Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (abbreviated as MGM or M-G-M, also
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or simply
Metro, and for a former interval known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United
Artists, or MGM/UA) is an American media company, involved primarily
in the production and distribution of feature films and television
programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters
are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills,
Once the largest, most glamorous, and most revered film studio in
Hollywood, MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur
Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer Pictures.[page needed]
In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox,
a plan which never came into fruition. Over the next 39 years, the
studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on
November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM
emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the
executives of Spyglass Entertainment,
Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum,
became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. As of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, and
co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures,
Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company
listed on the
New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", is
not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
2.2 MGM cartoon shorts
2.4 MGM/UA Entertainment
2.5 MGM Entertainment
2.6 MGM/UA Communications
2.9 MGM Holdings
4 Leo logo and mottos
5 The MGM library
Turner Entertainment Co.
5.2 Acquired libraries
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2014)
MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of
this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s,
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in
Hollywood.[page needed][page needed] Always slow to
respond to the changing legal, economic, and demographic nature of the
motion picture industry during the 1950s and
1960s,[page needed][page needed][page needed]
and although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio
lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In
1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr., whose son
Edgar Jr. would later buy Universal Studios. Three
years later, an increasingly unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk
Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio
to produce low-budget fare, and then shut down theatrical distribution
in 1973. The studio continued to produce five to six films a year
that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists.
Kerkorian did, however, commit to increased production and an expanded
film library when he bought
United Artists in 1981.
MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going
at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film
franchise.[page needed] It also incurred significant amounts
of debt to increase production.[page needed] The studio took
on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and
early 1990s. In 1986,
Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months later,
sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while
keeping the library assets for himself. The series of deals left MGM
even more heavily in debt. MGM was bought by
(led by Italian publishing magnate Giancarlo Parretti) in 1990, but
Parretti lost control of
Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to
purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit
Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor, then took control of
MGM. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a
joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and
Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively
affected MGM's ability to survive as an independent motion picture
studio. After a bidding war which included
Time Warner (the current
parent of Turner Broadcasting) and General Electric, MGM was acquired
on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation
of America, Comcast,
Texas Pacific Group
Texas Pacific Group (now TPG Capital, L.P.),
Providence Equity Partners, and other investors.
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Main article: Loews Cineplex Entertainment
In 1924, movie theater magnate
Marcus Loew had a problem. He had
Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films
for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment
of Metro films, Loew purchased
Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the
quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to
oversee his new
Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant
Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the
150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the
situation by buying
Louis B. Mayer Pictures
Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer
became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg
as head of production.[page needed]
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In
1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a
$4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. When Samuel
Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name.
Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loew's passed to Nicholas
Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of
Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew
family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed
with the decision. Mayer was active in the
California Republican Party
and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department
to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this
time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile
accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall
of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's
merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along (Mayer
reportedly referred to his boss as "Mr. Skunk"),[page needed]
and the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for glamor and
sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor
companies, Mayer and Thalberg began at once to create and publicize a
host of new stars, among them Greta Garbo, John Gilbert, William
Haines, Joan Crawford, and
Norma Shearer (who followed Thalberg from
Universal). Established names like Lon Chaney, William Powell, Buster
Wallace Beery were hired from other studios. They also
hired top directors such as King Vidor, Clarence Brown, Erich von
Stroheim, Tod Browning, and Victor Seastrom. The arrival of talking
pictures in 1928–29 gave opportunities to other new stars, many of
whom would carry MGM through the 1930s: Clark Gable, Jean Harlow,
Robert Montgomery, Spencer Tracy, Myrna Loy, Jeanette MacDonald, and
Nelson Eddy among them.
MGM was one of the first studios to experiment with filming in
Technicolor. Using the two-color
Technicolor process then available,
MGM filmed portions of The Uninvited Guest (1923), The Big Parade
(1925), and Ben–Hur (1925), among others, in the process. In 1928,
MGM released The Viking, the first complete
Technicolor feature with
sound (including a synchronized score and sound effects, but no spoken
With the arrival of talkies, MGM moved slowly and reluctantly into
sound, releasing features like
White Shadows in the South Seas with
music and sound effects, and
Alias Jimmy Valentine
Alias Jimmy Valentine with limited
dialogue sequences. Their first full-fledged talkie, the musical The
Broadway Melody in 1929, however, was both a box-office success and
Academy Award as Best Picture of the Year; and brought MGM
into the sound era.
MGM, however, was the very last studio to convert to "talkies" with
its first all-color, "all-talking" sound feature with dialogue The
Rogue Song, a 1930 musical. In 1934, MGM included a sequence made in
Technicolor's superior new three-color process, a musical number in
the otherwise black-and-white The Cat and the Fiddle, starring
Jeanette MacDonald and Ramon Novarro. The studio then produced a
number of three-color short subjects including 1935's musical La
Fiesta de Santa Barbara, but waited until 1938 to film a complete
feature in the process, Sweethearts with MacDonald and Nelson Eddy,
the earlier of the popular singing team's two films in color. From
then on, MGM regularly produced several films a year in Technicolor
with Northwest Passage being one of the most notable.
Marie Dressler and
Wallace Beery in
Min and Bill
Min and Bill (1930)
In addition to a large short-subjects program of its own, MGM also
released the shorts and features produced by
Hal Roach Studios,
including comedy shorts starring Laurel and Hardy,
Our Gang and
Charley Chase. MGM's distribution deal with Roach lasted from 1927 to
1938, and MGM benefited in particular from the success of the popular
Laurel and Hardy
Laurel and Hardy films. In 1938, MGM purchased the rights to Our Gang
and moved the production in-house, continuing production of the
successful series of children's comedies until 1944. From 1929 to
1931, MGM produced a series of comedy shorts called All Barkie
Dogville Comedies, in which trained dogs were dressed up to parody
contemporary films and were voiced by actors. One of the shorts, The
Dogway Melody (1930), spoofed MGM's hit 1929 musical The Broadway
MGM entered the music industry by purchasing the "Big Three" starting
Miller Music Publishing Co. in 1934 then Robbins Music
Corporation. In 1935, MGM acquired a controlling interest in the
capital stock of Leo Feist, Inc., the last of the "Big Three".
