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Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known as M.G.R., was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
for ten years between 1977 and 1987. MGR
MGR
is a cultural icon in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and he is regarded as one of the most influential actors of the Tamil film
Tamil film
industry.[1] He was popularly known as "Makkal Thilagam" (People's King) as he was popular with the masses.[2] In his youth, MGR
MGR
and his elder brother M. G. Chakrapani became members of a drama troupe to support their family. Influenced by Gandhian ideals, MGR
MGR
joined the Indian National Congress. After a few years of acting in plays, he made his film debut in the 1936 film Sathi Leelavathi in a supporting role. By the late 1940s, he graduated to lead roles and for the next three decades dominated the Tamil film industry. He became a member of the C. N. Annadurai-led Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK party) and rapidly rose through its ranks, using his enormous popularity as a film star to build a large political base. In 1972, three years after Annadurai's death, he left the DMK, now led by Karunanidhi, MGR's once friend and now rival, to form his own party—the All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). Five years later, he steered an AIADMK-led alliance to victory in the 1977 election, routing the DMK in the process. He became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, the first film actor to become a chief minister in India. Except for a six-month interregnum in 1980, when his government was overthrown by the Union government, he remained as chief minister till his death in 1987, leading the AIADMK to two more electoral triumphs in 1980 and 1984.[citation needed] M.G.R's autobiography "Naan Yaen Piranthaen" (Why I was born) was published in 2003 in two volumes.[3]

Contents

1 Early life and background 2 Acting career

2.1 Mentor

3 Political career

3.1 1967 Assassination attempt 3.2 Split from DMK and formation of AIADMK 3.3 Continued success in TN Assembly elections

3.3.1 1977 Assembly elections 3.3.2 1980 Parliament and assembly elections 3.3.3 1984 assembly elections

3.4 Achievements as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu 3.5 Criticism and controversies

3.5.1 Bharat Ratna 3.5.2 Commemorative Coins

3.6 Member of Legislative Assembly 3.7 Chief minister

4 Awards 5 Philanthropy 6 Illness and death 7 Filmography

7.1 As an actor 7.2 As producer and director

8 References 9 External links

Early life and background[edit] M.G.R. was born in Kandy, Sri Lanka,[4] to a Hindu
Hindu
Malayali
Malayali
family of Melakkath Gopala Menon and Maruthur Satyabhama[5] from Palakkad, in the modern-day state of Kerala.[6] M.G.R's father was excommunicated for having relationship with a Nambudiri
Nambudiri
widow. He met M.G.R's mother in Palakad after the excommunication from Irinjalakuda. The family was an inter-clan one, since Satyabhama was an Ezhava
Ezhava
and Gopala Menon was a Nair. Both of them left Kerala
Kerala
for Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
where M.G.R was born. Maruthur or Marudur is his maternal family name, while Melakkath is his paternal family name.[7] In his early days, M.G.R. was a devout Hindu
Hindu
and a devotee of Lord Sri Murugan, and his mother's favourite god Lord Sri Guruvayurappan.[8] Later, when he joined the DMK, a pro-rationalist party, he publicly followed the rationalist ideology, though not appearing very aggressively atheistic. In later days, after he founded his own party following his expulsion from the DMK, he seems to have shown some leaning towards the religious faith he originally showed. He had asked his followers to pray for the success of his AIADMK
AIADMK
party.[9]

MGR
MGR
with his wife V.N Janaki in a film

M.G.R's first marriage was to Chitarikulam Bargavi, also known as Thangamani, who died early due to an illness. He later married for the second time, to Satyanandavati, who also died soon after marriage due to tuberculosis.[10] In 1965, M.G.R. married for the third time, this time to V. N. Janaki
V. N. Janaki
a former Tamil film
Tamil film
actress.[11] Janaki divorced her husband, Ganapathy, to marry M.G.R. Acting career[edit] Ramachandran made his film debut in 1936, in the film Sathi Leelavathi,[12] directed by Ellis Dungan, an American-born film director.[13] Generally starring in romance or action films, MGR
MGR
got his big breakthrough in the 1950 film Manthiri Kumari, written by M. Karunanidhi. Soon he rose to popularity with the 1954 film Malaikkallan. He acted as hero in the Tamil film
Tamil film
industry's first ever Gevacolor movie, the 1955 Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum. He rose to become the heartthrob of millions of Tamilians with movies such as Thirudadhe, Enga Veettu Pillai, Aayirathil Oruvan, Anbe Vaa, Mahadevi, Panam Padaithavan, Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan, etc. He won the National Film Award for Best Actor for the film Rickshawkaran
Rickshawkaran
in 1972. He acted in many movies that appealed to the direct sentiments of the common man and the rich as well. His 1973 blockbuster Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan broke the previous box office records of his movies. It was one of the few movies filmed abroad in those days. It was shot in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Japan. The DMK tried very hard to illegally prevent the screening of the film using strong-arm tactics, but ultimately failed in its attempt. His acting career ended in 1987 with his last film Ullagam Suthi Paru, in which he acted even though he had been diagnosed with kidney failure.[14] Mentor[edit] Narayana Padaiyatchi Rathnam a pioneer of Tamil stage drama and K.P. Kesavan were chief mentors of Ramachandran in his acting career.[15] Political career[edit]

