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MENA
MENA
is an English-language acronym referring to the MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA region. The term MENA
MENA
covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco
Morocco
to Iran
Iran
, including all Middle Eastern Mashriq and Maghreb
Maghreb
countries. This toponym is roughly synonymous with the term the Greater Middle East
Middle East
.

The population of the MENA
MENA
region at its least extent is estimated to be around 381 million people. This constitutes about 6% of the total world population. The MENA
MENA
acronym is often used in academia , military planning, disaster relief, and business writing.

CONTENTS

* 1 Controversy * 2 List of countries * 3 Economy * 4 Religion

* 5 Other terms

* 5.1 MENAP * 5.2 MENAT

* 6 Instability in the region * 7 See also * 8 References

CONTROVERSY

Due to the geographic ambiguity and Eurocentric nature of the term "Middle East", some people prefer use of the terms ARAB WORLD, WANA ( West Asia
West Asia
and North Africa) or the less common NAWA (North Africa-West Asia). Both the Arab World
Arab World
and MENA
MENA
region remain the most common terms and are used by most organizations, academia, and political entities flexibly, including those in the region itself. The World Bank
World Bank
, UNDP
UNDP
and even the UNSC all use both terms.

LIST OF COUNTRIES

MENA
MENA
has no standardized definition; different organizations define the region as consisting of different territories. The following is a list of commonly included countries and territories.

* Algeria
Algeria
* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Egypt
Egypt
* Iran
Iran
* Iraq
Iraq
* Israel
Israel
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Libya
Libya
* Morocco
Morocco
* Oman
Oman
* Palestine * * Qatar
Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Syria
Syria
* Tunisia
Tunisia
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* Yemen
Yemen

Sometimes also included in broader definitions of MENA:

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Armenia
Armenia
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Chad
Chad
* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Djibouti
Djibouti
* Eritrea
Eritrea
* Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* Georgia * Mauritania
Mauritania
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Somalia
Somalia
* Sudan
Sudan
* Turkey
Turkey
* Western Sahara
Western Sahara
*

*Non-sovereign territories .

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of the Middle East
Middle East

The MENA
MENA
region has vast reserves of petroleum and natural gas that make it a vital source of global economic stability . According to the Oil and Gas Journal (January 1, 2009), the MENA
MENA
region has 60% of the world's oil reserves (810.98 billion barrels (128.936 km3)) and 45% of the world's natural gas reserves ( 2,868,886 billion cubic feet (81,237.8 km3) ).

As of 2011, 8 of the 12 OPEC
OPEC
nations are within the MENA
MENA
region.

RELIGION

Islam
Islam
is by far the dominant religion in nearly all of the MENA territories; 91.2% of the population is Muslim
Muslim
. The Middle East-North Africa
Africa
region comprises 20 countries and territories with an estimated Muslim
Muslim
population of 315 million or about 23% of the world’s Muslim population. The term "MENA" is often defined in part in relation to majority Muslim
Muslim
countries. Of the countries noted in the strict definition, all except Israel
Israel
are majority Muslim, and in the broadest definition the only other exceptions would be Georgia , Armenia
Armenia
, Cyprus
Cyprus
and (possibly) Eritrea
Eritrea
. Lebanon
Lebanon
had a Christian
Christian
majority population before its 1975 civil war, it currently has a strong majority of approximately 40% Christians.

OTHER TERMS

MENAP

From April 2013, the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
started using a new analytical region called MENAP (Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan), which adds Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
to MENA
MENA
countries. Now MENAP is prominent economic grouping in IMF reports.

MENAT

The term MENAT has been used to include Turkey
Turkey
in the list of MENA countries.

INSTABILITY IN THE REGION

Due to rich resources, mainly oil and gas, combined with its location between three continents, ( Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
and Europe
Europe
), the MENA
MENA
region has been in conflict since the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
; notably due to the creation of Israel
Israel
, a Jewish state among Arab and Muslim
Muslim
countries; Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
; the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War ; Iran– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
proxy conflict ; and the rise of terrorism . Conflict in the region had come to its highest peak so far in the 21st century, with incidents such as the U.S. intervention of Iraq
Iraq
in 2003 and subsequent Iraq
Iraq
War and the rise of ISIS
ISIS
; the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
, which spread war to throughout the region such as the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
, Libyan Civil War
Libyan Civil War
and Yemeni Civil War .

