The Security Service, also
MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5),
is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security
agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret
Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters
Defence Intelligence (DI).
MI5 is directed by the Joint
Intelligence Committee (JIC), and the service is bound by the Security
Service Act 1989. The service is directed to protect British
parliamentary democracy and economic interests, and counter terrorism
and espionage within the UK.
Within the civil service community the service is colloquially known
as Box 500 (after its official wartime address of
PO Box 500; its
current address is
PO Box 3255,
London SW1P 1AE).
The service has had a national headquarters at
Thames House on
London since 1995, drawing together personnel from a
number of locations into a single HQ facility:
Thames House also
houses the Joint
Terrorism Analysis Centre, a subordinate organisation
to the Security Service; prior to March 2013, Thames House
additionally housed the
Northern Ireland Office
Northern Ireland Office (NIO). The service has
offices across the United Kingdom including an HQ in Northern
Details of the northern operations centre in
Greater Manchester were
revealed by the firm who built it.
2.1 Early years
2.2 Inter-war period
2.3 Second World War
2.5 The Security Service's role in counter-terrorism
2.6 Serious crime
2.8 Participation of
MI5 Agents in Criminal Activity
4 Directors General of the Security Service
5 Past names of the Security Service
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
The Security Service comes under the authority of the Home Secretary
within the Cabinet. The service is headed by a Director General at
the grade of a
Permanent Secretary of the
British Civil Service
British Civil Service who is
directly supported by an internal security organisation, secretariat,
legal advisory branch and information services branch. The Deputy DG
is responsible for the operational activity of the service, being
responsible for four branches; international counter-terrorism,
National Security Advice Centre (counter proliferation and counter
espionage), Irish and domestic counter-terrorism and technical and
The service is directed by the Joint Intelligence Committee for
intelligence operational priorities. It liaises with SIS, GCHQ, DIS,
and a number of other bodies within the British government and
industrial base. It is overseen by the Intelligence and Security
Committee of Members of Parliament, who are directly appointed by the
Prime Minister, by the Interception of Communications Commissioner,
and by the Intelligence Services Commissioner. Judicial oversight of
the service's conduct is exercised by the Investigatory Powers
Operations of the service are required to be proportionate and
compliant with British legislation including the Regulation of
Investigatory Powers Act 2000, the Data Protection Act 1998, and
various other items of legislation. Information held by the service is
exempt from disclosure under section 23 of the Freedom of Information
All employees of the service are bound by the Official Secrets
Act. In certain circumstances employees can be authorised to carry
out activity, which would otherwise be criminal, within the UK.
The current Director General is Andrew Parker, who succeeded Jonathan
Evans on 22 April 2013.
The service marked its centenary in 2009 by publishing an official
history, written by Christopher Andrew, Professor of Modern and
Contemporary History at Cambridge University.
The Security Service is derived from the Secret Service Bureau,
founded in 1909 and concentrating originally on the activities of the
Imperial German government as a joint initiative of the
the War Office. The Bureau was split into naval and army sections
which, over time, specialised in foreign target espionage and internal
counter-espionage activities respectively. This specialisation was a
result of the
Admiralty intelligence requirements related to the
maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy. This specialisation was
formalised prior to 1914 and the beginning of World War I, with the
two sections undergoing a number of administrative changes and the
home section becoming Directorate of Military Intelligence Section 5
(MI5), the name by which it is still known in popular culture.
The founding head of the Army section was
Vernon Kell of the South
Staffordshire Regiment, who remained in that role until the early part
of the Second World War. Its role was originally quite restricted;
existing purely to ensure national security through counter-espionage.
With a small staff and working in conjunction with the
of the Metropolitan Police, the service was responsible for overall
direction and the identification of foreign agents, whilst Special
Branch provided the manpower for the investigation of their affairs,
arrest and interrogation.
On the day after the declaration of World War I, the Home Secretary,
Reginald McKenna, announced that "within the last twenty-four hours no
fewer than twenty-one spies, or suspected spies, have been arrested in
various places all over the country, chiefly in important military or
naval centres, some of them long known to the authorities to be
spies", a reference to arrests directed by the service. These
arrests have provoked recent historical controversy. According to the
official history of MI5, the actual number of agents identified was 22
and Kell had started sending out letters to local police forces on 29
July giving them advance warning of arrests to be made as soon as war
was declared. Portsmouth Constabulary jumped the gun and arrested one
on 3 August, and not all of the 22 were in custody by the time that
McKenna made his speech, but the official history regards the incident
as a devastating blow to
Imperial Germany which deprived them of their
entire spy ring, and specifically upset the Kaiser.