MGM produced approximately 50 pictures a year, though it never met its
goal of releasing a new motion picture each and every week (It was
only able to release one feature film every nine days). Loew's 153
theatres were mostly located in New York, the Northeast, and Deep
South; Gone with the Wind had its world premiere at Loew's Grand
Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia. A fine reputation was gained for lavish
productions that were sophisticated and polished to cater to an urban
audience. Still, as the
Great Depression deepened, MGM began to
economize by "recycling" existing sets, costumes, and furnishings from
yesteryear projects. This recycling practice never let up once
started. In addition, MGM saved money because it was the only one of
the big five studios that did not own an off-site movie ranch. Until
the mid-1950s, MGM could make a claim its rivals could not: it never
lost money, although it did have an occasional disaster like Parnell
(1937), Clark Gable's biggest flop. It was the only
that continued to pay dividends during the 1930s.
Spencer Tracy in Fury (1936)
MGM stars dominated the box office during the 1930s, and the studio
was credited for inventing the
Hollywood stable of stars system, as
well. MGM contracted with the American Musical Academy of Arts
Association to handle all of their press and artist development. The
AMAAA's main function was to develop the budding stars and to make
them appealing to the public. Stars such as Norma Shearer, Joan
Crawford, Greta Garbo,
Myrna Loy and
Jeanette MacDonald reigned as the
top-paid figures at the studio. Another MGM sex symbol actress, Jean
Harlow, who had previously appeared in the
Howard Hughes film Hell's
Angels, now had a big break and became one of MGM's most admired
stars, as well. Despite Miss Harlow's gain, Garbo still was a big star
for MGM. Shearer was still a money maker despite screen appearances
becoming scarce, and Crawford continued her box-office power until
1937. MGM would also receive a boost through the man who would become
"King of Hollywood", Clark Gable. Gable's career took off to new
heights after he won an Oscar for the 1934 Columbia film It Happened
One Night. Mayer and Irving Thalberg's relationship began warmly, but
eventually the two became estranged; Thalberg preferred literary works
to the crowd-pleasers Mayer wanted. Thalberg, always physically frail,
was removed as head of production in 1932. Mayer encouraged other
staff producers, among them his son-in-law David O. Selznick, but no
one seemed to have the sure touch of Thalberg. As Thalberg fell
increasingly ill in 1936, Louis Mayer could now serve as his temporary
replacement. Rumors began circulating that Thalberg was leaving to set
up his own independent company; his early death in
1936, at age 37, cost MGM dearly.
After Thalberg's untimely death, Mayer became head of production, as
well as studio chief, becoming the first million-dollar executive in
American history. The company remained profitable, although a change
toward "series" pictures (
Andy Hardy starring Mickey Rooney, Maisie
starring Ann Sothern, Thin Man starring
William Powell and Myrna Loy,
et al.) is seen by some as evidence of Mayer's restored influence.
Also playing a huge role was Ida Koverman, Mayer's secretary and right
In 1937, Mayer had hired Mervyn LeRoy, a former
Warner Bros. (WB)
producer/director as MGM's top producer and Thalberg's
replacement. LeRoy talked Mayer into purchasing the film right to
the popular book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which MGM did on June 3,
1938, from Sam Goldwyn for $75,000.
Hits in 1939 included The Wizard of Oz, Boys Town and Gone with the
Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O'Hara and
Clark Gable as
Rhett Butler. Although Gone With the Wind was produced by Selznick
International Pictures, it was distributed by MGM as part of a deal
for producer David O. Selznick, Mayer's son-in-law, to obtain the
services of Gable as well as financial assistance to complete the
film. MGM acquired all rights to Gone With the Wind in 1944 after
the foundering of Selznick International. While The
Wizard of Oz was a critical hit, the film took 20 years before turning
Within one year, beginning in 1942, Mayer released his five
highest-paid actresses from their studio contracts: Joan Crawford,
Norma Shearer, Greta Garbo,
Myrna Loy and Jeanette MacDonald. After a
two-year hiatus, Crawford moved to WB, where her career took a
dramatic upturn. Shearer and Garbo never made another film after
leaving the lot. Of the five stars, Loy and MacDonald were the only
two whom Mayer rehired, in 1947 and 1948 respectively.
Increasingly, before and during World War II, Mayer came to rely on
his "College of Cardinals" — senior producers who controlled the
studio's output. This management-by-committee resulted in MGM losing
its momentum, developing few new stars and relying on the safety of
sequels and bland material. (
Dorothy Parker memorably referred to it
as "Metro-Goldwyn-Merde."[page needed]) Production values
remained high, and even "B" pictures carried a polish and gloss that
made them expensive to mount. After 1940, production was cut from 50
pictures a year to a more manageable 25 features per year. During this
time, MGM released very successful musicals with players such as Judy
Garland, Fred Astaire, Gene Kelly, and Frank Sinatra.
Audiences began drifting to television in the late Forties. MGM found
it difficult to attract them to theaters. With its high overhead
expenses, MGM's profit margins continued to decrease. Word came from
Nicholas Schenck in New York: find "a new Thalberg" who could improve
quality while paring costs. Mayer thought he had found this savior in
Dore Schary, a writer and producer who had found success at running
RKO. Top notch musicals were Schary's focus, with hits like Easter
Parade and the various films of
Mario Lanza (most famously, The Great
Caruso) keeping MGM afloat.