SEE ALSO

Look up MENA
MENA
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Sahel
Sahel
* List of business region acronyms * Europe, the Middle East
Middle East
and Africa
Africa
(EMEA) * Middle East
Middle East
economic integration * Greater Middle East
Middle East
* Near East
Near East
* Arab world
Arab world
* Arab Spring
Arab Spring
* Arab Winter

REFERENCES

* ^ A B " World Bank
World Bank
Definition: MENA". Worldbank.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ "World Economic Forum on the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa, Marrakech, Morocco, 26-28 October 2010". World Economic Forum on the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
North Africa
2010 - World Economic Forum. Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ " West Asia
West Asia
and North Africa: A Regional Vision". Worldbank.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ "Welcome". Agu.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ Malone, David (25 October 2003). " Arab World
Arab World
Data". World Bank . Washington D.C. Retrieved 3 January 2011. * ^ "Financial education in the Arab World: Strategies, Implementation and Impact". World Bank. Retrieved 20-21, 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ "United Nations Development Programme in the Arab States". UNDP. Retrieved 11-3, 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Malone, David (25 October 2003). "Reforming the Security Council: Where Are the Arabs?". The Daily Star . Beirut. Retrieved 3 January 2011. * ^ Dumper, Michael, and Stanley, Bruce E., Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopaedia, 2007 * ^ " MENA
MENA
Magazine, which covers issues in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Somalia". Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
North Africa
magazine. Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ "International Reserves". United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
. Retrieved 2011. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ "Middle East- North Africa
North Africa
Overview". Pew Forum. 7 October 2009.

* ^ "Politics and Islam
Islam
in Central Asia
Asia
and MENA". 24 April 2012. * ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". Imf.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/pdf/text.pdf * ^ https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2013/mcd/eng/pdf/menap1113_h.pdf * ^ "MENAT Regional Council". Syracuse University Dubai. Retrieved June 14, 2016. * ^ "About GE in the Middle East, North Africa
North Africa
and Turkey
Turkey
(MENAT)". General Electric. Retrieved June 14, 2016.

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc
Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East
Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya
Libya
* Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
( Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Western Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt
Egypt

* Upper Egypt
Egypt
* Middle Egypt
Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia
Aethiopia
* Swahili coast
Swahili coast
* East African Rift
East African Rift
* Great Rift Valley
Great Rift Valley
* Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Danakil Desert
Danakil Desert
* Danakil Alps

* Albertine Rift
Albertine Rift

* Virunga Mountains
Virunga Mountains

* Gregory Rift
Gregory Rift
Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika
Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura
Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan
Sudan
(region) * Sudanian Savanna
Sudanian Savanna
* East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland
Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland
Maputaland
* Pool Malebo
Pool Malebo
* Congo Basin
Congo Basin
* Chad
Chad
Basin * Congolese rainforests
Congolese rainforests
* Ouaddaï highlands
Ouaddaï highlands
* Ennedi Plateau
Ennedi Plateau
* Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast
Pepper Coast
* Gold Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas
Cape Palmas
* Cape Mesurado * Negroland
Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna
Sudanian Savanna
* Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan
Sudan
(region) * Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar)
Central Highlands (Madagascar)
* Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland
Thembuland
* Succulent Karoo
Succulent Karoo
* Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld
Highveld
* Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region
Cape Floristic Region
* Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
* Okavango Delta * False Bay
False Bay
* Hydra Bay
Hydra Bay
* Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia
Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula
Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
* Peace River Country
Peace River Country
* Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
* Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands
Gulf Islands
* Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Labrador Peninsula
Labrador Peninsula
* Gaspé Peninsula
Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula
Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula
Brodeur Peninsula
* Melville Peninsula
Melville Peninsula
* Bruce Peninsula
Bruce Peninsula
* Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
* Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* James Bay
James Bay
* Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
* Inland Northwest

* Northeast

* New England
New England
* Commonwealth

* West

* Midwest * Upper Midwest
Upper Midwest
* Mid-Atlantic * Mountain States
Mountain States
* Intermountain West * Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province

* Oregon Trail * Mormon Corridor
Mormon Corridor
* Calumet Region

* Southwest

* Old Southwest

* Llano Estacado
Llano Estacado
* Frontier Strip
Frontier Strip

* Central United States
Central United States

* Tallgrass prairie
Tallgrass prairie

* South

* South Central * Deep South * Upland South

* Four Corners
Four Corners
* East Coast * West Coast * Gulf Coast * Third Coast * Coastal states
Coastal states

* Eastern United States
Eastern United States

* Appalachia
Appalachia

* Trans-Mississippi * Great North Woods * Great Plains
Great Plains
* Interior Plains
Interior Plains
* Great Lakes

