victims, the Indian Army
Indian Army
found "serious irregularities" in charges raised by the United Nations
United Nations
Office of Internal Oversight Services . Consequently, all of the accused personnel were let off due to lack of evidence.

In October 2009, India
India
announced a US$263 million aid package to Congo to help the country's information technology, hydroelectricity and railway sectors. India
India
also renewed its military commitments to MONUC
MONUC
while Congo expressed its support for India\'s UNSC permanent seat candidature . These developments helped thaw relations between the two countries.

In December, MONUC
MONUC
rushed peacekeeping troops to Dongo in the Kungu territory of Sud-Ubangi District where a new conflict rapidly escalated in an effort to protect the local population. A MONUC helicopter that was restocking the 20 troops stationed there fell under gunfire from armed men. The helicopter crew, all of Russian nationality, facilitated the evacuation of 25 people, including 5 injured people (including the helicopter pilot), who were brought to Brazzaville
Brazzaville
for emergency medical treatment.

Sources in Kinshasa
Kinshasa
reported that in mid-November DRC President Joseph Kabila
Joseph Kabila
secretly airlifted a battalion of Rwandan Defense Forces (RDF) across Congo to put down the rebellion in Dongo and the operation was supported by the United Nations
United Nations
Observes Mission in Congo ( MONUC
MONUC
) and the United States Africa Command
United States Africa Command
. Along with RDF regulars, MONUC
MONUC
troops have been fighting alongside Tutsi Rwandan soldiers infiltrated by Rwanda, with the Kabila government's support, into the national army, the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC).

At the weekly MONUC
MONUC
press conference of 16 December 2009, it was announced by MONUC
MONUC
spokesperson Madnodje Mounoubai that the first MONUC
MONUC
peacekeeping troops were deployed in Dongo, where a temporary operational basis is functional, as well as in nearby Bozene . The 500 MONUC
MONUC
troops will come from the Ghanaian, Tunisian and Egyptian contingents as well as troops from the Guatemalan Special Forces. Military equipment such as armored personnel carriers, transport and combat helicopters will also be at their disposal to support their mission.

2010

In accordance with Security Council resolution 1925 of 28 May 2010, MONUC
MONUC
was renamed as of 1 July the United Nations
United Nations
Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) to reflect the new phase reached in the country. In August 2010, the Mai Mai rebels ambushed a base of the 19th Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army
Indian Army
, killing three Indian peace-keepers. The attack renewed calls in India
India
to decrease the country's military presence in Congo due to growing conflict in the region.

2011

In May 2011, the international cooperation minister of DRC expressed his government's desire of an "orderly, progressive withdrawal" of MONUSCO due to "normalization" of DRC's relations with neighboring countries and containment of rebels to a "few isolated zones".

In June 2011, the UN announced that it would withdraw about 2,000 peace-keepers by the end of the month. The UN announcement came only a few days after India's decision to withdraw all of its four Mi-35 combat helicopters from MONUSCO and eventually cease peace-keeping operations in DRC.

2012

Main article: 2012 East DR Congo conflict

On 15 November, MONUSCO helicopter gunships were deployed to support government forces as they fought to hold off a 23 March Movement attack south of Kibumba ; the combined army and UN assault killed approximately 64 M23 fighters.

On 20 November 2012, 23 March Movement seized the provincial capital of Goma
Goma
after the national army retreated. MONUSCO troops observed without intervening, as their mandate only allowed them to protect civilians. French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius called the situation "absurd", noting MONUSCO's greatly superior numbers, and called for the group's mandate to be revised. UN spokesman Eduardo del Buey said peacekeepers "cannot substitute" for the Congo national army, adding that the 1,500 UN troops in Goma
Goma
held their fire because they did not want to risk civilian lives.

