The Info List - Mälaren

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(Swedish: [²mɛːlarɛn] ( listen)), historically referred to as Lake Malar in English, is the third-largest freshwater lake in Sweden
(after Vänern
and Vättern). Its area is 1,140 km² and its greatest depth is 64 m. Mälaren spans 120 kilometers from east to west. The lake drains, from south-west to north-east, into the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
through its natural outlets Norrström
and Söderström (as it flows around Stadsholmen island) and through the artificial Södertälje Canal
Södertälje Canal
and Hammarbyleden
waterway. The easternmost bay of Mälaren, in central Stockholm, is called Riddarfjärden. The lake is located in Svealand and bounded by the provinces of Uppland, Södermanland, Närke, and Västmanland. The two largest islands in Mälaren
are Selaön (91 km²) and Svartsjölandet
(79 km²). The Viking Age
Viking Age
settlements Birka
on the island of Björkö and Hovgården
on the neighbouring island Adelsö
have been an UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993, as has Drottningholm Palace
Drottningholm Palace
on the island of Lovön. The barrow of Björn Ironside
Björn Ironside
is on the island of Munsö, within the lake.

The barrow of Björn Ironside
Björn Ironside
(Björn Järnsidas hög) on the island of Munsö, in lake Mälaren, Sweden. The barrow is crowned by a stone containing the fragmented Uppland
Runic Inscription 13.


1 Etymology 2 Geology 3 Mythology 4 Geography 5 Ecology 6 Trivia 7 See also 8 References 9 External links


Location map

The etymological origin of the name Mälaren
stems from the Old Norse word mælir appearing in historical records in the 1320s and meaning gravel.[1] The lake was previously known as Lǫgrinn, which is Old Norse for "The Lake".[2] Geology[edit] See also: Central Swedish lowland

details, with Stockholm
urban area to the right in pink.

By the end of the last ice age about 11,000 years ago, much of northern Europe and North America was covered by ice sheets up to 3 km thick. At the end of the ice age when the glaciers retreated, the removal of the weight from the depressed land led to a post-glacial rebound. Initially the rebound was rapid, proceeding at about 7.5 cm/year. This phase lasted for about 2,000 years, and took place as the ice was being unloaded. Once deglaciation was complete, uplift slowed to about 2.5 cm/year, and decreased exponentially after that. Today, typical uplift rates are of the order of 1 cm/year or less, and studies suggest that rebound will continue for about another 10,000 years. The total uplift from the end of deglaciation can be up to 400 m.[citation needed] In the Viking Age
Viking Age
was still a bay of the Baltic Sea[3][4], and seagoing vessels could sail up it far into the interior of Sweden. Birka
was conveniently near the trade routes through the Södertälje Canal. Due to the post-glacial rebound, Södertälje
canal and the mouth of Riddarfjärden
bay had become so shallow by about the year 1200 that ships had to unload their cargoes near the entrances, and progressively the bay became a lake[5]. The decline of Birka
and the subsequent foundation of Stockholm
at the choke point of Riddarfjärden
were in part due to the post-glacial rebound changing the topography of the Mälaren
basin. The lake's surface currently averages 0.7 meters above sea level. Mythology[edit] According to Norse mythology
Norse mythology
as contained in the thirteenth-century Icelandic work Prose Edda, the lake was created by the goddess Gefjon when she tricked Gylfi, the Swedish king of Gylfaginning. Gylfi promised Gefjon
as much land as four oxen could plough in a day and a night, but she used oxen from the land of the giants, and moreover uprooted the land and dragged it into the sea, where it became the island of Zealand. Snorra Edda says that 'the inlets in the lake correspond to the headlands in Zealand';[6] since this is much more true of Lake Vänern, the myth was probably originally about Vänern, not Mälaren.[7] Geography[edit] A selection, in alphabetical order:

Major islands Major sections from west to east Major cities and municipalities bordering the lake

Adelsö Aspön Björkö Ekerön Helgö Kungsholmen
(Stockholm) Kurön Lilla Essingen
Lilla Essingen
(Stockholm) Lovön Munsön Ridön (Västmanland) Ridön (Södermanland) Selaön Stora Essingen
Stora Essingen
(Stockholm) Svartsjölandet Tosterön

Galten Blacken Långtarmen Freden Västeråsfjärden Granfjärden Oknöfjärden Gripsholmsfjärden Prästfjärden Björkfjärden Ekoln Gorran & Skarven Östra Mälaren

Bålsta Köping Kungsängen Kungsör Mariefred Stockholm Strängnäs Södertälje Torshälla Uppsala Västerås