This view has been challenged by Nicholas Hiley who has asserted that
it is a complete fabrication. In 2006 his article "Entering the Lists"
was published in the journal Intelligence and National Security
outlining the products of his research into recently opened files.
Hiley was sent an advance copy of the official history and objected to
the retelling of the story. He later wrote another article,
"Re-entering the Lists", which asserted that the list of those
arrested published in the official history was concocted from
later case histories.
After this auspicious start, the history of
MI5 becomes darker. It was
consistently successful throughout the rest of the 1910s and 1920s in
its core counter-espionage role. Throughout World War I, Germany
continued trying to infiltrate Britain but
MI5 was able to identify
most, if not all, of the agents dispatched.
MI5 used a method that
depended on strict control of entry and exit to the country and,
crucially, large-scale inspection of mail. In post-war years,
attention turned to attempts by the
Soviet Union and the
surreptitiously support revolutionary activities within Britain. MI5's
expertise, combined with the early incompetence of the Soviets, meant
the bureau was successful once more in correctly identifying and
closely monitoring these activities.
However, in the meantime, MI5's role had been substantially enlarged.
Due to the spy hysteria,
MI5 had been formed with far more resources
than it actually needed to track down German spies. As is common
within governmental bureaucracies, this caused the service to expand
its role, to use its spare resources.
MI5 acquired many additional
responsibilities during the war. Most significantly, its strict
counter-espionage role blurred considerably. It became a much more
political role, involving the surveillance not merely of foreign
agents but also of pacifist and anti-conscription organisations, and
of organised labour. This was justified through the common belief that
foreign influence was at the root of these organisations. Thus, by the
end of the World War I,
MI5 was a fully-fledged investigating force
(although it never had powers of arrest), in addition to being a
counter-espionage agency. The expansion of this role continued after a
brief post-war power struggle with the head of the
Special Branch, Sir
After World War I, Kell's department was considered unnecessary by
budget-conscious politicians. In 1919, MI5's budget was slashed from
£100,000 and over 800 officers to just £35,000 and 12 officers. At
the same time, Sir
Basil Thomson of
Special Branch was appointed
Director of Home Intelligence, in supreme command of all domestic
counter-insurgency and counter-intelligence investigations.
Consequently, as official
MI5 historian Christopher Andrew has noted
in his official history Defence of the Realm (2010),
MI5 had no
clearly defined role in the Anglo-Irish War. And to add insult to
injury, several of Kell's officers defected to Thomson's new Agency,
the Home Intelligence Directorate.
MI5 therefore undertook no tangible
intelligence operations of consequence during the Irish War of
MI5 did undertake the training of
British Army Case
Officers from the Department of Military Intelligence (DMI) for the
Army's so-called "Silent Section" otherwise known as M04(x). Quickly
MI5 veterans at Hounslow Barracks, outside London, these
freshly minted M04(x) Army case officers were deployed to Dublin
beginning in the Spring of 1919. Over time, 175 officers were trained
and dispatched to Ireland. In Ireland, they came under the command of
General Romer and his Deputy, Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Searles
In April 1919, Colonel Walter Wilson of DMI arrived in Dublin to take
over the day-to-day management of these 175 Army intelligence
officers, and the unit was designated as the "Dublin District Special
Branch" (DMI/MO4(x)/DDSB) because it operated exclusively within the
confines of the Army's Dublin Military District. Royal Marine Colonel
Hugh Montgomery of the Department of Naval Intelligence, was also
seconded to Romer's intelligence staff at this time. British Army
after-action reports and contemporary accounts indicate that
M04(x)/DDSB was considered a highly amateurish outfit. Serious cover
constraints, coupled with alcohol abuse and social fraternization with
local prostitutes would prove to be the downfall of several of these
The intelligence staff of Michael Collins Irish Republican Army
penetrated the unit. Using DMP detectives
Ned Broy and David
Nelligan, Michael Collins was able to learn the names and lodgings of
the M04(x) agents, referred to by IRA operatives as "The Cairo Gang".