2013

See also: United Nations
United Nations
Force Intervention Brigade
Force Intervention Brigade
A team of technicians prepares for the inaugural flight of the UAV. Tanzanian special forces during a training exercise

In January 2013 chief of MONUSCO Herve Ladsous told the UN Security Council during a closed-door session that the mission plans to deploy three unmanned aerial vehicles in eastern provinces of DRC. US, UK and some other Security Council members were also supportive of the idea. However, Rwanda, which had denied allegations by UN experts that it has been supporting the March 23 Movement , opposed this proposal. Rwandan delegation informed the UN Security Council that Monusco would be a "belligerent" if it deployed drones in eastern DRC. Other diplomats, including Russian, Chinese and some from Europe, also expressed reservations. They said there were unanswered questions about who would receive the information from the drones and how widely it would be disseminated, expressing discomfort at the idea of the United Nations
United Nations
becoming an active gatherer of intelligence.

In March 2013, the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
authorized the deployment of an intervention brigade within MONUSCO to carry out targeted offensive operations, with or without the Congolese national army , against armed groups that threaten peace in eastern DRC. The brigade is based in Sake , North Kivu
North Kivu
and is made up of a total of 3,069 peacekeepers. It is tasked with neutralizing armed groups, reducing the threat posed to State authority and civilian security and to make space for stabilization activities. The first Brigade was composed of three battalions, one each from South Africa
South Africa
, Tanzania and Malawi
Malawi
with the Brigade being commanded by Brig-Gen James Makibolwa of Tanzania.

On 30 July 2013, the March 23 Movement was given a 48-hour ultimatum by the UN to leave Goma
Goma
area or face "use of force." Between 21 and 29 August, heavy fighting outside Goma
Goma
left 57 rebels, 10–23 government soldiers, 14 civilians and one Tanzanian U.N. peacekeeper dead. 720 government soldiers and 10 U.N. peacekeepers were also wounded.

2014

After the 2014 South Kivu attack
2014 South Kivu attack
in June 2014, the UN announced it would send MONUSCO peacekeeping troops to the area to protect the population. "These violent acts are unacceptable and need to stop immediately," said Kobler.

2015

In May 2015, Allied Democratic Forces Ugandan rebels ambushed a MONUSCO convoy about 7 miles (11 km) from Beni, killing two Tanzanian soldiers. Four other peacekeepers were reported missing.

In October 2015, Maman Sambo Sidikou
Maman Sambo Sidikou
succeeded Martin Kobler as head of the MONUSCO.

ORGANIZATION

The headquarters of the mission are in Kinshasa
Kinshasa
, DRC. The mission views the DRC as consisting of 6 sectors, each with its own staff headquarters. In 2005-6 the Eastern Division however was formed at Kisangani and took over brigades in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri, along with two or three of the Sector HQs.

The approved budget for MONUC, from 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2008, is US$1,166.72 million, the largest for any current UN peacekeeping operation.

FORCE COMMANDERS

Locations of MONUC
MONUC
units as at December 2009

* Mountaga Diallo ( Senegal
Senegal
) : March 2000 – January 2004 * Samaila Iliya ( Nigeria
Nigeria
) : January 2004 – February 2005 * Babacar Gaye (Senegal) : February 2005 – July 2010 * Chander Prakash
Chander Prakash
( India
India
) : July 2010 – March 2013 * Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz
Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz
( Brazil
Brazil
) : April 2013 – December 2015 * Derrick Mgwebi ( South Africa
South Africa
) : December 2015-Today

SECTOR HEADQUARTERS

* MONUSCO HQ: Kinshasa
Kinshasa
* Sector 1: Mbandaka
Mbandaka
* Sector 2 and Eastern Division HQ: Kisangani * Sector 3: Kananga * Sector 4: Kalemie
Kalemie
* Sector 5: Kindu
Kindu
* Sector 6: Bunia

FORCE NUMBERS AND FATALITIES

In July 2004 there were 10,531 UN soldiers under MONUC's command. On 1 October 2004, the UN Security Council decided to deploy 5,900 more soldiers to Congo, although UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
had asked for some 12,000.

On 25 February 2005, nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers were killed by members of the Nationalist and Integrationist Front
Nationalist and Integrationist Front
militia in Ituri province. The FNI killed another Nepali peacekeeper and took seven captive in May 2006. Two of the seven were released in late June and the UN was trying to secure the release of the remaining five. By November 2005, MONUC
MONUC
consisted of 16,561 uniformed troops. On 30 July 2006, MONUC
MONUC
forces were charged with keeping the 2006 general election —the first multiparty election in the DRC since 1960—peaceful and orderly. MONUC
MONUC
troops began patrolling areas of eastern DRC after armed clashes broke on 5 August following the chaotic collection of election results. The UN command is also arranging different training programmes and competitions in Congo for both Congo and international forces. A similar shooting competition was held between troops from all international forces and was won by a Pakistani infantry battalion.