MGR
MGR
with Jayalalitha

MGR
MGR
was a member of the Congress Party till 1953, and he used to wear khādī. In 1953  MGR
MGR
joined the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK) attracted by founder C.N. Annadurai. He became a vocal Tamil and Dravidian nationalist and prominent member of the DMK ("Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam" aka Dravidian Progressive Federation). He added glamour to the Dravidian movement
Dravidian movement
which was sweeping Tamil Nadu. MGR became a member of the state Legislative Council in 1962. At the age of 50, he was first elected to the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly in 1967. After the death of his mentor, Annadurai, MGR
MGR
became the treasurer of DMK in 1969 after Muthuvel Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
became the Chief Minister.[citation needed] 1967 Assassination attempt[edit] The actor and politician M. R. Radha and MGR
MGR
had worked in 25 films together. On 12 January 1967, Radha and a producer visited MGR
MGR
to talk about a future film project. During the conversation, M. R. Radha stood up and shot MGR
MGR
in his left ear twice and then tried to shoot himself.[16] After the operation, MGR's voice changed. Since he had been shot in his ear, MGR
MGR
lost hearing in his left ear and had ringing in the ear problems. These further surfaced in 1983 when he had kidney problems. When Sinnappa Devar paid his first visit to see MGR
MGR
at the hospital after the shooting incident he paid MGR
MGR
an advance for MGR's next movie. After getting released from the hospital and finishing Arasakattalai, MGR
MGR
acted in Devar's movie Vivasaayee against doctors' advice. Due to the operation, MGR's speaking parts in the movie Kaavalkaaran were reduced. This was the only movie in which MGR
MGR
spoke with old and new voices between scenes: MGR
MGR
was acting in the film Kaavalkaran in 1967 opposite J. Jayalalithaa
J. Jayalalithaa
when the shooting occurred.[citation needed] Petralthaan Pillaya was the last movie of MGR-MR Radha together. Shooting ended just few days before MGR
MGR
was shot. The bullet was permanently lodged in his neck and his voice damaged. Within hours of the shooting, some 50,000 fans had gathered at the hospital where MGR had been taken. People cried in the streets. For six weeks, he lay in the hospital as fans awaited each report of his health. He was visited by a steady stream of commoners and luminaries of film industry, polity and bureaucracy. From his hospital bed, he conducted his campaign for the Madras
Madras
Legislative Assembly. He won twice the number of votes polled by his Congress rival and the largest vote polled by any candidate for the Assembly.[17] Split from DMK and formation of AIADMK[edit] In 1972, DMK leader Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
started to project his first son M.K. Muthu in a big way in film and politics. Understanding the tactics played by Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
to corner him, MGR
MGR
started to claim that corruption had grown in the party after the demise of Annadurai and in a public meeting asked for the financial details of the party to be publicized, which enraged the leadership of DMK. Consequently, MGR
MGR
was expelled from the party as per Karunanidhi's plan. Upon his ouster from DMK, Ramachandran floated a new party which he called Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(ADMK), later renamed All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(AIADMK), the only powerful opponent of the DMK. He mobilized between 1972 and 1977 to spread and preach his party ambition with films like Netru Indru Naalai (1974), Idhayakani (1975), Indru Pol Endrum Vazhga (1977), etc.[citation needed] Continued success in TN Assembly elections[edit] 1977 Assembly elections[edit] The AIADMK
AIADMK
contested the 1977 assembly elections in Tamil Nadu. The election was a four cornered contest between the ADMK, DMK, the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Janata Party. The ADMK allied itself with the Communist Party of India
India
(Marxist), while INC(I) and Communist Party of India
India
(CPI) contested as allies. The DMK and Janata Party (JNP) contested the elections alone. The ADMK did not field any candidate in the Usilampatti Constituency in support of the Forward Bloc leader P.K. Mookiah Thevar. Similarly, the ADMK also supported the Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) candidate M. Abdul Latheef in the Vaniyambadi Constituency. In the parliamentary elections that occurred just three months prior to these elections, there had been two major alliances – the ADMK led ADMK-INC-CPI coalition and the DMK led DMK-NCO-JNP-CPM coalition. But in the months that followed the parliamentary election, these coalitions fell apart. The AIADMK alliance won the elections by winning 144 seats out of 234 and MGR became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. Upon winning the 1977 state elections, MG Ramachandran became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on 30 June 1977, remaining in office till his death in 1987. In 1979, members of his party Satyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor became the first non-Congress politicians from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to be ministers in the Union Cabinet. The AIADMK
AIADMK
won every state assembly election as long as MGR
MGR
was alive. Although Anna Durai and Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
had acted in stage plays in trivial roles, in their younger days, before becoming chief minister, MGR
MGR
was the first popular film actor to be a Chief Minister in India. 1980 Parliament and assembly elections[edit] Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
allied with Indian National Congress (Indira) in the 1977 parliamentary election. However, when Janata Party won the election and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
became the Prime Minister, M. G. Ramachandran extended unconditional support to the Janata party Government. He continued his support to the Charan Singh Government in 1979. After the fall of the Charan Singh government, fresh parliamentary elections were conducted in 1980. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam struck alliance with INC(I). ADMK and Janata Party alliance won only 2 seats in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in that parliamentary election. INC(I) won the election and Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
became the Prime Minister. Congress-DMK victory in the 1980 parliamentary election emboldened their alliance and made them think that people lost their faith in M. G. Ramachandran government. DMK pressed the central government to dismiss the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
government using similar allegations used by MGR
MGR
to dismiss DMK government in 1976. The ADMK ministry and the assembly were dismissed by the central government and fresh elections conducted in 1980. Despite their victory at the 1980 Lok Sabha polls, DMK and Indira Congress failed to win the legislative assembly election. ADMK won the election and its leader and incumbent Chief Minister, M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
was sworn in as Chief Minister for the second time. He became the first leader since K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
to win a re-election as Chief Minister. 1984 assembly elections[edit] Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
was assassinated on 31 October 1984. During the same time, M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
was diagnosed with kidney failure and admitted into a hospital in New York City. Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
assumed office immediately and this required a fresh mandate from the people. Indian National Congress (Indira) and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
formed an alliance and contested the election. M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
was confined to the hospital. Video coverage of MGR
MGR
recuperating in hospital along with Indira Gandhi's assassination were stitched together by the ADMK man in charge of campaigning, R. M. Veerappan. The video was distributed and played across all over Tamil Nadu. Rajiv Gandhi visited cyclone-hit areas in Tamil Nadu, which also boosted the alliance. The sympathy wave created by Indira's assassination, MGR's illness and Rajiv Gandhi's charisma helped the alliance sweep the election.[1][2] DMK leader M. Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
did not contest this election, due to the fact that the ADMK leader M.G.R was admitted to a hospital in the U.S. and Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
being assassinated. It was a landslide victory for AIADMK-Congress combine which won 195 seats in assembly polls. The electoral victory proved the undying charisma of MGR
MGR
upon the masses. Achievements as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu[edit]