On Bloody Sunday, Collins ordered his
Counter-intelligence Unit, The
Squad, to assassinate 25 M04(x) agents, several British Courts Martial
Officers, at least one agent reporting to Basil Thomson, and several
intelligence officers attached to the Royal Irish Constabulary
Auxiliary Division, at their lodgings throughout Dublin. Although the
shooting of 14 British officers had the desired effect on British
morale, in many ways Bloody Sunday was a botched job. Three of
Collins's men were apprehended after engaging in a shoot-out on the
street, and at least two of the wounded British officers had no
connection whatsoever to British Intelligence. Moreover, with MO4(x)
having fielded a total of 175 agents of the DDSB, Collins's operation
only temporarily slowed British momentum. Within days, the remaining
160-odd M04(x) agents were re-established in secure quarters inside
solidly Loyalist hotels in Dublin, from where they continued to pursue
Collins and the IRA relentlessly right up until the Truce. In December
1920 the entire DDSB was transferred from
British Army Command to
civil command under Deputy Police Commissioner General Ormonde Winter,
and thereafter was known as "D Branch" within Dublin Castle. By
January 1921, the highly experienced
MI6 operative David Boyle arrived
at Dublin Castle to take over the day-to-day management of D Branch.
The unit's former commander, Colonel Wilson, resigned in protest for
having had his command taken from him. D Branch thrived under Boyle's
leadership. The net impact of Collins's strike of Bloody Sunday,
November 21, 1920, was therefore quite negligible—even though the
IRA had not gone up against
MI5 professionals but instead only a
quickly trained outfit of amateur army "D-Listers."
That afternoon, a mixed force of the British Army, the Royal Irish
Constabulary, and the
Black and Tans
Black and Tans retaliated by indiscriminately
shooting dead 14 civilians at a
Gaelic Football match at Croke
In 1921, Sir Warren Fisher, the Government inspector general for civil
service affairs, conducted a thorough review of the operations and
expenditures of Basil Thomson's Home Intelligence Directorate. He
issued a scathing report, accusing Thomson of wasting both money and
resources and conducting redundant as well as ineffectual operations.
Shortly thereafter, in a private meeting with
Prime Minister David
Lloyd George, Sir
Basil Thomson was sacked, and the Home Intelligence
Directorate was formally abolished. With Thomson out of the way,
Special Branch was returned to the command of the Commissioner of The
Criminal Investigation Division at Scotland Yard. Only then was Vernon
Kell able once again to rebuild
MI5 and regain its former place as
Britain's chief domestic spy agency.
MI5 operated in Italy during inter-war period.
MI5 helped Benito
Mussolini get his start in politics with the £100 weekly wage.
MI5's decline in counter-espionage efficiency began in the 1930s. It
was, to some extent, a victim of its own success. It was unable to
break the ways of thinking it had evolved in the 1910s and 1920s. In
particular, it was unable to adjust to the new methods of the Soviet
intelligence services the
NKVD and GRU. It continued to think in terms
of agents who would attempt to gather information simply through
observation or bribery, or to agitate within labour organisations and
the armed services, while posing as ordinary citizens. The NKVD,
however, had evolved more sophisticated methods; it began to recruit
agents from within the British nobility, most notably from Cambridge
University, who were seen as a long-term investment. They succeeded in
gaining positions within the Government (and, in Kim Philby's case,
within British intelligence itself), from where they were able to
NKVD with sensitive information. The most successful of
these agents—Harold "Kim" Philby, Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess,
Anthony Blunt and John Cairncross—went undetected until after the
Second World War, and were known as the Cambridge Five.
Second World War
MI5 experienced further failure during the Second World War. It was
chronically unprepared, both organisationally and in terms of
resources, for the outbreak of war, and utterly unequal to the task
which it was assigned—the large-scale internment of enemy aliens in
an attempt to uncover enemy agents. The operation was poorly handled
and contributed to the near-collapse of the agency by 1940. One of the
earliest actions of
Winston Churchill on coming to power in early 1940
was to sack the agency's long-term head, Vernon Kell. He was replaced
initially by the ineffective Brigadier A.W.A. Harker, as Acting
Director General. Harker in turn was quickly replaced by David Petrie,
an SIS man, with Harker as his deputy. With the ending of the Battle
of Britain and the abandonment of invasion plans (correctly reported
by both SIS and the
Bletchley Park Ultra project), the spy scare
eased, and the internment policy was gradually reversed. This eased
pressure on MI5, and allowed it to concentrate on its major wartime
success, the so-called "double-cross" system.
This was a system based on an internal memo drafted by an
in 1936, which criticised the long-standing policy of arresting and
sending to trial all enemy agents discovered by MI5. Several had
offered to defect to Britain when captured; before 1939, such requests
were invariably turned down. The memo advocated attempting to "turn"
captured agents wherever possible, and use them to mislead enemy
intelligence agencies. This suggestion was turned into a massive and
well-tuned system of deception during the Second World War.
