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MDPI
MDPI
is an organisational acronym used by two related organisations, MOLECULAR DIVERSITY PRESERVATION INTERNATIONAL and MULTIDISCIPLINARY DIGITAL PUBLISHING INSTITUTE, which were both co-founded by Shu-Kun Lin . The first organisation, Molecular Diversity Preservation International, founded in 1996, is primarily a chemical sample archive, with some scholarly publishing and conference activities. The second organisation, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, was founded in 2010, primarily as a publisher.

The Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has garnered a reputation for "churning out" journals, "many of them of mediocre quality" according to Jeffrey Beall
Jeffrey Beall
, and MDPI
MDPI
was included on his list of predatory open access publishing companies. Although it was eventually removed from the list, Beall later wrote that he had been pressured to remove his list due to harassment from predatory publishers, and mentioned MDPI
MDPI
specifically.

CONTENTS

* 1 Molecular Diversity Preservation International

* 2 MDPI
MDPI
AG (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)

* 2.1 Controversial articles * 2.2 Inclusion in Beall\'s list

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY PRESERVATION INTERNATIONAL

Molecular Diversity Preservation International was founded and registered as a non-profit association (Verein ) by Shu-Kun Lin and Benoit R. Turin in Basel
Basel
in 1996 to enable the deposit and exchange of rare molecular and biomolecular research samples. The goal was to preserve the diversity of chemical compounds through the collection and storage of samples that could be made available to the scientific community for research purposes. This collection of samples was permanently transferred to the MDPI
MDPI
Sustainability Foundation in 2013, and Molecular Diversity Preservation International was dissolved. The collection of chemical samples is now operated by Molmall Sarl on behalf of the MDPI
MDPI
Sustainability Foundation.

The journal Molecules was established in 1996 in collaboration with Springer-Verlag (now Springer Science+Business Media
Springer Science+Business Media
) in order to document the chemical samples of the MDPI
MDPI
collection. Several other journals were established by the MDPI
MDPI
Verein, including Entropy (1999), the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2000), Sensors (2001), Marine Drugs (2003), and the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2004). The publisher MDPI
MDPI
AG (see below) was spun off from MDPI
MDPI
Verein in 2010.

MDPI
MDPI
Verein co-organized several academic conferences , including the International Symposium on Frontiers in Molecular Science. It also runs virtual conferences , such as the Electronic Conference on Synthetic Organic Chemistry, which was started in 1997. In 2010 MDPI launched the platform Sciforum.net to host virtual conferences. In 2014, various virtual conferences were hosted in the areas of synthetic organic chemistry, material sciences, sensors, and sustainability. In 2015, MDPI
MDPI
co-organized two physical conferences with and at the University of Basel
Basel
, the 4th Internationational Symposium on Sensor Science and the 5th World Sustainability Forum. Since 2015, scholars can organize their own conference for free on the Sciforum platform.

MDPI
MDPI
AG (MULTIDISCIPLINARY DIGITAL PUBLISHING INSTITUTE)

MDPI
MDPI
AG, a publisher of open-access scientific journals , was spun off from the Molecular Diversity Preservation International organization. It was formally registered by Shu-Kun Lin and Dietrich Rordorf in May 2010 in Basel, Switzerland, and maintains editorial offices in China, Spain and Serbia. MDPI
MDPI
relies primarily on article processing charges to cover the costs of editorial quality control and production of articles. Over 280 universities and institutes have joined the MDPI
MDPI
Institutional Open Access Program; authors from these organizations pay reduced article processing charges. MDPI
MDPI
is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics , the International Association of Scientific, Technical, and Medical Publishers , and the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association
Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association
(OASPA).

MDPI
MDPI
currently publishes over 180 peer-reviewed scientific journals. As of November 2017, 32 journals have been selected for coverage in the Science Citation Index Expanded , while 69 journals are indexed in other Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
products, such as the Emerging Sources Citation Index , BIOSIS Previews , and The Zoological Record .

A total of 49 MDPI
MDPI
journals publishing in biomedicine, life sciences, and related areas are archived in PubMed Central . MDPI
MDPI
journals can also be found in other relevant indexing services, such as Scopus , which currently includes over 79 MDPI
MDPI
journals, and Ei Compendex , which covers 13 MDPI
MDPI
journals.

In line with OASPA's recommendation, all articles published by MDPI since 2008 are released under the CC-BY Creative Commons license and preserved with the Swiss National Library
Swiss National Library
and CLOCKSS .

CONTROVERSIAL ARTICLES

In December 2011, the MDPI
MDPI
journal Life published Erik D. Andrulis' theoretical paper, Theory of the Origin, Evolution, and Nature of Life, aiming at presenting a framework to explain life. It attracted coverage by the popular science and technology magazines Ars Technica and Popular Science
Popular Science
, which characterized it as "crazy" and "hilarious". A member of the editorial board of Life resigned in response. Publisher Lin defended the journal's editorial process, saying that the paper had been revised following lengthy reviews by two faculty members from institutions different from the author's.