MGR
MGR
with his cabinet minister C.Ponnaiyan

Once he became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, he placed great emphasis on social development, especially education. One of his most successful policies was the conversion of the "Midday Meal Scheme", introduced by the popular Congress Chief Minister and kingmaker K Kamaraj, which already was encouraging underprivileged children to attend school, into "MGR's Nutritious Meal Scheme" in the government-run and -aided schools in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
by adding saththurundai – a nutritious sugary flour dumpling. This scheme was at a cost of Rs. 1 billion and was imposed in 1982. A little more than 120,000 children of the state were benefited. He also introduced Women's Special
Special
buses. He introduced a liquor ban in the state and preservation of old temples and historical monuments, ultimately increasing the state's tourist income. He set up a free school for the cinema technicians children in Kodambakkam called MGR Primary & Higher Secondary School which provided free mid-day meals in the 1950s. He led the ADMK to victory in the 1984 assembly elections, despite not taking part in the campaigning. At that time he was undergoing medical treatment in America and his images were broadcast in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
through cinema halls. This was an effective campaign tactic and ADMK won the elections claiming around 56% of assembly seats, indicating the depth of his popular support. He won his seat in a double landslide victory in 1984. He still holds the record of being the chief minister with the highest consistent longevity of more than a decade.[citation needed] Karunanidhi
Karunanidhi
claimed on 1 April 2009 and again on 13 May 2012 that MGR was ready for the merger of his party with the DMK in 1979, with Biju Patnaik acting as the mediator. The plan failed, because Panruti Ramachandran, who was close to MGR
MGR
acted as a spoiler and MGR
MGR
changed his mind.[18][19] Criticism and controversies[edit] Even after his death, MGR
MGR
proved to be very popular in the state and his rule has been cited by many of his contemporaries as best in the country.[20] However, his rule is not without criticism. Economic data under his rule showed that annual growth and per capita income was lower than the national average and the state went from being second among 25 industrialised states in development after Kamaraj's rule to tenth. This decline, according to critics has been due to shift of government resources from power and irrigation to social and agriculture sector according to Madras
Madras
Institute of Development Studies reported in 1988. In addition, the emphasis on "welfare schemes" such as free electricity to farmers, mid-day meal schemes, etc. has been seen by many as taking money away from infrastructure development that could have benefited the poor. In addition, the liquor tax imposed during his rule was considered to contribute to a regressive tax mostly affecting the poor.[citation needed] Other criticisms have been on MGR's centralised decision-making, which many blame for inefficiency and corruption taking hold of his administration. Some examples stated by the critics include Goondas act in 1982 and other acts that limited political criticism in the media, which led to a "police state" during his administration. While these criticisms have been in the minority, supporters of MGR
MGR
counter that most of these problems were a result of the party members serving MGR
MGR
rather than the leader himself. While he is not considered a divisive figure in the state, critics and supporters alike agree that his charisma and popularity trumped policy decisions that led to his eventual success during his tenure as chief minister.[21] Natwar Singh
Natwar Singh
in his autobiography One Life is Not Enough
One Life is Not Enough
alleges that M.G. Ramachandra covertly supported the cause of independent Tamil Eelam and financed the LTTE
LTTE
and their cadres were being given military training in Tamil Nadu. He also alleges that M.G.R considered Jaffna an extension of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and without informing the Indian Government at the time, had gifted 40 million rupees to the LTTE.[22] MGR
MGR
has been accused of being intolerant towards the media. In April 1987, the Editor of Ananda Vikatan S. Balasubramanian was sentenced to 3 months in jail by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly for publishing a cartoon, depicting government ministers as bandits and lawmakers as pickpockets, though specific legislature was not specified. But due to media outcry, he was released and S. Balasubramanian later won a case against his arrest. Earlier, Vaniga Otrumai editor A.M. Paulraj was sentenced to 2 weeks imprisonment by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly for his writing.[23][24][25] Bharat Ratna[edit] After his death in 1987, he became the second Chief Minister from the state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to receive the Bharat Ratna. The timing of the award was controversial, due to the fact that it was given so quickly after his death and he was elected as Chief Minister only 11 years before the award. Many opponents, mostly outside Tamil Nadu, criticised then ruling party INC, under Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
to have influenced the selection committee to give the award to help win the upcoming 1989 Lok Sabha election. The ruling party forming a coalition with Jayalalithaa, the successor to MGR
MGR
at that time, were able to sweep Tamil Nadu, winning 38 out of 39 seats, INC were however unable to win nationally.[26] Commemorative Coins[edit] To commemorate MGR's Birth centenary in 2017, the Ministry of Finance, Government of India
India
decided to issue ₹100 and ₹5 coins that would bear his image as a portrait along with an inscription of "DR. M. G. Ramachandran Birth Centenary".[27] Member of Legislative Assembly[edit]

Year Elected/Re-elected Place Party

1967 Elected St. Thomas Mount DMK

1971 Re-elected St. Thomas Mount DMK

1977 Elected Aruppukottai ADMK

1980 Elected Madurai West ADMK

1984 Elected Andipatti ADMK

Chief minister[edit]

Period

1977 - 1980 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
state assembly election, 1977

1980 - 1984 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
state assembly election, 1980

1984 - 1987 Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
state assembly election, 1984

Awards[edit]

Filmfare Special
Special
Award South for the film Enga Veettu Pillai[28] Filmfare Best Film Award for the film Adimai Penn[29] National Film Award for Best Actor
National Film Award for Best Actor
for the film Rickshawkaran
Rickshawkaran
in 1971. Honorary doctorate
Honorary doctorate
received from University of Madras
Madras
and The World University (Arizona) in 1974. Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
was conferred by the Government of India
India
(posthumously) in 1988 for his contribution in the field of Films and Politics. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Film Award for Best Actor for the film Kudiyirundha Koyil Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Film Award for Best Film - First Prize in 1969