Beginning with the capture of an agent named Owens, codenamed Snow,
MI5 began to offer enemy agents the chance to avoid prosecution (and
thus the possibility of the death penalty) if they would work as
British double-agents. Agents who agreed to this were supervised by
MI5 in transmitting bogus "intelligence" back to the German secret
service, the Abwehr. This necessitated a large-scale organisational
effort, since the information had to appear valuable but actually be
misleading. A high-level committee, the Wireless Board, was formed to
provide this information. The day-to-day operation was delegated to a
subcommittee, the Twenty Committee (so called because the Roman
numerals for twenty, XX, form a double cross).
The system was extraordinarily successful. A postwar analysis of
German intelligence records found that of the 115 or so agents
targeted against Britain during the war, all but one (who committed
suicide) had been successfully identified and caught, with several
"turned" to become double agents. The system played a major part in
the massive campaign of deception which preceded the
designed to give the Germans a false impression of the location and
timings of the landings (see Operation Fortitude).
All foreigners entering the country were processed at the London
Reception Centre (LRC) at the Royal Patriotic School which was
MI5 subsection B1D, 30,000 were inspected at LRC. Captured
enemy agents were taken to Camp 020, Latchmere House, for
interrogation. This was commanded by Colonel Robin Stephens. There was
a Reserve Camp, Camp 020R, at Huntercombe which was used mainly for
long term detention of prisoners.
The Prime Minister's personal responsibility for the Service was
delegated to the
Home Secretary Maxwell-Fyfe in 1952, with a directive
issued by the
Home Secretary setting out the role and objectives of
the Director General. The service was subsequently placed on a
statutory basis in 1989 with the introduction of the Security Service
Act. This was the first government acknowledgement of the existence of
The post-war period was a difficult time for the Service with a
significant change in the threat as the
Cold War began, being
challenged by an extremely active
KGB and increasing incidence of the
Northern Ireland conflict and international terrorism. Whilst little
has yet been released regarding the successes of the service there
have been a number of intelligence failures which have created
embarrassment for both the service and the government. For instance in
1983 one of its officers, Michael Bettaney, was caught trying to sell
information to the KGB. He was subsequently convicted of
Michael Bettaney case,
Philip Woodfield was appointed as
a staff counsellor for the security and intelligence services. His
role was to be available to be consulted by any member or former
member of the security and intelligence services who had "anxieties
relating to the work of his or her service" that it had not been
possible to allay through the ordinary processes of management-staff
relations, including proposals for publications.
The Service was instrumental in breaking up a large Soviet spy ring at
the start of the 1970s, with 105 Soviet embassy staff known or
suspected to be involved in intelligence activities being expelled
from the country in 1971.
One episode involving
MI5 and the BBC came to light in the mid-1980s.
Ronnie Stonham had an office in the BBC and took part in
Controversy arose when it was alleged that the service was monitoring
trade unions and left-wing politicians. A file was kept on Labour
Harold Wilson from 1945, when he became an MP, although
the agency's official historian, Christopher Andrew maintains that his
MI5 conspiracies and bugging were unfounded. As Home
Secretary, the Labour MP
Jack Straw discovered the existence of his
own file dating from his days as a student radical.
One of the most significant and far reaching failures was an inability
to conclusively detect and apprehend the "Cambridge Five" spy ring
which had formed in the inter-war years and achieved great success in
penetrating the government, and the intelligence agencies
themselves. Related to this failure were suggestions of a
high-level penetration within the service,
Peter Wright (especially in
his controversial book Spycatcher) and others believing that evidence
implicated the former Director General,
Roger Hollis or his deputy
Graham Mitchell. The Trend inquiry of 1974 found the case unproven of
that accusation, and that view was later supported by the former KGB
officer Oleg Gordievsky. Another spy ring, the Portland Spy Ring,
exposed after a tip-off by Soviet defector Michael Goleniewski, led to
MI5 surveillance operation.
There have been strong accusations leveled against
MI5 for having
failed in its obligation to provide care for former police agents who
had infiltrated the Provisional IRA during the Troubles. The two most
notable of the agents,
Martin McGartland and Raymond Gilmour, are
presently residing in England using false identities and in 2012
launched test cases against the agency. Both men claimed to journalist
Liam Clarke in the
Belfast Telegraph that they were abandoned by MI5
and were "left high and dry despite severe health problems as a result
of their work and lavish promises of life-time care from their former
Intelligence bosses". Both men suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress
The Security Service's role in counter-terrorism
Part of Thames House
The end of the
Cold War resulted in a change in emphasis for the
operations of the service, assuming responsibility for the
investigation of all Irish republican activity within Britain  and
increasing the effort countering other forms of terrorism,
particularly in more recent years the more widespread threat of
Whilst the British security forces in
Northern Ireland have provided
support in the countering of both republican and loyalist paramilitary
groups since the early 1970s, republican sources have often accused
these forces of collusion with loyalists. In 2006, an Irish government
committee inquiry found that there was widespread collusion between
British security forces and loyalist terrorists in the 1970s, which
resulted in eighteen deaths. In 2012, a document based review
by Sir Desmond de Silva QC into the 1989 murder of Belfast solicitor
Patrick Finucane found that
MI5 had colluded with the Ulster Defence
Association (UDA). The review disclosed that
MI5 assessments of
UDA intelligence consistently noted that the majority came from MI5
sources with an assessment in 1985 finding 85% came from MI5.