In 2013, another MDPI
MDPI
journal, Entropy , published a review paper claiming glyphosate may be the most important factor in the development of obesity , depression , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , autism , Alzheimer\'s disease , Parkinson\'s disease , multiple sclerosis , cancer , and infertility . The paper itself does not contain any primary research results. It was criticized as pseudo-science by the popular science magazine Discover . With regard to the same controversial study, Jeffrey Beall
Jeffrey Beall
has rhetorically asked, "Will MDPI
MDPI
publish anything for money?".

When publishers like MDPI
MDPI
disseminate research by science activists like Stephanie Seneff and her co-authors, I think it’s fair to question the credibility of all the research that MDPI
MDPI
publishes. Will MDPI
MDPI
publish anything for money?

A third instance of controversial publications is documented in the Australian paradox .

MDPI
MDPI
has published a statement in December 2013 as a response and defense on publishing controversial papers.

One of its journals had been targeted in the Who\'s Afraid of Peer Review? sting operation and rejected the fake paper. In 2014, MDPI's Life journal started featuring open peer review (optional, at the authors' discretion), which has been advocated as a transparency measure to combat predatory journals.

INCLUSION IN BEALL\'S LIST

MDPI
MDPI
was included on Jeffrey Beall
Jeffrey Beall
's list of predatory open access publishing companies in February 2014, and removed in October 2015 following a successful appeal. Jeffrey Beall
Jeffrey Beall
concern was that "MDPI's warehouse journals contain hundreds of lightly-reviewed articles that are mainly written and published for promotion and tenure purposes rather than to communicate science." Beall also claimed that MDPI used email spam to solicit manuscripts. MDPI
MDPI
characterized Beall's comments as "an incompetent general critique" and alleged that the inclusion of MDPI
MDPI
on his list was motivated by a hostility towards open access publishing in general , noting that he had recently published a commentary on that theme. Peter Murray-Rust
Peter Murray-Rust
, a chemist currently working at the University of Cambridge and an editorial board member of the MDPI
MDPI
journal Data, criticized Beall's critique of MDPI
MDPI
as being "irresponsible" and lacking evidence.

Among the reasons Beall gave for adding MDPI
MDPI
to his list of questionable publishers was the accusation that the company listed Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
in one of the editorial board without his knowledge. This was later revealed as a false accusation. MDPI
MDPI
has compiled and posted emails claiming to document the acceptance by the following Nobelists as members of the board in MDPI
MDPI
journals: Robert F. Curl
Robert F. Curl
, Richard R. Ernst , Jerome Karle , Harold Kroto
Harold Kroto
, Yuan-Tseh Lee , Rudolph A. Marcus
Rudolph A. Marcus
, Eric S. Maskin
Eric S. Maskin
, Steven Weinberg
Steven Weinberg
, Kurt Wüthrich
Kurt Wüthrich
and George Smoot
George Smoot
.

Following Beall's criticism of MDPI, the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) conducted an investigation in April 2014 and concluded that MDPI
MDPI
meets the OASPA Membership Criteria, stating that "Based on our findings we feel satisfied that MDPI continue to meet the OASPA Membership Criteria".

Further critique was raised by Martin Haspelmath who argues that the publication model employed by MDPI
MDPI
"creates a strong incentive to create journals and book imprints that function like 'vanity presses ,' allowing authors to publish their low-quality work without significant risk of rejection." In response to Haspelmath, MDPI published a commentary in the same journal disputing a number of points.

In an article in Biochemia Medica, Beall wrote that he had been pressured to remove his list due to harassment from predatory publishers, and mentioned MDPI
MDPI
specifically as a publisher that had "tried to be as annoying as possible to the university so that the officials would get so tired of the emails that they would silence me just to make them stop."