Total strength, on 31 October 2007 was 18,407 uniformed personnel, including 16,661 troops, 735 military observers , 1,011 police, who were supported by 931 international civilian personnel, 2,062 local civilian staff and 585 United Nations Volunteers
United Nations Volunteers
.

The UN has recorded a total of 161 fatalities among MONUC
MONUC
personnel, up to 1 July 2010, as follows: 100 military personnel, 10 military observers, 6 UN police, 12 international civilians, and 30 local civilians.

STAFF AND FORCES

On 31 October 2007 MONUC
MONUC
had a total of 18,407 uniformed personnel, including 16,661 troops, 735 military observers , 1,011 police, who were supported by 931 international civilian personnel, 2,062 local civilian staff and 585 United Nations Volunteers
United Nations Volunteers
. Major troop contributors are India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Uruguay
Uruguay
(nearly 10,000).

On 20 November 2008, the United Nations security council
United Nations security council
voted unanimously to reinforce MONUC
MONUC
with 3,085 more peacekeepers to deal with trouble in the 2008 Nord- Kivu conflict
Kivu conflict
. They voted after 44 organizations, led by the French Foreign Ministry , petitioned the council to send reinforcements to stabilize the region.

As of 31 August 2011 MONUSCO forces included 19,084 uniformed personnel, out of which 16,998 were military personnel, 743 were military observers and 1,343 were police (including formed units). In addition the forces included 983 international civilian personnel, 2,828 local civilian staff and 600 UN volunteers.

Command Staff

A flight reconnaissance mission over North Kivu.

MONUSCO command staff As of February 2015 :

* Special Representative of the Secretary-General since 2015: Maman Sambo Sidikou ( Niger
Niger
)

* 2013–15: Martin Kobler ( Germany
Germany
) * 2010–13: Roger A. Meece ( United States
United States
) * 2007–10: Alan Doss
Alan Doss
( United Kingdom
United Kingdom
) * 2003–07: William L. Swing
William L. Swing
( United States
United States
) * 2001–03: ?.Namanga Ngongi (Cameroon) * 1999–2001: Kamel Morjane ( Tunisia
Tunisia
)

* Deputy Special Representatives of the Secretary-General: Abdallah Wafy ( Niger
Niger
) * Deputy Special Representatives of the Secretary-General: Vacant * Force Commander: Lieutenant General Derrick Mgwebi ( South Africa ) * Police Commissioner: Général Pascal Champion ( France
France
)

Contributing Countries

A Congolese child saluting a peacekeeper A South African soldier of MONUSCO pictured in 2013

As of 30 June 2013, the total number of personnel in the mission is 20,438:

COUNTRY POLICE EXPERTS TROOPS

Algeria
Algeria
0 5 0

Bangladesh 390 18 2,542

Belgium
Belgium
1 0 23

Benin
Benin
32 11 454

Bolivia
Bolivia
0 10 0

Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 5 0

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
28 7 0

Brazil
Brazil
0 7 0

Cameroon
Cameroon
23 5 0

Canada
Canada
0 0 9

Central African Republic
Central African Republic
7 0 0

Chad
Chad
28 0 0

China
China
0 13 221

Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
36 0 0

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
0 3 0

Djibouti
Djibouti
3 0 0

Egypt
Egypt
140 21 1,007

France
France
9 0 5

Ghana
Ghana
0 24 465

Guatemala
Guatemala
0 1 151

Guinea
Guinea
31 0 1

Hungary
Hungary
0 0 2

India
India
269 34 3,731

Indonesia
Indonesia
0 15 177

Ireland 0 0 3

Jordan
Jordan
10 17 230

Kenya
Kenya
0 17 11

Madagascar
Madagascar
20 0 0

Malawi
Malawi
0 9 5

Malaysia
Malaysia
0 6 7

Mali
Mali
21 16 0

Mongolia
Mongolia
0 2 0

Morocco
Morocco
0 1 858

Nepal
Nepal
0 20 1,029

Niger
Niger
31 15 1

Nigeria
Nigeria
4 18 2

Norway
Norway
0 0 1

Pakistan
Pakistan
0 41 714

Paraguay
Paraguay
0 17 0

Peru
Peru
0 13 2

Poland
Poland
0 2 0

Romania
Romania
16 22 0

Russia
Russia
2 27 0

Senegal
Senegal
277 12 11

Serbia
Serbia
0 0 8

South Africa
South Africa
0 3 1,223

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
0 4 0

Sweden
Sweden
5 4 0

Switzerland
Switzerland
1 1 3

Tanzania
Tanzania
0 0 1,247

Togo
Togo
7 0 0

Tunisia
Tunisia
13 31 2

Turkey
Turkey
13 0 0

Ukraine
Ukraine
5 11 161

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
0 0 6

United States
United States
0 0 3

Uruguay
Uruguay
0 15 1,175

Yemen
Yemen
4 6 0

Zambia
Zambia
0 20 2

CIVILIANS

International civilian employees and volunteers, and DRC nationals: 2,636

* International Employees : 816 * United Nations Volunteers
United Nations Volunteers
: 482 * DRC nationals : 1,338

CONTROVERSIES

In 2007 and 2008, in several news and TV reports the BBC
BBC
published own evidence about Pakistani MONUC
MONUC
peacekeepers in Mongbwalu had entered in a gold-for-guns trading relationship with Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) militia leaders, eventually drawing Congolese army officers and Indian traders from Kenya
Kenya
into the deal. Following its own investigations, the UN concluded that there was no involvement of Pakistani peacekeeper in any such trade relationship. Namely Human Rights Watch harshly criticized the UN for the way it handled the investigation, providing detailed information from several UN documents, arguing that serious allegations of wrongdoing by Pakistani and Indian peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo were ignored, minimized or shelved by the UN’s Organization of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS).

In May 2008, Africa Confidential
Africa Confidential
reported that some personnel of the Indian Army
Indian Army
stationed in DRC had six of 44 allegations of improper relations with the FDLR . These allegations included – using a UN helicopter to fly into Virunga National Park to swap ammunition for ivory with rebels; fraternising with the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) and failing to seize its weapons; exchanging UN rations for dollars and gold; buying marijuana from the FDLR; failing to support FDLR disarmament; arresting an FDLR rebel after he had supplied counterfeit gold to the Indian troops, and abusing him until the money was returned. The source of the allegations was reported as internal United Nations
United Nations
Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) documents.