David Cameron accepted the findings and apologised on
behalf of the British government and acknowledged significant levels
of collusion with Loyalists in its state agencies.
On 10 October 2007, the lead responsibility for national security
Northern Ireland returned to the Security Service from
the Police Service of
Northern Ireland that had been devolved in 1976
Royal Ulster Constabulary
Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) during Ulsterisation.
During April 2010 the
Real IRA detonated a 120 lb. car bomb
outside Palace Barracks in
County Down which is the headquarters of
Northern Ireland and also home to the 2nd Battalion The Mercian
MI5 is understood to have a close working relationship with the
Republic of Ireland's
Special Detective Unit
Special Detective Unit (SDU), the
counter-terrorism and counter-intelligence section of the Garda
Síochána (national police), particularly with regards to threats
from dissident republican terrorism and Islamic terrorism.
Executive Liaison Groups enable
MI5 to safely share secret, sensitive,
and often raw intelligence with the police, on which decisions can be
made about how best to gather evidence and prosecute suspects in the
courts. Each organisation works in partnership throughout the
MI5 retain the lead for collecting, assessing and
exploiting intelligence. The police take lead responsibility for
gathering evidence, obtaining arrests and preventing risks to the
In 1996, legislation formalised the extension of the Security
Service's statutory remit to include supporting the law enforcement
agencies in their work against serious crime. Tasking was
reactive, acting at the request of law enforcement bodies such as the
National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS), for whom
performed electronic surveillance and eavesdropping duties during
Operation Trinity. This role has subsequently been passed to the
Serious Organised Crime Agency
Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) and then the National Crime
In 2001, after the
September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks in the U.S.,
collecting bulk telephone communications data under a little
understood general power of the
Telecommunications Act 1984
Telecommunications Act 1984 (instead
Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000
Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 which would have
brought independent oversight and regulation). This was kept secret
until announced by the
Home Secretary in 2015.
In July 2006, parliamentarian
Norman Baker accused the British
Government of "hoarding information about people who pose no danger to
this country", after it emerged that
MI5 holds secret files on 272,000
individuals—equivalent to one in 160 adults. It had previously
been revealed that a "traffic light" system operates:
Green: active—about 10% of files
Amber: enquiries prohibited, further information may be added—about
46% of files.
Red: enquiries prohibited, substantial information may not be
added—about 44% of files
MI5 Agents in Criminal Activity
In March 2018 the government acknowledged that
MI5 agents are allowed
to carry out criminal activity in the UK. Mao Foa, the director of
Reprieve, said: “After a seven-month legal battle the prime minister
has finally been forced to publish her secret order but we are a long
way from having transparency. The public and parliament are still
being denied the guidance that says when British spies can commit
criminal offences and how far they can go. Authorised criminality is
the most intrusive power a state can wield. Theresa May must publish
this guidance without delay.”
MI5 was based at
Leconfield House (1945–1976) and 140 Gower Street
(1976–1994, since demolished) before moving to
Thames House in
Directors General of the Security Service
Main article: Director General of MI5
Vernon Kell (b. 1873–d. 1942)
Oswald Allen Harker (b. 1886–d. 1968)
David Petrie (b. 1879–d. 1961)
Percy Sillitoe (b. 1888–d. 1962)
Dick White (b. 1906–d. 1993)
Roger Hollis (b. 1905–d. 1973)
Martin Furnival Jones (b. 1912–d. 1997)
Michael Hanley (b. 1918–d. 2001)
1979–1981: Howard Smith (b. 1919–d. 1996)
1981–1985: John Jones (b. 1923–d. 1998)
Antony Duff (b. 1920–d. 2000)
1988–1992: Patrick Walker (b. 1932)
Stella Rimington (b. 1935)
Stephen Lander (b. 1947)
Eliza Manningham-Buller (b. 1948)
2007–2013: Jonathan Evans (b. 1958)
From April 2013: Andrew Parker (b. 1962)
Past names of the Security Service
Although commonly referred to as "MI5", this was the Service's
official name for only thirteen years (1916–29). However, as an
acknowledgement of popular thought, "MI5" is used as a sub-title on
the various pages of the official Security Service website.