In August 1951, Mayer was fired by MGM's East Coast executives and
was replaced by Schary. Gradually cutting loose expensive contract
players (most famously, $6,000-a-week
Judy Garland in 1950), saving
money by recycling existing movie sets instead of building costly new
scenery, and reworking pricey old costumes, Schary managed to keep the
studio running much as it had through the early 1940s though his
sensibilities for hard-edged, message movies would never bear much
fruit. One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of
producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an
independent unit within the studio. MGM produced some well-regarded
and profitable musicals that would be later acknowledged as classics,
among them An American in Paris (1951),
Singin' in the Rain
Singin' in the Rain (1952),
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954). However, Brigadoon (1954),
Deep in My Heart (1954),
It's Always Fair Weather
It's Always Fair Weather (1955), and
Invitation to the Dance (1956), were extravagant song and dance flops,
and even the now-classic
The Band Wagon
The Band Wagon (1953) lost money in its
initial release. Movie audiences more and more were staying home and
In 1952, as a settlement of the government's restraint-of-trade
United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. 334 US 131 (1948),
Loews, Inc. gave up control of MGM. It would take another five
years before the interlocking arrangements were completely undone, by
which time both Loews and MGM were sinking. Schary bowed out of MGM in
1956 in another power struggle against the New York-based
As the studio system faded in the late 1950s and 1960s, MGM's prestige
faded with it. In 1957 (by coincidence, the year Mayer died), the
studio lost money for the first time in its 34-year history. Cost
overruns and the failure of the 1957 big-budget epic Raintree County
prompted the studio to release Schary from his contract. Schary's
reign at MGM had been marked with few bona-fide hits, but his
departure (along with the retirement of Schenck in 1955) left a power
vacuum that would prove difficult to fill. Initially Joseph Vogel
became president and
Sol Siegel head of production. By 1960, MGM had
released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or
moving on to television.
MGM's first TV programs, The MGM Parade, was produced by MGM's trailer
department as one of the compilation and promotional shows that
imitated Disney's series Disneyland which was also on ABC. Parade
was canceled by ABC in the 2nd quarter of 1956. MGM took bids for
its movie library in 1956 from Lou Chesler, PRM, Inc. owner (the WB
pre-1948 library purchaser), and others, but decided on entering the
TV market itself. Chesler had offered $50 million for the film
library. MGM-TV was started with the hiring of Bud Barry to head
up the operation in June 1956. MGM-TV was to distribute its films to
TV (starting with the networks), TV production and purchasing TV
stations. TV production was expect to start with the 1957-58 season
and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its
pictures. Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the
The year 1957 also marked the end of MGM's animation department, as
the studio determined it could generate the same amount of revenue by
reissuing older cartoons as it could by producing and releasing new
William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, by then the heads of the
MGM cartoon studio, took most of their unit and made their own
Hanna-Barbera Productions, a successful producer of
In 1956, MGM sold the television rights for The Wizard of Oz to CBS,
which scheduled it to be shown in November of that year. In a landmark
event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to
be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major
American commercial network. (Olivier's version of Hamlet was shown on
prime time network TV a month later, but split in half over two weeks,
and the 1950 film, The Titan: Story of Michelangelo was telecast by
ABC in 1952, but that was a documentary.) Beginning in 1959, and
lasting until 1991, telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual
tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.S. and
earning additional profits for MGM. The studio was all too happy to
see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous
films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly
everybody in the U.S. has seen at least once. Today The Wizard of Oz
is regularly shown on the Turner-owned channels, no longer just once a
In 1958, MGM released what is generally considered its last great
musical, Arthur Freed's Cinemascope color production of Gigi, starring
Leslie Caron, Maurice Chevalier, and Louis Jourdan. It was adapted
from the novel by Colette, and written by the team of Lerner and
Loewe, who also wrote My Fair Lady and Camelot. Gigi was a box-office
and critical success which won nine Academy Awards, including Best
Picture. From it came several hit songs, including Thank Heaven For
Little Girls, I Remember It Well, the Waltz at Maxim's, and the
Oscar-winning title song. The film was the last MGM musical to win a
Best Picture Oscar, an honor that had previously gone to The Broadway
The Great Ziegfeld
The Great Ziegfeld (1936), and An American in Paris
(1951). The very last musical film produced by the "Freed Unit" was an
adaptation of the Broadway musical Bells Are Ringing (1960) with Judy
Holliday and Dean Martin. However, MGM did release later musical
films, including an adaptation of Meredith Willson's The Unsinkable
Molly Brown (1964) with
Debbie Reynolds and Harve Presnell.
MGM cartoon shorts
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio
In animation, MGM purchased the rights in 1930 to distribute a series
of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog, produced by
Ub Iwerks. The first cartoon in this series (entitled Fiddlesticks)
was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor.
Ub Iwerks cancelled the unsuccessful
Flip the Frog
Flip the Frog series and
MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a
character named Willie Whopper, that was also produced by Ub
In 1934, after Iwerks' distribution contract expired, MGM contracted
with animation producers/directors Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising to
produce a new series of color cartoons.
Harman and Ising came to MGM
after breaking ties with
Leon Schlesinger and Warner Bros., and
brought with them their popular
Looney Tunes character, Bosko. These
were known as Happy Harmonies, and in many ways resembled the Looney
Tunes' sister series, Merrie Melodies. The
Happy Harmonies regularly
ran over budget, and MGM dismissed Harman-Ising in 1937 to start its
own animation studio.