* Great Basin
Great Basin

* Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

* Acadia
Acadia
* Ozarks
Ozarks
* Ark-La-Tex
Ark-La-Tex
* Waxhaws * Siouxland
Siouxland
* Twin Tiers * Driftless Area
Driftless Area
* Palouse
Palouse
* Piedmont * Atlantic coastal plain
Atlantic coastal plain
* Outer Lands
Outer Lands
* Black Dirt Region
Black Dirt Region
* Blackstone Valley
Blackstone Valley
* Piney Woods
Piney Woods
* Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
* Mojave Desert * The Dakotas
The Dakotas
* The Carolinas
The Carolinas
* Shawnee Hills * San Fernando Valley * Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley
* North Coast * Lost Coast
Lost Coast
* Emerald Triangle
Emerald Triangle

* San Francisco Bay Area

* San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
* North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) * East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) * Silicon valley
Silicon valley

* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga
* Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Lower Colorado River Valley
Lower Colorado River Valley
* Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
* Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta
Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta
* Colville Delta
Colville Delta
* Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
* Mobile–Tensaw River Delta
Mobile–Tensaw River Delta
* Mississippi Delta
Mississippi Delta
* Mississippi River Delta
Mississippi River Delta
* Columbia River Estuary
Columbia River Estuary
* Great Basin
Great Basin
* High Desert * Monterey Peninsula
Monterey Peninsula
* Upper Peninsula of Michigan
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
* Lower Peninsula of Michigan
Lower Peninsula of Michigan
* Virginia Peninsula
Virginia Peninsula
* Keweenaw Peninsula
Keweenaw Peninsula
* Middle Peninsula
Middle Peninsula
* Delmarva Peninsula
Delmarva Peninsula
* Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
* Kenai Peninsula * Niagara Peninsula
Niagara Peninsula
* Beringia
Beringia

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt
Corn Belt
* Cotton Belt
Cotton Belt
* Frost Belt
Frost Belt
* Rice Belt
Rice Belt
* Rust Belt
Rust Belt
* Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula
Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta
Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Soconusco
Soconusco
* Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca
La Huasteca
* Bajío
Bajío
* Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley
Mezquital Valley
* Sierra Madre de Oaxaca
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca
* Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province
Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula
Azuero Peninsula
* Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
* Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
* LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas
The Guianas

* Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin

* Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest

* Gulf of Paria
Gulf of Paria
* Paria Peninsula
Paria Peninsula
* Paraguaná Peninsula
Paraguaná Peninsula
* Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas
Pampas
* Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco
Gran Chaco
* Chiquitano dry forests
Chiquitano dry forests
* Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes

* Tropical Andes
Andes
* Wet Andes
Andes
* Dry Andes
Andes
* Pariacaca mountain range
Pariacaca mountain range

* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Atlantic Forest
Atlantic Forest
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
* LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East
Middle East

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert
Aralkum Desert
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana
Transoxiana

* Turan
Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana
Ariana
* Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan
Sistan
* Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe
Asian Steppe
* Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail
Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia
Pryazovia
* Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
* Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria
Ingria
* Novorossiya
Novorossiya
* Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
* Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon
Mount Imeon
* Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions
Western Regions
* Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert

* Karakoram
Karakoram

* Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

* Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia
Baikalia
( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf
Khatanga Gulf
* Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia
Beringia
* Sikhote-Alin
Sikhote-Alin

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc
Northeastern Japan Arc
* Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
* Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
* Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia
Outer Mongolia
* China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain
North China Plain

* Yan_Mountains

* Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
* Liaodong Peninsula
Liaodong Peninsula
* Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
* Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
* Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan
Jiangnan
* Jianghuai * Guanzhong
Guanzhong
* Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan
Zhongyuan
* Shaannan
Shaannan

* Ordos Loop
Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau
* Shaanbei

* Hamgyong Mountains * Central Mountain Range
Central Mountain Range
* Japanese Alps * Suzuka Mountains
Suzuka Mountains
* Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
* Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
* Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East
Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs
Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula
Al-Faw Peninsula
* Gulf of Oman
Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan
Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia
South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
* Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad
Sawad
* Nineveh plains
Nineveh plains
* Akkad (region)
Akkad (region)
* Babylonia
Babylonia

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Suhum
Suhum
* Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq
Mashriq
* Kurdistan
Kurdistan

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea
Levantine Sea
* Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead
Gilead
* Judea
Judea
* Samaria
Samaria
* Arabah
Arabah
* Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
* Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
* Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Syria
Syria
* Palestine * Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
* Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland
Kur-Araz Lowland
* Lankaran Lowland
Lankaran Lowland
* Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia
Cilicia
* Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
Greater India
* Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
* Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
* Punjab * Balochistan
Balochistan