October 1909: Founded as the Home Section of the Secret Service
April 1914: Became a subsection of the
War Office Directorate of
Military Operations, section 5 (MO5)—MO5(g).
September 1916: Became Military Intelligence section 5—MI5.
1929: Renamed the Defence Security Service.
1931: Renamed the Security Service.
Annie Machon –
Club de Berne – a European intelligence sharing forum
Terrorism Command – of London's Metropolitan Police Service
David Shayler –
Terrorism Analysis Centre
Spooks – a BBC television drama about the work of a group of MI5
officers (renamed MI-5 in the United States)
Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament
Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament Annual Report
2015–2016" (PDF). House of Commons. 5 July 2016. p. 11.
Retrieved 23 October 2016.
Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament
Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament Annual Report
2015–2016" (PDF). House of Commons. 5 July 2016. p. 10.
Retrieved 12 January 2017.
^ "What's in a name?". MI5. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
^ Geraghty, Tony (2000). The Irish War. London: HarperCollins.
Counter-terrorism and Trust".
MI5 (Press release). 5
November 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
^ Leppard, David (14 June 2009). "Oops! Building firm blurts out
secrets of hush-hush
MI5 HQ". The Sunday Times. Archived from the
original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
^ "Security Service Act 1989: The Security Service".
Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
^ "Intelligence Services Act 1994". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 27
^ "Freedom of Information Act, section 23". Office of Public Sector
Information. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
^ Leach, Robert; Coxall, Bill; Robins, Lynton (17 August 2011).
British Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 341.
ISBN 978-0-230-34422-8. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
^ a b Grierson, Jamie (2 March 2018). "
MI5 agents can commit crime in
UK, government reveals". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
^ "Appointment of the new Director General of the Security Service".
Home Office. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
MI5 - The authorised centenary history". MI5. Archived from the
original on 30 September 2013.
^ Reginald McKenna,
Home Secretary (5 August 1914). "Aliens
Restriction Bill". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons.
^ Andrew, Christopher (2009). The Defence of the Realm: The Authorised
History of MI5. Allen Lane. pp. 49–52.
^ Hiley, Nicholas (2006). "Entering the Lists: MI5's great spy
round-up of August 1914". Intelligence and National Security. 21 (1):
^ Andrew, Christopher (2009). The Defence of the Realm: The Authorised
History of MI5. Allen Lane. pp. 873–875.
^ Hiley, Nicholas (2010). "Re-entering the Lists: MI5's Authorized
History and the August 1914 Arrests". Intelligence and National
Security. 25 (4): 415–452. doi:10.1080/02684527.2010.537022.
^ "Basil Thomson". Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original
on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ a b c Hittle, J. B. E. (2011). Michael Collins and the Anglo-Irish
War: Britain's Failed Counterinsurgency. Washington, D.C.: Potomac
Books. ISBN 978-1-59797-535-3.
^ Dwyer, T. Ryle. The Squad and the Intelligence Operations of Michael
Collins. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 978-1-85635-469-1.
^ "Croke Park: Queen in emotionally charged visit". BBC News. 18 May
2011. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ Kington, Tom (13 October 2009). "Recruited by MI5: the name's
Benito Mussolini Documents reveal Italian dictator got
start in politics in 1917 with help of £100 weekly wage from MI5".
The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
^ a b "The Cambridge Spies". BBC. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ a b c d Masterman, John C. (1972) . The Double-Cross System in
the War of 1939 to 1945. Australian National University Press.
^ Hoare, Oliver (2000). Camp 020:
MI5 and the Nazi Spies — The
Official History of MI5's Wartime Interrogation Centre. Public Record
Office. ISBN 1-903365-08-2.
^ "Security Service Act 1989". 4 July 2000. Retrieved 1 July
^ a b Harrison, David (11 November 2007). "
Cold War rivals play at spy
game". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ The Earl of Caithness, Minister of State,
Home Office (30
November 1987). "Security Services Ombudsman: Access". Parliamentary
Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. col. 811.
^ John Patten, Minister for Home Affairs (21 December 1988).
"Official Secrets Bill". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of
Commons. col. 538.
^ Hollingsworth, Mark; Norton-Taylor, Richard (1988). Blacklist: The
Inside Story of Political Vetting. London: Hogarth Press. p. 104.
MI5 kept file on former PM Wilson". BBC News. 3 October 2009.