After initial struggles with a poorly received series of The Captain
and the Kids cartoons, the studio rehired
Harman and Ising in 1939,
and Ising created the studio's first successful animated character,
Barney Bear. However, MGM's biggest cartoon stars would come in the
form of the cat-and-mouse duo Tom and Jerry, created by William Hanna
Joseph Barbera in 1940. The
Tom and Jerry
Tom and Jerry cartoons won seven
Academy Awards between 1943 and 1953. In 1941, Tex Avery, another
Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department. Avery gave the
unit its image, with successes like Red Hot Riding Hood, Swing Shift
Cinderella, and the
Avery left the studio in 1953, leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on
Tom and Jerry
Tom and Jerry and
Droopy series. After 1955, all cartoons
were filmed in
CinemaScope until MGM closed its cartoon division in
In 1959, MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial
success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour
Technicolor epic Ben–Hur, a remake of its 1925 silent film hit,
loosely based on the novel by General Lew Wallace. Starring Charlton
Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won
11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until
Titanic matched it in 1997 and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of
the King in 2003.
In 1961, MGM resumed the release of new
Tom and Jerry
Tom and Jerry shorts, and
production moved to Rembrandt Films in Prague,
Czechoslovakia (now the
Czech Republic) under the supervision of Gene Deitch. Deitch's Tom and
Jerry cartoons are vastly inferior to the original Hanna and Barbera
style of animation.[original research?] In 1963, the production of Tom
and Jerry returned to
Chuck Jones and his Sib Tower 12
Productions studio (later absorbed by MGM and renamed MGM
Animation/Visual Arts). Jones' group also produced its own works,
winning an Oscar for The Dot and the Line, as well as producing the
classic television version of Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole
Christmas! (with the voice of Boris Karloff) in 1966. Tom and Jerry
folded in 1967, and the animation department continued with television
specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.
During this period, MGM fell into a habit that would eventually sink
the studio: an entire year's production schedule relied on the success
of one big-budget epic each year. This policy began
in 1959, when Ben–Hur was profitable enough to carry the studio
through 1960. However, four succeeding big-budget epics — like
Ben–Hur, each a remake — failed: Cimarron (1960), King of Kings
(1961), Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1961), and, most notoriously,
the 1962 Mutiny on the Bounty. The 1962
Cinerama film The Wonderful
World of the Brothers Grimm, the first film in
Cinerama to actually
tell a story, was also a flop. But one other epic that was a success,
however, was the MGM-
Cinerama co-production How the West Was Won, with
a huge all-star cast. King of Kings, while a commercial and critical
flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The
losses caused by these films led to the resignations of
Sol Siegel and
Joseph Vogel who were replaced by
Robert M. Weitman (head of
production) and Robert O'Brien (president).
The combination of O'Brien and Weitman seemed to temporarily revive
the studio. In 1965 MGM released David Lean's immensely popular Doctor
Zhivago, later followed by such hits as
The Dirty Dozen
The Dirty Dozen (1967) and
2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). However the company's time was taken up
fighting off proxy attacks by corporate raiders, and then MGM backed a
series of flops, including
Ryan's Daughter (1970). Weitman moved over
to Columbia in 1967 and O'Brien was forced to resign a few years
In the mid-1960s, MGM began to diversify by investing in real
Edgar Bronfman Sr.
Edgar Bronfman Sr. purchased a controlling interest in MGM
in 1966 (and was briefly chairman of the board in
1969),[page needed][page needed] and in 1967 Time
Inc. became the company's second-largest
Kirk Kerkorian purchased 40 percent of MGM from Bronfman and
Time, Inc.,[page needed] What appealed to Kerkorian was MGM's
Culver City real estate, and the value of 45 years' worth of glamour
associated with the name, which he attached to a Las Vegas hotel and
casino. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and
severely downsized under the supervision of
James T. Aubrey Jr.
James T. Aubrey Jr. With
changes in its business model including fewer pictures per year, more
location shooting and more distribution of independent productions,
MGM's operations were reduced. Aubrey sold off MGM's accumulation of
props, furnishings and historical memorabilia, including a pair of
Dorothy's ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz. Lot 3, 40 acres
(160,000 m2) of back-lot property, was sold off for real-estate
development. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was in talks with 20th
Century Fox about a possible merger, a plan which never came into
fruition. Under Aubrey, MGM also sold off
MGM Records and its
overseas theater holdings.
Through the 1970s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey
preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a
smattering of low-budget fare. In October 1973 and in decline in
output, MGM closed MGM's distribution offices then outsourced
distribution for its library for a ten-year period along with selling
its music publishing arm, Robbins, Feist & Miller plus half of
Quality Records of Canada, to United Artists.
Kerkorian now distanced himself from the operations of the studio,
focusing on MGM Grand Hotel by investing $120 million. Another
portion of the backlot was sold in 1974. The last shooting done on the
backlot was the introductory material for That's Entertainment!, a
retrospective documentary that became a surprise hit for the studio.
That's Entertainment! was authorized by Dan Melnick, who was appointed
head of production in 1972. Under Melnick's regime, MGM made a number
of successful films, including Westworld, Soylent Green, The Sunshine
Boys, and Network, which they co-produced with United Artists.
However, MGM never reclaimed its former status.
The MGM Recording Studios were sold in 1975. In 1979, Kerkorian
declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company. The company hit a
symbolic low point in 1980 when David Begelman, earlier let go by
Columbia following the discovery of his acts of forgery and
embezzlement, was installed as MGM's President and CEO.
In 1980, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. split its production and casino
units into separate companies:
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Film Co. and MGM
Grand Hotels, Inc. The rise of ancillary markets was enough to
allow MGM Film Co. to increase production to 10-15 films a year
compared to three to six in the previous decade, but first it needed
its own distribution unit.
MGM proceeded to get back into theatrical distribution in 1981 with
its purchase of United Artists, as UA's parent company Transamerica
Corporation decided to let go of the studio following the failure of
Heaven's Gate.[page needed] Because of this,
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Film Co. was renamed "MGM/UA Entertainment
Octopussy were MGM/UA's only early 1980s hits, but did
not push MGM into the profit range that Kerkorian wanted. MGM/UA
formed a trio of subsidiaries, the MGM/UA Home Entertainment Group,
MGM/UA Classics, and the MGM/UA Television Group in 1982. Kerkorian
offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not
own to take the company private but was met with resistance.