Ecology[edit] The most common nesting birds on the skerries of Mälaren
are also the most common in the Baltic Sea. After a survey in 2005, the ten most common species were found to be common tern, herring gull, black-headed gull, common gull, mallard, tufted duck, Canada goose, common goldeneye, lesser black-backed gull and common sandpiper. White-tailed eagle, greylag goose, barnacle goose, black-throated diver, red-breasted merganser and gadwall are less common, and some of these latter are endangered in the Mälaren
area. Since 1994 a subspecies of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, has nested there as well. A 2005 survey tallied 23 breeding colonies with 2178 nests, of which the largest colony had 235 nests. Most experts believe the great cormorant population has peaked and will stabilize at around 2000 nests.[8] One of the characteristic species is the osprey which has one of its strongest presences in Lake Mälaren. The osprey nests in almost all bays of the lake.[8] The Zebra mussel
Zebra mussel
is considered an invasive species and is causing some problems in Lake Mälaren. Trivia[edit]

Mälardrottningen (Lake Mälar Queen) is a poetic name for Stockholm well known in Swedish literature. Utter Inn, an underwater hotel designed by the artist Mikael Genberg, is in the lake. The area around the lake hosted the cycling events at the 1912 Summer Olympics.[9]

See also[edit]

Mälaren Valley
Mälaren Valley
(Mälardalen) Lakes of Sweden Geography of Stockholm Almarestäket Kanaanbadet


^ ”Mälaren”. Nationalencyklopedin. Accessed 4 November 2016. ^ Grimes, Heilan Yvette. The Norse Myths. P.285, 286 ^ Landhöjning och bebyggelse i nordligaste Uppland ^ Friman, Helena, Söderström, Göran. (2008). Stockholm: en historia i kartor och bilder. ^ Om Mälaren ^ Anthony Faulkes (ed. and trans), Snorri Sturluson: Edda (London: Everyman, 1987), p. 7. ^ Heimir Pálsson, 'Tertium vero datur: A study of the text of DG 11 4to', p. 44 http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126249. ^ a b Länsstyrelsen i Stockholms län Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. - Rapport 2006:02: Mälarens Fåglar (pdf, in Swedish) ^ 1912 Summer Olympics
1912 Summer Olympics
official report. p. 224.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mälaren.

has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article Mælar.

Mälarguiden - Guide to Mälaren
(mostly in Swedish but a lot of maps and some English text) Castles around Mälaren

v t e

10 largest lakes in Sweden

5,648 km² Vättern
1,893 km² Mälaren
1,140 km² Hjälmaren
484 km² Storsjön
464 km² Siljan + Orsasjön 354 km² Torneträsk
330 km² Hornavan
252 km² Uddjaure
210 km² Bolmen
184 km²

v t e

Venues of the 1912 Summer Olympics

Barkarby Djurgårdsbrunnsviken Fältrittklubben Kaknäs Liljeholmen Lindarängen Mälaren Nynäshamn Östermalms IP Råsunda IP Stockholm
Olympic Stadium Tranebergs Idrottsplats

v t e

Olympic venues in cycling

1896 Marathon (city), Neo Phaliron Velodrome 1900 Vélodrome de Vincennes 1904 Francis Field 1908 White City Stadium 1912 Liljeholmen, Mälaren 1920 Antwerp, Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg 1924 Stade de Colombes, Vélodrome de Vincennes 1928 Amsterdam, Olympic Stadium 1932 Los Angeles Avenue, Pacific Coast Highway, Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Vineyard Avenue 1936 Avus Motor Road, BSV 92 Field & Stadium 1948 Herne Hill Velodrome, Windsor Great Park 1952 Käpylä, Maunula, Pakila, Velodrome 1956 Broadmeadows, Velodrome 1960 Olympic Velodrome, Via Cassia, Via Flaminia, Via Cristoforo Colombo, Via di Grottarossa 1964 Hachioji City, Hachioji Velodrome 1968 Agustín Melgar Olympic Velodrome, Satellite Circuit 1972 Bundesautobahn 96, Grünwald, Radstadion 1976 Mount Royal
Mount Royal
Park, Olympic Velodrome, Quebec Autoroute 40 1980 Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit, Krylatskoye Sports Complex Velodrome, Moscow-Minsk Highway 1984 Artesia Freeway, Olympic Velodrome, Streets of Mission Viejo 1988 Olympic Velodrome, Tongillo Road Course 1992 A-17 highway, Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, Sant Sadurní Cycling Circuit, Velòdrom d'Horta 1996 Cycling road course, Georgia International Horse Park, Stone Mountain Park Archery Center and Velodrome 2000 Centennial Parklands, Dunc Gray Velodrome, Western Sydney Parklands 2004 Athens Olympic Velodrome, Kotzia Square, Parnitha Olympic Mountain Bike Venue, Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre 2008 Laoshan Bicycle Moto Cross (BMX) Venue, Laoshan Mountain Bike Course, Laoshan Velodrome, Urban Road Cycling Course 2012 BMX Circuit, Hadleigh Farm, London Velodrome, Hampton Court Palace 2016 Fort Copacabana, Mountain Bike Centre, Olympic BMX Centre, Pontal, Rio Olympic Velodrome 2020 Izu Velodrome, Fuji Speedway, Olympic BMX Course 2024 Vélodrome de Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Champs-Élysées, Élancourt Hill 2028 VELO Sports Center, Los Angeles Convention Center, Grand Park, Downtown Long Beach, Frank G. Bon