Philanthropy[edit] He personally offered relief in disasters and calamities like fire, flood, drought, and cyclones. He was the first donor during the war with China in 1962 (Sino-Indian War), donating Rs. 75,000 to the war fund. He was the founder and editor of Thai weekly magazine and Anna daily newspaper in Tamil. He was the owner of Sathya Studios and Emgeeyar Pictures (willed to charity) which produced many of the films he acted in. He had gifted a golden sword weighing half a Kilogram to Mookambika
Mookambika
temple in Kollur, Udupi district.[30] Illness and death[edit]

MGR's tomb and memorial at Marina beach, Chennai

In October 1984, MGR
MGR
was diagnosed with kidney failure, which was further complicated by diabetes, a mild heart attack and a massive stroke. He was rushed to the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, United States for treatment, undergoing a kidney transplant. He returned to Chennai
Chennai
on 4 February 1985. He was sworn in as chief minister of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
for the third consecutive term on 10 February 1985. The next 2 years and 10 months were spent in frequent trips to the United States for treatment. MGR
MGR
never fully recovered from his illness and died on 24 December 1987 at 3:30 am in his Ramavaram Gardens residence in Manapakkam[31] after his prolonged illness. He was almost 71. His death sparked off a frenzy of looting and rioting all over the state. Shops, cinemas, buses and other public and private property became the target of violence let loose. The police had to resort issuing shoot-at-sight orders. Schools and colleges immediately announced the holidays till the situation came in control. The violence during the funeral alone left 29 people dead and 47 police personnel badly wounded.[32][33] This state of affairs continued for almost a month across Tamil Nadu. Around one million[34] people followed his remains, around 30 followers committed suicide and people had their heads tonsured. After his death, his political party, the All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, split between his wife Janaki Ramachandran
Janaki Ramachandran
and J. Jayalalithaa; they merged in 1988. In 1989 Dr. M. G. R. Home and Higher Secondary School for the Speech and Hearing Impaired[35] was established at the erstwhile residence MGR
MGR
Gardens, Ramavaram, in accordance with his last will & testament written in January 1987. His official residence at 27, Arcot Street, T. Nagar is now M.G.R. Memorial House and is open for public viewing. His film studio, Sathya Studios, has been converted into a women's college.[36] Filmography[edit] As an actor[edit] Main article: M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
filmography As producer and director[edit]

1958 Nadodi Mannan, producer and director 1969 Adimai Penn, producer 1973 Ulagam Sutrum Valiban, producer and director 1977 Madhuraiyai Meetta Sundharapandiyan, director

References[edit]

^ " India
India
at 70 70 most influential Politicians of post-independence India".  ^ Sachi Sri Kantha (8 April 2015). " MGR
MGR
Remembered – Part 26". Sangam.org. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ "Janaki's son alone has copyright to MGR's autobiography: court". The Hindu. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2016.  ^ Attar Chand (1988). M.G. Ramachandran, My Blood Brother. Gyan Publishing House. GGKEY:XEDQREZGYA6 Page 1.  ^ வள்ளல் பிறந்தார்..! vallal born. Cinema.maalaimalar.com (19 February 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014. ^ Mani Shankar Aiyar (1 January 2009). A Time of Transition: Rajiv Gandhi to the 21 Century. Penguin Books India. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-670-08275-9.  ^ "Hamlet in Monsoon A Historical Window to the World".  ^ Linda Woodhead Religions in Modern World. Fletcher, Kawanam. p. 39 ^ M.S.S. Pandian (1992) The image trap. SAGE Publications. ISBN 0803994036. p. 131 ^ திருமணமும் தகுதி உயர்வும் Marriage qualifying high. Cinema.maalaimalar.com (19 February 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014. ^ பொன்மனச் செம்மலின் வெற்றி வரலாறு (பகுதி 5): வி.என். ஜானகியை வாழ்க்கைத் துணைவியாக ஏற்றார்! Mgr Cinema History. Cinema.maalaimalar.com (19 February 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014. ^ M. G. Ramachandran. bookrags.com ^ "Americans in Tamil cinema". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 September 2004.  ^ "MGR-Sivaji-Gemini: TRINITY Album Launched". IndiaGlitz. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ " MGR
MGR
Remembered – Part 4". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2016-11-17.  ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/the-day-mr-radha-shot-mgr/article12059018.ece ^ Selvaraj Velayutham (2008). Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-39680-8.  ^ " Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
News : ADMK came close to merging with DMK: Karunanidhi". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ "Karuna recalls Biju's bid for DMK-ADMK merger". Zeenews.india.com. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ "Polls show MGR
MGR
as the best CM of Tamil Nadu". news.oneindia.in. 20 December 2006.  ^ Ingrid Widlund (1993). "A Vote for MGR
MGR
Transaction and Devotion in South Indian Politics". Statsvetenskaplig tidskrifts. 96 (3): 225–257.  ^ K. Natwar-Singh (2014). One Life is Not Enough: An Autobiography. Rupa Publications India. ISBN 978-81-291-3274-1.  ^ "Arresting affair Arrest of Ananda Vikattin editor another press vs Ramachandran Government battle". S.H. Venkatramani. India
India
Today. 30 April 1987. Retrieved 17 October 2015.  ^ "A trophy to remember". The Hindu. 16 November 2003. Retrieved 17 October 2015.  ^ "Civil Liberties Council Represented by Its Convener R.R. Dalavai and ors. Vs. Government of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Represented by Commissioner and Secretary, Madras
Madras
Legislative Assembly and ors. - Court Judgment". Civil Liberty Council. Retrieved 17 October 2015.  ^ Bharat Ratna- Isn't the arbitrary selection & politics making this highest civilian award controversy prone?. Merinews.com (20 November 2013). Retrieved 21 May 2014. ^ [1] ^ "புரட்சி நடிகர் எம்.ஜி.ஆர். அவர்கள் பெற்ற விருதுகள் Lakshman Sruthi – 100% Manual Orchestra ". Lakshman Sruthi. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2011.  ^ "M G Ramachandran, Times Exclusive Photo, Matinee idol M G Ramachandran". Timescontent.com. 1 April 1970. Retrieved 2 August 2011.  ^ "The Hindu : Karnataka News : Jayalalithaa
Jayalalithaa
offers prayers at Kollur temple". Hinduonnet.com. 31 July 2004. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ "M.G. Ramachandrans death marks the passing of an era of stability in Tamil Nadu".  ^ "Popular Tamil Leader Dies in India;Rioting, Suicides Follow Death of Tamil Nadu's Chief Minister". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. 25 December 1987. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ "Tamil leader's death stirs India
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riots". Chicago Sun-Times. 26 December 1987.  ^ "Charlotte: Search Results". 26 December 1987.  ^ " MGR
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Home & Higher Secondary School for the Speech & Hearing Impaired". Mgrhome.in. Retrieved on 2015-04-18. ^ ".:: Dr. MGR
MGR
Janaki College of Arts and Science for Women, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India ::.". Mgrjanaki.ac.in. Retrieved on 2015-04-18.