After the purchase of United Artists, David Begelman's duties were
transferred to that unit. Under Begelman, MGM/UA produced a number of
unsuccessful films, and he was fired in July 1982. Out of the 11 films
he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio,
only one film, Poltergeist, proved to be a clear hit. Not even
MGM's greatest asset - its library - was enough to keep the studio
afloat. After 1982, the studio relied more on distribution,
picking up independent productions, rather than financing their
The MGM sign being dismantled once Lorimar took control of the studio
On August 7, 1985,
Turner Broadcasting System
Turner Broadcasting System offered to buy MGM/UA.
As film licensing to television became more complicated, Ted Turner
saw the value of acquiring MGM's film library for his Superstation
WTBS. On March 25 of the following year, the deal was finalized in
a cash-stock deal for
$1.5 billion,[page needed][page needed]
and the company was renamed "MGM Entertainment Co.". Turner
immediately sold MGM's
United Artists subsidiary back to Kerkorian for
roughly $480 million. But since they were quite unable to find
financing for the rest of the deal, and because of these concerns in
the financial community over the debt-load of his companies on August
26, 1986, Turner was forced to sell MGM's production and distribution
United Artists for $300 million. The
MGM lot and lab facilities were sold to Lorimar-Telepictures.
Turner kept the pre-May 1986 library of MGM films, along with the RKO
Radio Pictures and pre-1950
Warner Bros. films which United Artists
had previously purchased.
How much of MGM's back catalog Turner actually obtained was a point of
conflict for a time; eventually, it was determined that Turner owned
all of the pre-May 1986 MGM library, as well as the pre-1950 Warner
Bros. catalog,[note 1] the
Popeye cartoons released by
Paramount (both the pre-1950 WB library and
Popeye cartoons were sold
to Associated Artists Productions, which was later bought by United
Artists), and the US/Canadian rights to the RKO library, in addition
to MGM's television series. Turner began broadcasting MGM films
through his Turner Network Television, and caused a controversy when
he began "colorizing" many black-and-white classics.
After Kerkorian reclaimed MGM in August 1986, the MGM/UA name
continued to be used, but the company changed its name, this time to
MGM/UA Communications Co., now using MGM and UA as separate
In July 1988, Kerkorian announced plans to split MGM and UA into
separate studios. Under this deal, Kerkorian, who owned 82% of MGM/UA
Communications, would have sold 25% of MGM to Barris Industries
(controlled by producers Burt Sugarman, Jon Peters, and Peter
Guber). The proposition to spin off MGM was called off a few weeks
later. In 1989, Australian-based
Qintex attempted to buy MGM from
Kerkorian, but the deal collapsed. On November 29, 1989, Turner
(owners of the pre-May 1986 MGM library) attempted to buy Tracinda's
entertainment assets such as MGM/UA Communications Co. but every time
the deal had failed.
Main article: MGM-
In 1990, Italian financier
Giancarlo Parretti announced he was about
to buy MGM/UA. Although the French government had scuttled Parretti's
bid to buy
Pathé due to concerns about his character, background, and
past dealings, Parretti got backing from
Crédit Lyonnais and bought
MGM/UA from Kirk Kerkorian. To finance the purchase, Parretti licensed
the MGM/UA library to
Time Warner for home video and Turner for
domestic television rights until 2003. He then merged it with
Pathé Communications Corporation (formerly Cannon Group, a
distributor that Parretti had renamed before his aborted bid for
Pathé) to form MGM–Pathe Communications Co. The well-respected
executive, Alan Ladd Jr., a former president of MGM/UA, was brought on
board as CEO of MGM in 1991. However, a year later, Parretti's
ownership of MGM–
Pathé dissolved in a flurry of lawsuits and a
default by Crédit Lyonnais, and Parretti faced securities-fraud
charges in the
United States and Europe.
On the verge of bankruptcy and failure,
Crédit Lyonnais took full
control of MGM–
Pathé via loan default in mid-1992 and converted its
name back to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The bank fired Ladd and replaced him
with former Paramount executive Frank Mancuso Sr.. Mancuso then hired
Michael Marcus as chairman, MGM Pictures and former Warner Bros.
John Calley as
United Artists head. A television production
division was started up. As part of his exit package, Ladd took
some of the top properties, including Braveheart.
MGM Holdings, Inc. was formed to take on about $1 billion in MGM's
liabilities off MGM's balance sheet in the third quarter of 1993.
Credit Lyonnais extended a $400 million line of credit allowing a
Chemical Bank lead bank group to extend a $350 million line of credit
in 1994. In 1994, MGM had a hit in Stargate.
Because of the way it had acquired control of the company, Crédit
Lyonnais soon put the studio up for sale, with the highest bidder
being Kirk Kerkorian. Now the owner of MGM for the third time,
Kerkorian's deal with Mancuso quickly angered John Calley, who quit
United Artists and was named head of
Sony Pictures Entertainment. By
selling a portion of the studio to Australia's Seven Network,
Kerkorian was able to convince Wall Street that a revived MGM was
worthy of a place on the stock market, where it languished until he
sold the company to a group of hedge funds tied to Sony, which wanted
to control the studio library to promote the
Blu-ray Disc format.
On April 11, 1997, MGM bought Metromedia's film subsidiaries (Orion
Samuel Goldwyn Company, and the Motion Picture
Corporation of America) for US$573 million, substantially
enlarging its library of films and television series and acquiring
additional production capacity. The deal closed in July of that
year. This catalog, along with the James Bond franchise, was
considered to be MGM's primary asset. In the same year, MGM's
long-running cable television series, Stargate SG-1, first aired.
Kerkorian bought out
Seven Network the following year.