* Kashmir
Kashmir

* Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley * Pir Panjal Range

* Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains
Eastern coastal plains
* Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab
Doab
* Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch
Great Rann of Kutch
* Little Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
* Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Ladakh
Ladakh
* Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin

* Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan

* Baltistan
Baltistan
* Shigar Valley
Shigar Valley

* Karakoram
Karakoram

* Saltoro Mountains

* Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
* Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep

* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands

* Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands
* Nicobar Islands

* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
* Greater Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands
* Lesser Sunda Islands
Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago
Indonesian Archipelago
* Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf
Huon Gulf
* Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas
Visayas
* Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf
Leyte Gulf
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt
Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
* Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
* Baltoscandia
Baltoscandia
* Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
* Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
* Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula
Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast
Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta
Nemunas Delta
* Baltic * Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Vyborg Bay
Vyborg Bay
* Lokhaniemi

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania
Gulf of Chania
* North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia
Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia
Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Baltic * Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt
* Mitteleuropa
Mitteleuropa
* Visegrád Group
Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux
Benelux
* Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel
English Channel
* Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System
Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy
Insular Italy
* Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands
Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System
Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc
Gibraltar Arc
* Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine
Sloboda Ukraine
* Alpide belt
Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain
European Plain
* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe
Pontic–Caspian steppe
* Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
* Little Hungarian Plain
Little Hungarian Plain
* Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia

* Karelia
Karelia

* East Karelia
Karelia
* Karelian Isthmus
Karelian Isthmus

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula
Papuan Peninsula
* Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf
Huon Gulf
* Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula
Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)
Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf
Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin
Lake Eyre basin
* Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain
Nullarbor Plain
* Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga
Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert
Great Victoria Desert
* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf St Vincent
Gulf St Vincent
* Lefevre Peninsula
Lefevre Peninsula
* Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
* Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula
Bellarine Peninsula
* Mount Henry Peninsula
Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region
Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago
* Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati
Kiribati
* Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
* Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands
Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands
Austral Islands
* Gambier Islands
Gambier Islands
* Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
* Society Islands
Society Islands
* Tuamotu
Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands
* Mangareva Islands
Mangareva Islands
* Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions
Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica
West Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
* Barents Sea
Barents Sea
* Beaufort Sea
Beaufort Sea
* Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East Siberian Sea
East Siberian Sea
* Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea
Kara Sea
* Laptev Sea
Laptev Sea
* Lincoln Sea
Lincoln Sea
* Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
* Pechora Sea
Pechora Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Queen Victoria Sea
* Wandel Sea
Wandel Sea
* White Sea
White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
* Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea
Archipelago Sea
* Argentine Sea
Argentine Sea
* Baffin Bay
Baffin Bay
* Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche
Bay of Campeche
* Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
* Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea
Bothnian Sea
* Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
* English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin
Foxe Basin
* Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Bothnia
* Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
* Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
* Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
* Gulf of Venezuela
Gulf of Venezuela
* Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea
Irminger Sea
* James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea
Labrador Sea
* Levantine Sea
Levantine Sea
* Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland
Sea of Åland
* Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete
Sea of Crete
* Sea of the Hebrides
Sea of the Hebrides
* Thracian Sea
Thracian Sea
* Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
* Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
* Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea
Flores Sea
* Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba
Gulf of Aqaba
* Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
* Gulf of Oman
Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea
Java Sea
* Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea
Arafura Sea
* Banda Sea
Banda Sea
* Bering Sea
Bering Sea
* Bismarck Sea
Bismarck Sea
* Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
* Bohol Sea
Bohol Sea
* Camotes Sea
Camotes Sea
* Celebes Sea
Celebes Sea
* Ceram Sea
Ceram Sea
* Chilean Sea * Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea
East China Sea
* Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr
Gulf of Anadyr
* Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama
Gulf of Panama
* Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea
Halmahera Sea
* Koro Sea
Koro Sea
* Mar de Grau
Mar de Grau
* Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
* Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
* Salish Sea
Salish Sea
* Savu Sea
Savu Sea
* Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
* Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
* Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea
Sibuyan Sea
* Solomon Sea
Solomon Sea
* South China Sea * Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
* Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea
Bellingshausen Sea
* Cooperation Sea
Cooperation Sea
* Cosmonauts Sea
Cosmonauts Sea
* Davis Sea
Davis Sea
* D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea
Lazarev Sea
* Mawson Sea
Mawson Sea
* Riiser-Larsen Sea
Riiser-Larsen Sea
* Ross Sea * Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
* Somov Sea
Somov Sea
* Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
* Salton Sea
Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

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