External links[edit]

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Cinema and Politics-by D.B.S. Jeyaraj

Political offices

Vacant President's Rule Title last held by Karunanidhi Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu 1977–1987 Succeeded by Janaki Ramachandran

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Dravidian political parties

Related topics

Self-respect Movement Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu Cinema in Dravidian politics Rise of Dravidian parties

Forerunners

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Iyothee Thass Rettamalai Srinivasan Natesa Mudaliar Maraimalai Adigal Theagaroya Chetty T. M. Nair

List of Dravidian parties

Defunct parties

Justice party Tamil National Party Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam Makkal Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Thamizhaga Munnetra Munnani Thayaga Marumalarchi Kazhagam HINDRAF(Malaysia)

Current parties

Dravidar Kazhagam Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam All India
India
Latchiya Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Malaysian Indian Congress
Malaysian Indian Congress
(Malaysia) Malaysian Makkal Sakhti Party
Malaysian Makkal Sakhti Party
(Malaysia) Human Right Party(Malaysia)

Chief Ministers from Dravidian parties

Madras
Madras
Presidency

A. Subbarayalu Reddiar Panagal Raja P. Munuswamy Naidu Ramakrishna Ranga Rao P. T. Rajan

Tamil Nadu

C. N. Annadurai V. R. Nedunchezhiyan Karunanidhi M. G. Ramachandran V. N. Janaki J. Jayalalithaa O. Panneerselvam Edappadi K. Palaniswami

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Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
laureates

1954–1960

C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
(1954) Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1955) Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
(1957) Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve
(1958)

1961–1980

Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy
and Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
(1961) Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1962) Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane
Pandurang Vaman Kane
(1963) Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
(1966) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1971) V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(1975) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1976) Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
(1980)

1981–2000

Vinoba Bhave
Vinoba Bhave
(1983) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(1987) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1988) B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(1990) Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
(1991) Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1992) Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(1997) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
and Chidambaram Subramaniam
Chidambaram Subramaniam
(1998) Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999)

2001–present

Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
and Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(2001) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(2008) C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
and Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
(2014) Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(2015)

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National Film Award for Best Actor