In December 1997, MGM attempted to purchase 1,000 films held by
Consortium de Réalisation, but was outbid by PolyGram. However,
they ultimately succeeded when they acquired the 2/3 of pre-1996
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment library from
Seagram in 1999 for
$250 million, increasing their library holdings to 4,000. Prior
to that, MGM had held a home video license for 100 of the films since
spring 1997. The
PolyGram libraries were purchased by its
Orion Pictures subsidiary so as to avoid its 1990 video distribution
agreement with Warner. The studio also obtained the broadcast
rights to more than 800 of its films previously licensed to Turner
By 1998, MGM had started a specialty film unit using The Samuel
Goldwyn Company under the Goldwyn Films name.
Samuel Goldwyn Jr. sued
Metromedia over salary and damages when he work at Goldwyn Company
Metromedia and sued MGM over the used of the Goldwyn name
claiming trademark infringement and unfair competition. MGM and
Metromedia settled on January 10, 1999 with MGM's Goldwyn Films
changing its name to G2 Films.
In 2000, MGM changed the way it distributed its products
internationally. MGM had until that time distributed its films
United International Pictures
United International Pictures (UIP), a joint
venture of MGM, Universal Pictures, DreamWorks Pictures and Paramount
Pictures. UIP was accused by the
European Union of being an illegal
cartel, and effective November 2000 MGM severed its ties with UIP
and distributed films internationally through 20th Century Fox.
MGM purchased 20% of Rainbow Media Group from
Cablevision Systems for
$825 million in 2001. MGM attempted to take over Universal
Studios in 2003, but failed, and was forced to sell several of its
cable channel investments (taking a $75-million loss on the
Main article: MGM Holdings
In 2004, many of MGM's competitors started to make bids to purchase
the studio, beginning with Time Warner. It was not unexpected that
Time Warner would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company
was Ted Turner. His
Turner Entertainment Group had risen to success in
part through its ownership of the pre-May 1986 MGM library. After a
short period of negotiation with MGM,
Time Warner was unsuccessful.
The leading bidder proved to be Sony Corporation of America, backed by
Comcast and private equity firms
Texas Pacific Group
Texas Pacific Group (now TPG Capital,
L.P.), DLJ and Providence Equity Partners. Sony's primary goal was to
Blu-ray Disc support at MGM; cost synergies with Sony Pictures
Entertainment were secondary.
Time Warner made a counter-bid (which
Ted Turner reportedly tried to block), but on September 13, 2004, Sony
increased its bid of US$11.25/share (roughly $4.7 billion) to
$12/share ($5 billion), and
Time Warner subsequently withdrew its
bid of $11/share ($4.5 billion). MGM and Sony agreed on a
purchase price of nearly $5 billion, of which about
$2 billion was to pay off MGM debt. From 2005 to 2006,
the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group domestically distributed
films by MGM and UA.
In 2006, MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution
company. MGM struck deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore
Entertainment, Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and
then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for 2006 and
early 2007. MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by 2007.
Lucky Number Slevin, released April 7, was the first film released
under the new MGM era. Other recent films under the MGM/Weinstein deal
Clerks II and Bobby. Upon the MGM/Weinstein films' release on
home video, however, full distribution rights revert to Weinstein
(under Genius Products).
On May 31, 2006, MGM announced it would transfer the majority of its
home video output from
Sony Pictures Home Entertainment to 20th
Century Fox Home Entertainment.
MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television
distribution operation. In addition, MGM signed a deal with New
Line Television in which MGM would handle New Line's U.S. film and
series television syndication packages. MGM served as New Line's
barter sales representative in the television arena until 2008.
A tentative agreement was signed in Seoul on March 15, 2006, between
MGM, South Korea-based entertainment agency Glovit and
official for a theme park schedule to open in 2011. MGM Studio City
was project to cost $1.02 billion build on 245 acres owned by the city
in planned tourist district and contain 27 attractions, a film academy
with movie sets, hotels, restaurants and shopping facilities. Glovit
was expected to find funding and oversee management of the park, while
MGM received a licensing agreement making them handle content and
overall planning and the option to buy a 5%-10% share.
On November 2, 2006, producer/actor
Tom Cruise and his production
partner, Paula Wagner, signed an agreement with MGM to run United
Artists. Wagner will serve as United Artists' chief executive.
Cruise will produce and star in films for UA, and MGM will distribute
Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in
distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint
ventures to promote and sell its products. In April 2007, it was
announced that MGM movies would be able to be downloaded through
Apple's iTunes service, with MGM bringing an estimated 100 of its
existing movies to iTunes service, the California-based computer
company revealed. The list of movies included the likes of modern
features such as Rocky, Ronin, Mad Max, and Dances with Wolves, along
with more golden-era classics such as Lilies of the Field and The
Great Train Robbery. In October, the company launched
MGM HD on
DirecTV, offering a library of movies formatted in Hi Def. Also in
2006, MGM licensed its home video distribution rights for countries
outside of the
United States to 20th Century Fox. MGM
teamed up with
Weigel Broadcasting to launch a new channel titled This
TV on November 1, 2008. On August 12, 2008, MGM teamed up with
Comcast to launch a new video-on-demand network titled Impact. On
November 10, 2008, MGM announced that it will release full-length
films on YouTube.
On April 14, 2008, a South Korea government agency announced that MGM
Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport Corporation agreed to build MGM
Studio Theme Park. The selected site was a 1.5 million square meter
Yeongjongdo island property near the Incheon International
Airport. However, the park was designed but never built.
As of mid-2009, MGM had US$3.7 billion in debt, and interest
payments alone totaled $250 million a year. MGM
earns approximately $500 million a year on income from its
extensive film and television library, but the economic recession is
reported to have reduced this income substantially.
Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a
topic of much discussion in the film industry. MGM had to repay a
$250-million line of credit in April 2010, a $1-billion loan in June
2011, and its remaining US$2.7 billion in loans in 2012. In
May 2009, MGM's auditor gave the company a clean bill of health,
concluding it was still on track to meet its debt obligations. At
that time, the company was negotiating with its creditors to either
extend the debt repayment deadlines or engage in a debt-for-equity
swap. Industry observers, however, questioned whether MGM could
avoid a Chapter-11 bankruptcy filing under any circumstances, and
concluded that any failure to conclude the negotiations must trigger a
filing. MGM and its
United Artists subsidiary were now producing
very few films each year, and it was widely believed that MGM's
solvency would depend on the box-office performance of these films
(especially Skyfall). There was some indication that
Relativity Media and its financial backer, Elliott Associates (a hedge
fund based in New York), had been acquiring MGM debt in an attempt to
force the company into involuntary bankruptcy.
On August 17, 2009, chief executive officer
Harry E. Sloan
Harry E. Sloan stepped
down and MGM hired Stephen F. Cooper as its new CEO, a
corporate executive who guided
Enron through its post-
and oversaw the restructuring and growth of
Krispy Kreme in
2005. Expectations were that Cooper was hired to act
quickly on MGM's debt problems. On October 1, 2009, the
studio's new leadership negotiated a forbearance agreement with its
creditors under which interest payments due from September to November
2009 did not have to be paid until December 15, 2009.
MGM stated in February 2010 that the studio would likely be sold in
the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine,
might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name. However,
some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James
Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and 160 affiliates filed for Chapter
11 bankruptcy on November 3, 2010, with a prepackaged plan for exiting
bankruptcy which led to MGM's creditors taking over the company.
On December 20, 2010, MGM executives announced that the studio had
emerged from bankruptcy.
Spyglass Entertainment executives Gary Barber
Roger Birnbaum became co-Chairs and co-CEOs of the
On January 4, 2011, MGM and
Weigel Broadcasting announced plans to
MeTV nationwide. On February 2, 2011, MGM named
Jonathan Glickman to be the film president of MGM. Six days later, MGM
was finalizing a distribution deal with
Sony Pictures Entertainment to
handle distribution of its 4,000 films and DVDs worldwide and on
digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films:
Spectre. There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond
distribution rights: Paramount Pictures,
Warner Bros. Pictures, 20th
Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who
dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13,
2011. Post-bankruptcy, MGM also co-financed SPE's The Girl with the
Dragon Tattoo. 20th Century Fox's deal with MGM handling its library
distribution worldwide was set to expire in September 2011.
However, the deal was renewed and extended on April 14, 2011
and, after five years, was renewed and extended again on June 27,
2016. It will expire in June 2020.
MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of
RoboCop and Poltergeist, and released their first
post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper, which was co-distributed by Columbia
Pictures on July 8, 2011. The new MGM, under Barber and Birnbaum's
control, focuses on co-investing on films made by another party, which
handle all distribution and marketing for the projects. MGM handles
international television distribution rights for the new films as well
as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house
production service. In separate 2011 deals, the rights to MGM's
completed films Red Dawn and
The Cabin in the Woods
The Cabin in the Woods were dealt to
FilmDistrict as well as
Lionsgate Films, respectively.
On October 3, 2012, Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role
as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain
with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis". In May
2014, MGM introduced The Works, a channel available in 31 percent of
the country, including stations owned by Titan Broadcast
In 2013 the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a
syndicated court show.
Orion Pictures name was extended in fourth
quarter 2014 for smaller domestic and international video on demand
and limited theatrical releases.
On November 6, 2015,
Sony Pictures Entertainment's distribution deal
to co-produce the James Bond film series with MGM and Eon Productions
expired with the release of Spectre. Various studios namely
Warner Bros., Universal Studios, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures,
Annapurna Pictures are vying to solidify a role in the rights
to the next film; with MGM and Eon only offering a one-film
In March 2017, MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with
Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home
entertainment, theatrical and television rights. Later on October
31, 2017, the two companies formed a US distribution joint venture.
This marks a return to domestic theatrical distribution for MGM and an
expansion of Annapurna's distribution division, with MGM releasing
approximately six to eight films per year on a limited basis and
Annapurna releasing four to six films per year, in a combined slate of
fourteen films. While the two companies will share costs for the joint
venture's operations, Annapurna's distribution and marketing teams
will support the MGM titles, which will be distributed under the MGM
banner while Annapurna-produced films will continue to be distributed
under its own banner. The two studios also launched Mirror, a
releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will
not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to
be released through existing studio partners, such as
Warner Bros. and
Paramount. It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures
and future worldwide distributor plans for the James Bond franchise,
which MGM also said will be announced "at a later date".
Following the Weinstein effect, MGM was listed as one of 22 potential
buyers interest in acquiring The Weinstein Company.
Since August 22, 2011, its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills,
California. MGM rents space in a six-story office building. The
144,000-square-foot (13,400 m2) facility was originally
constructed for the venerable William Morris talent agency, but had
remained all but unoccupied until MGM's move because of the agency's
Endeavor Talent Agency
Endeavor Talent Agency in April 2009. MGM planned to house
a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building.
Prior to 2003, its headquarters had been in the Colorado Center in
Santa Monica, California, occupying at least 150,000 square
feet (14,000 m2) of space there. In 2000 MGM announced that it
was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was
to be the first high-rise in
Los Angeles to be completed in the 21st
century. Upon the company's agreement to be its lead tenant halfway
through the design building process, the structure became identified
as the MGM Tower, opening in 2003. When MGM moved into the
lavishly appointed spaces devised by Alex Yemenidjian, former
chairperson and chief executive of MGM, Roger Vincent and Claudia
Eller observed in the
Los Angeles Times that "Yemenidjian spared no
expense in building out the studio's space with such Las Vegas-style
flourishes as towering marble pillars and a grand spiral staircase
lined with a wall of awards."
Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower
with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks.
Seemingly no expense was spared, from the marble imported from Italy
for MGM's area to the company's exclusive use of a dedicated private
garage, security checkpoint, and elevator bank: all to enable
celebrities who visited the complex discreet entry and exit, bypassing
public spaces. One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a
100-seat theater on the ground floor (later taken over by
International Creative Management
International Creative Management in December 2010). The 14th floor
lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for
Academy Award-winning films. The street leading to the building's
garage was renamed MGM Drive and a large MGM logo, illuminated at
night, crowned the top of the building. As of December 2010, MGM
rented 200,000-square-foot (19,000 m2) of space in the MGM Tower
at a cost of almost $5 per square foot per month.
Emerging from bankruptcy protection in 2010, MGM announced that it
planned to relocate the headquarters to Beverly Hills as part of an
effort toward removing almost $5 billion in debt since the lease in
Century City was not scheduled to expire until 2018. Vincent and Eller
said that MGM's per square foot monthly rent would be far lower in the
Beverly Hills building than in the MGM Tower. Larry Kozmont, a real
estate consultant not involved in the process, said "It's a prudent
move for them. Downsizing and relocating to a space that is still
prominent but not overly ostentatious and burdened by expenses is
fundamental for their survival." MGM vacated its namesake tower
on August 19, 2011.
Leo logo and mottos
MGM Tower, former company headquarters highlighted by the famous Leo
the Lion logo at the top
The studio's official motto, "Ars Gratia Artis", is a
meaning "Art for art's sake".[page needed]
[page needed] [page needed] It was chosen by
Howard Dietz, the studio's chief
publicist.[page needed] [page needed] The
studio's logo is a roaring lion surrounded by a ring of film inscribed
with the studio's motto. The logo, which features Leo the Lion, was
created by Dietz in 1916 for
Goldwyn Pictures and updated in 1924 for
MGM's use.[page needed][page needed] Dietz
based the logo on his alma mater's mascot, the Columbia University
lion.[page needed] [page needed]
Originally silent, the sound of Leo the Lion's roar was added to films
for the first time in August 1928. In the 1930s and 1940s, the
studio billed itself as having "more stars than there are in heaven",
a reference to the large number of
A-list movie stars under contract
to the company.[page needed] [page needed]
[page needed] This second motto was also coined by
Dietz[page needed][page needed]
[page needed] [page needed] and was first used in
The MGM library
Turner Entertainment Co.
Following his brief ownership of the company in 1986, Ted Turner
Turner Entertainment Co. as a holding company for the pre-May
1986 MGM film and television library, which he retained. After
Turner's holdings were purchased by
Time Warner in 1996, they
ultimately became integrated into the
Warner Bros. library,
though the copyright claimant to these titles is still "Turner
Entertainment Co." For some time after the sale, MGM continued to
handle home video distribution of its pre-May 1986 film and TV library
and began to handle home video distribution of the pre-1950 Warner
Bros. films; those rights were reassigned to
Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video in
Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer has greatly enhanced its
film and television holdings.
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's library includes its own post-April 1986 library
as well as the film and television libraries of:
United Artists, including:
Monogram Pictures films released from 1931 to 1946
Orion Pictures, including:
American International Pictures
MCEG Sterling Entertainment
Samuel Goldwyn Company, including:
Motion Picture Corporation of America (1986–1996 library)
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (pre-March 31, 1996
The Virgin Films/Palace Pictures catalog
Island Pictures, including:
Atlantic Entertainment Group, including:
CDR's Epic library
Castle Rock Entertainment
Castle Rock Entertainment (pre-1994 library)
Hemdale Film Corporation
Sherwood Productions/Gladden Entertainment
Nelson Entertainment, including:
Galactic Films, Inc.
Empire International Pictures, including:
Most of The Cannon Group, Inc.
21st Century Film Corporation
Main article: List of
Los Angeles portal
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio
MGM Animation/Visual Arts
MGM Worldwide Television
MGM Home Entertainment
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Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer on IMDbPro (subscription required)
MGM Animation at The Big Cartoon DataBase
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's channel on YouTube
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Article Encyclopædia Britannica
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Walter Lantz /
Laurence Olivier /
King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art
Department of Film (1978)
Hal Elias /
Alec Guinness (1979)
Henry Fonda (1980)
Barbara Stanwyck (1981)
Mickey Rooney (1982)
Hal Roach (1983)
James Stewart /
National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts (1984)
Paul Newman /
Alex North (1985)
Ralph Bellamy (1986)
Kodak Company /
National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada (1988)
Akira Kurosawa (1989)
Sophia Loren /
Myrna Loy (1990)
Satyajit Ray (1991)
Federico Fellini (1992)
Deborah Kerr (1993)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1994)
Kirk Douglas /
Chuck Jones (1995)
Michael Kidd (1996)
Stanley Donen (1997)
Elia Kazan (1998)
Andrzej Wajda (1999)
Jack Cardiff /
Ernest Lehman (2000)
Sidney Poitier /
Robert Redford (2001)
Peter O'Toole (2002)
Blake Edwards (2003)
Sidney Lumet (2004)
Robert Altman (2005)
Ennio Morricone (2006)
Robert F. Boyle (2007)
Lauren Bacall /
Roger Corman /
Gordon Willis (2009)
Kevin Brownlow /
Jean-Luc Godard /
Eli Wallach (2010)
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011)
D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker /
Hal Needham /
George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr. (2012)
Angela Lansbury /
Steve Martin /
Piero Tosi (2013)
Jean-Claude Carrière /
Hayao Miyazaki /
Maureen O'Hara (2014)
Spike Lee /
Gena Rowlands (2015)
Jackie Chan /
Lynn Stalmaster /
Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman
Charles Burnett /
Owen Roizman /
Donald Sutherland / A