^ Schaefer, Sarah (22 January 1999). "Parliament & Politics: Straw
will not see his
MI5 file". The Independent. Retrieved 1 July
^ Bamford, James (18 November 1990). "Gordievsky's People". The New
York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ Lewis, Jason; Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (18 June 2011). "
the Archbishop of Canterbury a subversive over anti-Thatcher
campaigns". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ Clarke, Liam (14 September 2012). "Two ex-spies target
landmark legal battle over payouts". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 7
^ "7 Tied to Faction of the I.R.A. Face
Terrorism Charges". The New
York Times. 19 May 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
^ Palmer, Alasdair (14 May 2006). "
MI5 mission: impossible". The Daily
Telegraph. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ "Barron finds British collusion in attacks". The Irish Times. 29
^ "Final Report on the Report of the Independent Commission of Inquiry
into the Bombing of Kay's Tavern, Dundalk" (PDF). Houses of the
Oireachtas. November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26
October 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011 – via Burnsmoley.com.
^ a b "Volume 1 Chapter 11: The flow of information from members of
the security forces to the UDA". Pat Finucane Review. Archived from
the original on 16 December 2012.
^ "Pat Finucane murder: 'Shocking state collusion', says PM". BBC
News. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
MI5 In Northern Ireland". Security Service MI5. Retrieved 15 July
^ "Transfer of national security lead to the Security Service". Police
Service of Northern Ireland. Archived from the original on 8 June
^ "Man arrested over Palace Barracks bomb released". BBC News. 9 May
2010. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ McDonald, Henry (2 March 2008). "
MI5 targets Ireland's al-Qaeda
cells". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
^ Howells, Kim (May 2009). Could 7/7 Have Been Prevented? Review of
the Intelligence on the
London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005 (PDF).
London: UK Cabinet Office, Intelligence and Security Committee.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2009.
^ a b Baroness Blatch, Minister of State,
Home Office (10 June
1996). "Security Service Bill". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House
of Commons. col. 1502–1503.
^ Corera, Gordon (5 November 2015). "How and why
MI5 kept phone data
spy programme secret". BBC News. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
^ Whitehead, Tom (4 November 2015). "
MI5 and GCHQ secretly bulk
collecting British public's phone and email records for years, Theresa
May reveals". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
^ "Here's the little-known legal loophole that permitted mass
surveillance in the UK". The Register. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 9
MI5 has secret dossiers on one in 160 adults". The Mail on Sunday.
9 July 2006.
^ Jack Straw,
Home Secretary (25 February 1998). "Security
Service Files". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons.
MI5 Files". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 5
June 2006. col. 278W.
MI5 (The Security Service)". The Secret Architecture of London.
Retrieved 18 February 2017.
^ Sheldon, Robert (June 1993).
Thames House and Vauxhall Cross (PDF).
London: National Audit Office. p. 43.
ISBN 978-0-10556-669-4. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
Aldrich, R. J.; Cormac, R. (2016). The Black Door: Spies, Secret
Intelligence and British Prime Ministers. Collins.
Andrew, Christopher (2009). The Defence of the Realm: The Authorised
History of MI5. Allen Lane. ISBN 1-84614-284-9. Published
as Defend the Realm: The Authorised History of MI5, USA: Knopf,
November 2009, ISBN 978-0-307-26363-6 .
Curry, John (1999). The Security Service, 1908–1945. Public Record
Office. ISBN 978-1-873162-79-8.
Hennessey, Thomas; Thomas, Claire (2009). Spooks: The Unofficial
MI5 from the First Atom Spy to 7/7, 1945–2009. Amberley.
Hennessey, Thomas; Thomas, Claire (2010). Spooks: the Unofficial
MI5 from Agent ZIGZAG to the
D-Day Deception, 1939–45.
Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4456-0184-7.
Machon, A. (2005). Spies, Lies and Whistleblowers: MI5,
MI6 and the
Shayler Affair. The Book Guild. ISBN 978-1-85776-952-4.
Milne, Seumas (2014). The Enemy Within: The Secret War Against the
Miners. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-78168-342-2.
Murphy, Christopher J. (2006). Security and
Special Operations: SOE
MI5 during the Second World War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pincher, Chapman (2011). Treachery Betrayals, Blunders and Cover Ups:
Six Decades of Espionage. Mainstream Publishing.
Quinlan, K. (2014). The Secret War Between the Wars:
MI5 in the 1920s
and the 1930s. Bowyer. ISBN 978-1-84383-938-5.
Rimington, Stella (2001). Open Secret: The Autobiography of the Former
Director-General of MI5. Hutchinson.
Thomas, Martin (2008). Empires of Intelligence: Security Services and
Colonial Disorder after 1914. University of California Press.