1967–1980

Uttam Kumar
Uttam Kumar
(1967) Ashok Kumar
Ashok Kumar
(1968) Utpal Dutt
Utpal Dutt
(1969) Sanjeev Kumar
Sanjeev Kumar
(1970) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1971) Sanjeev Kumar
Sanjeev Kumar
(1972) P. J. Antony (1973) Sadhu Meher (1974) M. V. Vasudeva Rao (1975) Mithun Chakraborty
Mithun Chakraborty
(1976) Bharath Gopi (1977) Arun Mukherjee (1978) Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah
(1979) Balan K. Nair
Nair
(1980)

1981–2000

Om Puri
Om Puri
(1981) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1982) Om Puri
Om Puri
(1983) Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah
(1984) Shashi Kapoor
Shashi Kapoor
(1985) Charuhasan (1986) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1987) Premji
Premji
(1988) Mammootty
Mammootty
(1989) Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
(1990) Mohanlal
Mohanlal
(1991) Mithun Chakraborty
Mithun Chakraborty
(1992) Mammootty
Mammootty
(1993) Nana Patekar
Nana Patekar
(1994) Rajit Kapur
Rajit Kapur
(1995) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1996) Balachandra Menon
Balachandra Menon
and Suresh Gopi
Suresh Gopi
(1997) Ajay Devgan
Ajay Devgan
and Mammootty
Mammootty
(1998) Mohanlal
Mohanlal
(1999) Anil Kapoor
Anil Kapoor
(2000)

2001–present

Murali (2001) Ajay Devgan
Ajay Devgan
(2002) Vikram (2003) Saif Ali Khan
Saif Ali Khan
(2004) Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
(2005) Soumitra Chatterjee
Soumitra Chatterjee
(2006) Prakash Raj
Prakash Raj
(2007) Upendra Limaye
Upendra Limaye
(2008) Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
(2009) Dhanush
Dhanush
and Salim Kumar
Salim Kumar
(2010) Girish Kulkarni
Girish Kulkarni
(2011) Irrfan Khan
Irrfan Khan
and Vikram Gokhale
Vikram Gokhale
(2012) Rajkummar Rao
Rajkummar Rao
and Suraj Venjaramoodu
Suraj Venjaramoodu
(2013) Sanchari Vijay
Sanchari Vijay
(2014) Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
(2015) Akshay Kumar
Akshay Kumar
(2016)

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Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Film Award for Best Actor

1967–1980

A. V. M. Rajan (1967) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1968) Sivaji Ganesan
Sivaji Ganesan
(1969) Gemini Ganesan
Gemini Ganesan
(1970) no award (1971) no award (1972) no award (1973) no award (1974) no award (1975) no award (1976) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1977) Sreekanth (1978) Sivakumar
Sivakumar
(1979) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1980)

1981–2000

Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1981) Sivakumar
Sivakumar
(1982) no award (1983) no award (1984) no award (1985) no award (1986) no award (1987) Vijayakanth
Vijayakanth
(1988) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1989) Karthik (1990) Prabhu (1991) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1992) Arjun (1993) R. Sarathkumar
R. Sarathkumar
(1994) Rajinikanth
Rajinikanth
(1995) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(1996) Vijay & Parthiban (1997) R. Sarathkumar
R. Sarathkumar
(1998) Rajinikanth
Rajinikanth
(1999) Vijay & Murali (2000)

2001–present

Suriya
Suriya
(2001) Madhavan (2002) Vikram (2003) Jayam Ravi
Jayam Ravi
(2004) Vijay & Rajinikanth
Rajinikanth
(2005) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(2006) Rajinikanth
Rajinikanth
(2007) Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
(2008) Karan (2009) Vikram (2010) Vimal (2011) Jiiva
Jiiva
(2012) Arya (2013) Siddharth (2014)

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Padma Award winners of Kerala

Padma Vibhushan

Adoor Gopalakrishnan E. C. George Sudarshan E. Sreedharan G. Madhavan Nair John Mathai K. N. Raj K. R. Ramanathan K. Shankar Pillai Kottayan Katankot Venugopal M. S. Valiathan N. R. Pillai O. N. V. Kurup V. K. Krishna Menon V. R. Krishna Iyer Verghese Kurien K. J. Yesudas

Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
(Male)

