The United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA, Mission d'Observation des Nations Unies à l'Angola) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1118 of 30 June 1997.[1] Due to the collapse of the peace process in Angola, UN Secretary General recommended to the UN Security Council that MONUA's mandate not be renewed.[2] The mission officially terminated in on 24 February 1999, per the terms of Resolution 1213.[3]

MONUA was the last peacekeeping mission in Angola, and was preceded by three other peacekeeping missions: UNAVEM I, II and III.

The Angolan Civil War raged between 1974 and 2002 and was the longest lasting conflict in Africa. Since 1988, Blue Helmets were present in Angola as observers to the conflict between the communist movement MPLA (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola), to which president Jose Eduardo dos Santos belongs, and the UNITA (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola), originally a Maoist movement.[citation needed]

At the beginning of the mission in 1997, the UN peacekeeping force consisted of approximately 3500 soldiers, observers and police constables, coming from 17 countries. This number was reduced to 400 in 1999, when the mission ended. Seventeen Blue Helmets died in the conflict.[4]

Since MONUA's termination, UN peacekeeping forces are no longer present in Angola.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1118. S/RES/1118(1997) (1997) Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  2. ^ United Nations Security Council Document 49. S/1999/49 page 11. (1999) Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  3. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1213. S/RES/1213(1998) (1998) Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  4. ^ Sheik, Mani; Gutierrez, Maria Isabel; Bolton, Paul; Spiegel, Paul; Thieren, Michel; Burnham, Gilbert (2000). "Deaths among humanitarian workers". BMJ. 321 (7254): 166–168. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7254.166. PMC 1118167. PMID 10894699.