Thurlow, R. (1994). The Secret State: British Internal Security in the
Twentieth Century. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-16066-3.
West, Nigel (1981). A British Security Service Operations,
1939–1945. Bodley Head. ISBN 978-0-370-30324-6.
West, Nigel (2012). Mask: MI5's Penetration of the Communist Party of
Great Britain. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35145-4.
West, Nigel (1982). A Matter of Trust: MI5, 1945–72. Weidenfeld
& Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-340-33781-3.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Security Service of the United
"Records of the Security Service". The National Archives.
"UK Intelligence Community On Line". Cabinet Office.
Links to related articles
United Kingdom intelligence agencies
Security Service (MI5)
Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure
National Crime Agency
National Crime Agency (NCA)
National Ballistics Intelligence Service
National Ballistics Intelligence Service (NBIS)
National Fraud Intelligence Bureau
Metropolitan Police Service
Metropolitan Police Service Specialist Operations
National Domestic Extremism and Disorder Intelligence Unit
Terrorism Policing Network
Secret Intelligence Service
Secret Intelligence Service (SIS/MI6)
Defence Intelligence (DI)
Defence Intelligence Fusion Centre
Joint Intelligence Training Group
Joint Support Group
1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade
30 Commando Information Exploitation Group
Government Communications Headquarters
Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ)
National Cyber Security Centre
Joint Intelligence Organisation (JIO)
Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC)
Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)
National Security Council
National Security Adviser
Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Ministry of Defence
Chiefs of Staff Committee
Joint Forces Command
Single Intelligence Account
National Security Strategy
Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament
Independent Reviewer of
Investigatory Powers Tribunal
Intelligence Services Commissioner
Interception of Communications Commissioner
Directorate of Military Intelligence
Naval Intelligence Department
Naval Intelligence Division
No. 30 Commando
Special Operations Executive (SOE)
Diplomatic Wireless Service
Far East Combined Bureau
Force Research Unit
Special Reconnaissance Unit
Military Reaction Force
National intelligence agencies
Bosnia and Herzegovina: OSA-OBA
Czech Republic: ÚZSI
Ghana: BNI, BGU, RDU
Ivory Coast: NSC
Republic of Macedonia: UBK
New Zealand: NZSIS
North Korea: RGB
Oman: Palace Office
Papua New Guinea: NIO
Saudi Arabia: Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah
Sierra Leone: CISU
South Africa: SSA
South Korea: NIS
Sri Lanka: SIS
United Arab Emirates: UAEI
United Kingdom: SIS (MI6)
United States: CIA
Bosnia and Herzegovina: SIPA
Czech Republic: BIS
Ghana: GPS, CID
Hong Kong: CIB
India: IB, CBI, NSC, AIRMS
Iran: VAJA, IRGC, PAVA
Ireland: CSB, SDU, NSU
Israel: Shin Bet
Republic of Macedonia: IA
Japan: NPA, PSIA
New Zealand: NZSIS
North Korea: SSD
Pakistan: IB, FIA
Saudi Arabia: Mabahith
South Africa: SSA
South Korea: SPO
Sri Lanka: SIS
Thailand: ISOC, SB
United Kingdom: Security Service (MI5), NDEDIU, NCA, NBIS
United States: FBI
Canada: Int Branch
Czech Republic: VZ
Finland: PE TIEDOS
France: DRM, DGSE
Iran: General Staff, SAHEFAJA, SAHEFASA, SAHEFAVEDJA
India: DMI, DIA
Republic of Macedonia: MSSI
New Zealand: DDIS
Pakistan: MI, NI, AI
Poland: SKW, SWW
Serbia: VOA, VBA
South Africa: SANDF-ID
South Korea: DSC
Spain: Armed Forces Intelligence Center
Sri Lanka: DMI
Syria: MI, AFID
Turkey: GENKUR İ.D.B., JİTEM
Ukraine: HUR MO
United Kingdom: DI
United States: DIA
Brazil: 2ª Sch/EMD
New Zealand: GCSB
South Africa: SSA
Turkey: MİT-ETİB, MİT-SİB
United Kingdom: GCHQ
United States: NSA
Israel: Air Intelligence Group
New Zealand: GEOINT NZ
Russia: TsVTI GRU
United Kingdom: DGIFC
United States: NGA
Global surveillance disclosures
Great Firewall of China
Mass surveillance in China
Call detail record
Turbulence (NSA programme)
Surveillance issues in smart cities
ISNI: 0000 0004 0442 4310
Coordinates: 51°29′38.3″N 0°07′32.2″W / 51.493972°N
0.125611°W / 51