SEE ALSO

* Journals published by MDPI
MDPI

REFERENCES

* ^ Gillis, Alex (January 12, 2017). "Beware! Academics are getting reeled in by scam journals". University Affairs. * ^ Poynder, Richard (27 April 2015). "The Open Access Interviews: Publisher MDPI". Open and Shut?. * ^ A B Beall, Jeffrey (2017). "What I learned from predatory publishers". Biochemia Medica. 27 (2): 273–279. * ^ A B "History of MDPI". Retrieved 2014-03-17. * ^ "Chemical Museum and Samples Exchange". Retrieved 2011-07-24. * ^ "MolMall About us". MolMall. 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2014. * ^ "Does MDPI
MDPI
Offer Any Discounts or Waivers of the Article Processing Charges (APCs)?". MDPI. Retrieved 18 March 2014. * ^ "Membership Institutes". MDPI. Retrieved 2017-11-16. * ^ "COPE Members". Retrieved 2015-08-20. * ^ "STM Members". Retrieved 2015-08-20. * ^ "OASPA Members". Retrieved 2015-08-20. * ^ "Journals indexed in SCI-E (Web of Science)". MDPI. Retrieved 2016-06-20. * ^ "Journals indexed in ESCI (Web of Science)". MDPI. Retrieved 2017-11-16. * ^ "Journals indexed in PubMed". MDPI. Retrieved 2017-11-16. * ^ "Journals indexed in Scopus". Retrieved 2017-11-16. * ^ "Journals indexed in Ei Compendex". MDPI. * ^ " MDPI
MDPI
Open Access Information and Policy". MDPI. * ^ "CLOCKSS". MDPI. * ^ "About MDPI". MDPI. * ^ Andrulis, Erik D. (2011). "Theory of the Origin, Evolution, and Nature of Life". Life. 2 (1): 1–105. doi :10.3390/life2010001 . * ^ Timmer, John. "How the craziest f#@!ing "theory of everything" got published and promoted". Ars Technica. Retrieved 17 January 2014. * ^ A B Nosowitz, Dan. "Hilarious "Theory of Everything" Paper Provokes Kerfuffle". Popular Science. Retrieved 17 January 2014. * ^ Zimmer, Carl. "Life turned upside down". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 17 January 2014. * ^ Lin, Shu-Kun (2012). "Publication of Controversial Papers in Life". Life. 2 (1): 213–214. doi :10.3390/life2010213 . * ^ A B Samsel, Anthony; Stephanie Seneff. "Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases". Entropy. Bibcode :2013Entrp..15.1416S. doi :10.3390/e15041416 . * ^ Kloor, Keith. "When Media Uncritically Cover Pseudoscience". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 17 January 2014. * ^ Beall, Jeffrey . "Anti-Roundup (Glyphosate) Researchers Use Easy OA Journals to Spread their Views". Scholarly Open Access. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015. * ^ "Controversial Articles". MDPI. December 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2014. * ^ "Data and Documents". * ^ Rampelotto, P. (2014). "Opening up Peer Review in Life: Towards a Transparent and Reliable Process". Life. 4 (2): 225. doi :10.3390/life4020225 . * ^ "Instructions for Authors — Editorial Procedures and Peer-Review". Life. MDPI. * ^ "Is this peer reviewed? Predatory journals and the transparency of peer review". * ^ Jeffrey Beall
Jeffrey Beall
(18 February 2014), Chinese Publisher MDPI
MDPI
Added to List of Questionable Publishers Archived 2014-03-06 at the Wayback Machine ., Scholarly Open Access: Critical analysis of scholarly open-access publishing * ^ Beall, Jeffrey (28 October 2015). " MDPI
MDPI
removed from publisher list following successful appeal. #OA #MDPI". @jeffrey_beall. Retrieved 27 June 2017. * ^ "Chinese Publisher MDPI
MDPI
Added to List of Questionable Publishers". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. * ^ Jeffrey Beall
Jeffrey Beall
(11 June 2015), Guest Editing a Special
Special
Issue with MDPI: Evidences of Questionable Actions by the Publisher Archived 2015-06-16 at the Wayback Machine ., Scholarly Open Access: Critical analysis of scholarly open-access publishing * ^ Beall, Jeffrey (2013). "The Open-Access Movement is Not Really about Open Access". tripleC . 11 (2): 589–597. * ^ "Response to Mr. Jeffrey Beall\'s Repeated Attacks on MDPI". MDPI. February 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014. * ^ "Data — Editors". Retrieved 17 March 2014. * ^ Murray-Rust, Peter (2014-02-18). "Beall\'s criticism of MDPI lacks evidence and is irresponsible". * ^ Beall, Jeffrey (18 February 2014). "Chinese Publisher MDPI Added to List of Questionable Publishers". Scholarly Open Access. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015. * ^ "Open access critic has major publisher in crosshairs - Page 3 of 3 - eCampus News". eCampus News. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. * ^ A B "Response to Mr. Jeffrey Beall\'s Repeated Attacks on MDPI". MDPI. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. * ^ "Editorial Board of Universe" (Online access). MDPI
MDPI
Publishing. 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-22. * ^ "Conclusions from OASPA Membership Committee Investigation into MDPI". Retrieved 14 April 2014. * ^ Haspelmath M (2013). Why open-access publication should be nonprofit—a view from the field of theoretical language science. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 7:57. doi :10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00057 * ^ Rittman M (2015). Commentary: Why open-access publication should be nonprofit—a view from the field of theoretical language science. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 9:201. doi :10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00201

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