SEE ALSO

* Second Congo War * Ituri conflict
Ituri conflict
* Kivu conflict
Kivu conflict

REFERENCES

* ^ United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 1258. S/RES/1258(1999) (1999) Retrieved 6 September 2008. * ^ A B MONUC
MONUC
Facts and Figures, United Nations * ^ "Faits et chiffres - MONUSCO". MONUSCO - Mission de l'Organization des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en RD Congo. Retrieved 15 December 2016. * ^ "Europeans call for more UN troops in Congo". euobserver.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ A B "India\'s withdrawal of helicopters from Congo points to wider trend", Washington Post * ^ "UN Peacekeeping Best Practices Section". Pbpu.unlb.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2008. * ^ " Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
to Congo". BBC. 10 July 2003. * ^ A B C "DRC: India, Pakistan
Pakistan
to Send More Troops". allAfrica. 6 October 2004. Cite error: Invalid tag; name "In1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page ). * ^ " DR Congo rebel faces Hague trial". BBC
BBC
News. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2008. * ^ "monuc.org: History ::: 07/01/2006". Monuc.org. Retrieved 31 October 2008. * ^ COUNCIL JOINT ACTION 2006/319/CFSP of 27 April 2006 on the European Union military operation in support of the UN Mission in the Congo * ^ EUFOR RD Congo, Council of the European Union , accessed 13 January 2007. * ^ Indian Army
Indian Army
aviators head for Congo on UN deployment, 17 May 2007 – 8:46:52 am * ^ "Thousands flee fighting as Congo rebels seize gorilla park". CNN. 26 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. * ^ A B "Protesters attack U.N. HQ in eastern Congo". CNN. 24 October 2008. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. * ^ "U.N. gunships battle rebels in east Congo". CNN. 28 October 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. * ^ "UN joins battle with Congo rebels". BBC. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20161118140828/http://www.timesnow.tv/Newsdtls.aspx?NewsID=19726. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2008. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ Uruguay
Uruguay
officials travel to assess troops in Congo — MercoPress. Falkland-malvinas.com. Retrieved 4 September 2013. * ^ Philp, Catherine (30 October 2008). "UN peacekeepers braced for full-scale war in central Africa". The Times. Retrieved 30 October 2008. * ^ Faul, Michelle (29 October 2008). "Congo rebels reach Goma edge, declare cease-fire". Associated Press. Retrieved 29 October 2008. * ^ A B Gurkhas to join Indian troops in Congo U.N. force, Reuters * ^ Louis Charbonneau (18 November 2008). "More peacekeepers won\'t bring peace to Congo – UN". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2008. * ^ "Congo rebels \'to withdraw troops\'". BBC. 18 November 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2008. * ^ A B "Britain, France
France
push for more U.N. troops in Congo". CNN. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2008. * ^ A B "U.N. condemns Congo atrocities". CNN. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ Angela Balakrishnan (20 November 2008). "Extra 3,100 UN troops to be deployed to Congo". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2008. * ^ " DR Congo declines Indian troops". BBC. 26 November 2008. * ^ " Egypt
Egypt
to send more than 1,325 peacekeepers to Congo". Reuters. 18 February 2009. * ^ A B "Congo abuse: Army clean chit to soldiers". Indian Express. 13 March 2009. * ^ A B India
India
announces $263-mn credit for Congo, Sify.com, 2009-10-29 * ^ Equateur: New interdisciplinary MONUC
MONUC
mission in Dongo, MONUC, 24 November 2009, archived from the original on 29 April 2009 * ^ Alan Doss
Alan Doss
meets the Russian crew of a MONUC
MONUC
helicopter attacked in Dongo, MONUC, 12 December 2009, archived from the original on 29 April 2009 * ^ Harmon Snow, Keith (7 December 2009), Belgian Paratroopers To Crush Rising Congo Rebellion?, archived from the original on 26 December 2009 * ^ Equateur: An extra 500 MONUC
MONUC
troops being deployed to Dongo, MONUC, 16 December 2009, archived from the original on 29 April 2009 * ^ 3 Indian peacekeepers killed in Congo, Times of India, 19 August 2010 * ^ DR Congo calls on UN to withdraw peacekeepers, Radio Netherlands, 18 May 2011 * ^ U.N. peacekeepers start Congo withdrawal, The Star, 17 June 2010 * ^ "UN defends failed attempt to halt capture of Congo\'s Goma". Reuters. 21 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2012. * ^ Jeffrey Gettleman and Josh Kron (20 November 2012). "Congo Rebels Seize Provincial Capital". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. * ^ Jonny Hogg (20 November 2012). "Congo rebels seize eastern city as U.N. forces look on". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ " DR Congo M23 rebels \'enter Goma
Goma
city\'". BBC
BBC
News. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012. * ^ " Rwanda opposes use of drones in DRC". News 24. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013. * ^ "Tanzanian troops arrive in eastern DR Congo as part of UN intervention brigade". United Nations. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. * ^ "NGOs concerned about new DRC Intervention Brigade". IrinNews. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2014. * ^ UN gives ultimatum to DR Congo rebels – Africa. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 4 September 2013. * ^ "International News World News - ABC News Casualties as Congo and UN Forces Fight Rebels". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ "International News World News - ABC News Rebels Declare Ceasefire in Congo". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ " United Nations
United Nations
News Centre - DR Congo: UN chief deplores killing of Tanzanian peacekeeper". un.org. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ eNCA. "SA snipers kill Congo rebels eNCA". enca.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ Crispin Kyalangalilwa (7 June 2014). "Dispute over cows leaves 37 dead, 20 others injured in eastern Congo". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. Retrieved 8 June