A. C. N. Nambiar Ammannur Madhava Chakyar A. Ramachandran A. Sreedhara Menon C. P. Krishnan Nair Chembai E. C. George Sudarshan Eledath Thaikkattu Narayanan Mooss G. Madhavan Nair G. Sankara Kurup Gabriel Chiramel George Joseph (scientist) Guru Kunchu Kurup Jacob Chandy K. G. Subramanyan K. J. Yesudas K. M. George K. M. Mathew K. P. Kesava Menon K. P. P. Nambiar K. P. S. Menon (senior) K. R. Ramanathan K. Radhakrishnan K. Sankaran Nair K. Shankar Pillai K. Sukumaran K. T. Thomas (Justice) Kandathil Mammen Cherian Kavalam Narayana Panicker Kottayan Katankot Venugopal Kunhiraman Palat Candeth Kuzhur Narayana Marar M. S. Valiathan M. T. Vasudevan Nair M. V. Pylee Madavoor Vasudevan Nair Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai O. V. Vijayan P. K. Warrier Palghat Mani Iyer Pothan Joseph Prem Nazir Raghavan Thirumulpad Ramankutty Nair Satish Nambiar
Satish Nambiar
# T. J. S. George T. K. Oommen T. N. Krishnan
T. N. Krishnan
* T. V. Gopalakrishnan T. V. R. Shenoy Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai Thayil John Cherian Thomas Kailath
Thomas Kailath
# Trichur V. Ramachandran V. K. Narayana Menon Vainu Bappu
Vainu Bappu
# Vallathol Narayana Menon Verghese Kurien

Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
(Female)

Balamani Amma Lakshmi N. Menon P. Leela Tara Cherian #

Padma Shri
Padma Shri
(Male)

A. Marthanda Pillai A. Sivathanu Pillai Adoor Gopalakrishnan Ammannur Madhava Chakyar Antony Padiyara Ayyappa Paniker Azad Moopen B. Paul Thaliath B. Ravi Pillai Balachandra Menon C. G. Krishnadas Nair Cheril Krishna Menon E. Sreedharan Eledath Thaikkattu Neelakandan Mooss Eluvathingal Devassy Jemmis G. Aravindan G. Shankar G. Vijayaraghavan Gopinath Pillai J. Hareendran Nair Jayaram Jose Chacko Periappuram K. J. Yesudas K. M. George K. M. Mammen Mappillai K. P. Haridas K. P. Udayabhanu K. Raghavan K. Ravindran Nair K. Shankar Pillai Kalamandalam Gopi Kalamandalam Krishnan Nair Kalamandalam Sivan Namboodiri Kandathil Mammen Cherian Kandathil Mammen Philip Kavungal Chathunni Panicker Keezhpadam Kumaran Nair Kunhiraman Palat Candeth Kunnenkeril K. Jacob Kurian John Melamparambil Kuzhivelil Mathew Laurie Baker ! Madhavan Chandradathan (M.C.Dathan) M. A. Yousuf Ali M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
# M. Krishnan Nair
Nair
(doctor) M. Night Shyamalan
M. Night Shyamalan
# M. R. Kurup M. S. Valiathan M. Vijayan Madhu (actor) Mammen Mathew Mammootty Mani Madhava Chakyar Mathew Kalarickal Mattannoor Sankarankutty Mitraniketan Viswanathan Mohanlal N. Balakrishnan Nair N. Kesava Panikkar N. R. Madhava Menon Narayana Panicker Kochupillai Neyyattinkara Vasudevan O. N. V. Kurup P. Gopinathan P. K. Narayanan Nambiar P. K. Rajagopalan P. K. Warrier P. Parameswaran Paul Pothen Perakath Verghese Benjamin Peruvanam Kuttan Marar Philip Augustine Prem Nazir Priyadarshan Pucadyil Ittoop John Puthenpurayil Mathew Joseph R. Marthanda Varma R. K. Krishna Kumar Rajagopalan Krishnan Resul Pookutty Shaji N. Karun Sooranad Kunjan Pillai Stanley John Sunny Varkey T. K. Alex T. N. Krishnan
T. N. Krishnan
* Thayil John Cherian Thikkurissy Sukumaran Nair Thilakan Thomas Kunnunkal Vaikom Muhammad Basheer Vazhenkada Kunchu Nair Vellayani Arjunan Verghese Kurien Vishnunarayanan Namboothiri

Padma Shri
Padma Shri
(Female)

Achamma Mathai Anju Bobby George Dipika Pallikal Karthik
Dipika Pallikal Karthik
# K. M. Beenamol K. S. Chithra Kalamandalam Kshemavathy Kalamandalam Satyabhama Leela Omchery Lucy Oommen M. D. Valsamma M. Leelavathy M. Subhadra Nair Mary Poonen Lukose Mary Verghese P. T. Usha Pepita Seth ! Rachel Thomas (skydiver) Shiny Abraham Shobana Sudha Varghese Sugathakumari Sukumari Thangam Philip Usha Uthup Vidya Balan
Vidya Balan
*

(*)By birth - (#)By ethnicity - (!)By domicile

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3271248 LCCN: n82237716 ISNI: 0000 0000 6320 5776 GND: 13719563X SUDOC: 088624862 BNF: cb125139899 (d

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